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2.  Pain-Related Fear: A Critical Review of the Related Measures 
Pain Research and Treatment  2011;2011:494196.
Objectives: In regards to pain-related fear, this study aimed to: (1) identify existing measures and review their measurement properties, and (2) identify the optimum measure for specific constructs of fear-avoidance, pain-related fear, fear of movement, and kinesiophobia. Design: Systematic literature search for instruments designed to measure fear of pain in patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain. Psychometric properties were evaluated by adjusted Wind criteria. Results: Five questionnaires (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Fear-Avoidance of Pain Scale (FAPS), Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ), Pain and Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS), and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)) were included in the review. The main findings were that for most questionnaires, there was no underlying conceptual model to support the questionnaire's construct. Psychometric properties were evaluated by diverse methods, which complicated comparisons of different versions of the same questionnaires. Construct validity and responsiveness was generally not supported and/or untested. Conclusion: The weak construct validity implies that no measure can currently identify who is fearful. The lack of evidence for responsiveness restricts the current use of the instruments to identify clinically relevant change from treatment. Finally, more theoretically driven research is needed to support the construct and thus the measurement of pain-related fear.
doi:10.1155/2011/494196
PMCID: PMC3236324  PMID: 22191022
3.  Interventions for the prevention and management of neck/upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review 
Considered from medical, social or economic perspectives, the cost of musculoskeletal injuries experienced in the workplace is substantial, and there is a need to identify the most efficacious interventions for their effective prevention, management and rehabilitation. Previous reviews have highlighted the limited number of studies that focus on upper extremity intervention programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of primary, secondary and/or tertiary intervention studies for neck/upper extremity conditions undertaken between 1999 and 2004 and to compare these results with those of previous reviews. Relevant studies were retrieved through the use of a systematic approach to literature searching and evaluated using a standardised tool. Evidence was then classified according to a “pattern of evidence” approach. Studies were categorised into subgroups depending on the type of intervention: mechanical exposure interventions; production systems/organisational culture interventions and modifier interventions. 31 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings provided evidence to support the use of some mechanical and modifier interventions as approaches for preventing and managing neck/upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions and fibromyalgia. Evidence to support the benefits of production systems/organisational culture interventions was found to be lacking. This review identified no single‐dimensional or multi‐dimensional strategy for intervention that was considered effective across occupational settings. There is limited information to support the establishment of evidence‐based guidelines applicable to a number of industrial sectors.
doi:10.1136/oem.2005.025593
PMCID: PMC2092555  PMID: 16973739
4.  Was “variations of reproductive development” considered? 
doi:10.1136/adc.2006.107797
PMCID: PMC2083124  PMID: 17185456
5.  The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi 
Nature  2008;455(7214):799-803.
Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the ‘kra’ monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia1,2. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated3, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax​4, the second most important species of human malaria parasite (reviewed in ref. 4). Despite their relatedness, there are important phenotypic differences between them, such as host blood cell preference, absence of a dormant liver stage or ‘hypnozoite’ in P. knowlesi, and length of the asexual cycle (reviewed in ref. 4). Here we present an analysis of the P. knowlesi (H strain, Pk1(A+) clone5) nuclear genome sequence. This is the first monkey malaria parasite genome to be described, and it provides an opportunity for comparison with the recently completed P. vivax genome4 and other sequenced Plasmodium genomes6-8. In contrast to other Plasmodium genomes, putative variant antigen families are dispersed throughout the genome and are associated with intrachromosomal telomere repeats. One of these families, the KIRs9, contains sequences that collectively match over one-half of the host CD99 extracellular domain, which may represent an unusual form of molecular mimicry.
doi:10.1038/nature07306
PMCID: PMC2656934  PMID: 18843368
6.  The HLA Region and Autoimmune Disease: Associations and Mechanisms of Action 
Current Genomics  2007;8(7):453-465.
The HLA region encodes several molecules that play key roles in the immune system. Strong association between the HLA region and autoimmune disease (AID) has been established for over fifty years. Association of components of the HLA class II encoded HLA-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 haplotype has been detected with several AIDs, including rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes and Graves’ disease. Molecules encoded by this region play a key role in exogenous antigen presentation to CD4+ Th cells, indicating the importance of this pathway in AID initiation and progression. Although other components of the HLA class I and III regions have also been investigated for association with AID, apart from the association of HLA-B*27 with ankylosing spondylitis, it has been difficult to determine additional susceptibility loci independent of the strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the HLA class II genes. Recent advances in the statistical analysis of LD and the recruitment of large AID datasets have allowed investigation of the HLA class I and III regions to be re-visited. Association of the HLA class I region, independent of known HLA class II effects, has now been detected for several AIDs, including strong association of HLA-B with type 1 diabetes and HLA-C with multiple sclerosis and Graves’ disease. These results provide further evidence of a possible role for bacterial or viral infection and CD8+ T cells in AID onset. The advances being made in determining the primary associations within the HLA region and AIDs will not only increase our understanding of the mechanisms behind disease pathogenesis but may also aid in the development of novel therapeutic targets in the future.
doi:10.2174/138920207783591690
PMCID: PMC2647156  PMID: 19412418
Genes; autoimmunity & HLA
7.  Measles viral load may reflect SSPE disease progression 
Virology Journal  2006;3:49.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive neurological disorder caused by the persistent infection with measles virus (MV). Despite much research into SSPE, its pathology remains obscure. We examined autopsy tissues of eight SSPE patients by real time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting to determine viral load. MV N, M and H gene RNA could be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of all patients and in two non-CNS tissues of one patient. The viral burden between patients differed up to four-fold by quantitative PCR and corresponded with detection of MV protein. The level of both viral RNA and antigen in the brain may correlate with disease progression.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-3-49
PMCID: PMC1526435  PMID: 16790043
8.  Effect on attendance at breast cancer screening of adding a self administered questionnaire to the usual invitation to breast screening in southern England 
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the research described in this paper was to ascertain whether inclusion of a self administered questionnaire with the usual invitation to routine breast screening affected screening uptake. Secondary aims included establishing appropriate questionnaire distribution and collection methods within the framework of the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme and optimisation of questionnaire design. DESIGN: Randomised study. SETTING: Oxfordshire and West of London Breast Screening Units. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: 6400 women invited for routine screening mammography were individually randomised to receive either the usual breast screening invitation alone, or to receive the usual invitation accompanied by a self administered questionnaire, to be returned at the time of screening. Participants were then followed up and attendance rates at screening were compared between groups. MAIN RESULTS: Screening attendance rates were similar in women who did and did not receive a questionnaire (71% in each group). Of those who were sent a questionnaire and attended for screening, 77% returned a completed questionnaire. Screening uptake was not affected by the way in which the questionnaire was returned or by whether or not personal details and signed permission for follow up were requested. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of a self administered questionnaire accompanying the invitation to breast screening did not adversely affect screening uptake. A high proportion of women completed the questionnaire.
 
PMCID: PMC1756668  PMID: 9578859
9.  Drug interactions of protease inhibitors. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1997;73(3):227-228.
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PMCID: PMC1195838  PMID: 9306916

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