Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPCR) is a technique in which two or more gene targets are amplified in a single reaction. This has increased sensitivity of diagnosis as a single gene target may be absent in some Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.
MPCR using two target genes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that is, IS6110 and MPB 64, ZN staining and Mycobacterial culture were performed on synovial fluid/pus samples of 80 (three confirmed, 77 suspected) patients of osteoarticular tuberculosis and 25 non tuberculosis patients.
MPCR had a sensitivity of 100% in confirmed cases and 81.8% in clinically suspected cases. AFB was positive in one patient and Mycobacterial culture was positive in three patients. MPCR also had 100% specificity; MPB64 was positive in five patients in which IS6110 was negative whereas IS6110 was positive in two patients in which MPB64 was negative.
MPCR is a sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of paucibacilliary conditions such as osteoarticular tuberculosis.
Some new compounds of aluminium having the general formula AI[SC6H4N:C(R) CH2 C(O)R’]3 where R = CH3, R' = CH3 (1); R' = CH3, R' = C6H5 (2); R = CF3, R’ = -C = CH - CH = CHS (3); R = CF3, R’ = C6H5 (4) have been synthesised by the reactions of Al(OPri)3 and the corresponding ligands in 1:3 molar ratios in benzene. Elemental and spectroscopic (IR, 1H, 13C, and 27AI NMR) characterisation of these monomeric compounds reveals monofunctional bidentate behaviour of ligand moiety and the octahedral geometry around
aluminium atom. Compound (1), AI[SC6H4N:C(CH3)CH2COCH3], has been tested for its antifertility activity in male albino rats. The oral administration of this compound at the dose level 6.5 rag/rat/day reduced the
weights of testes and epididymides. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as sperm density resulted
in the reduction of male fertility by 100%. Production of primary spermatocytes (preleptotene and
pachytene), secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatids declined by 56.10%, 44.42 %, 63.35 % and
64.57 % respectively. These results indicate that the administration of compound (1) in male rats brought
about an interference with spermatogenesis which ultimately caused infertility.
Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), a clinically and immunopathologically distinct mucocutaneous blistering dermatosis, is a severe form of autoimmune multiorgan syndrome generally associated with poor therapeutic outcome and high mortality. This IgG-mediated disease is initiated by an obvious or occult lymphoproliferative disorder in most cases. Clinically severe mucositis, and polymorphic blistering skin eruptions, and histologically acantholysis, keratinocyte necrosis and interface dermatitis are its hallmark features. A 58-year-old female presented with recurrent, severe, recalcitrant stomatitis and widespread erosions/blistering lesions of one-year duration. Treatment with repeated courses of systemic corticosteroids at a peripheral center would provide temporary relief. She also had fever, productive cough, odynophagia and poor oral intake, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, pain in the abdomen, and watery diarrhea. An array of investigations revealed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathy, bronchiolitis obliterans, and vertebral osteoporosis/fractures. With the diagnosis of CLL-associated PNP she was managed with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP) therapy for 3 cycles initially, followed by COP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone) for 5 cycles. Remission is being maintained with chlorambucil and prednisolone pulse therapy once in 3 weeks with complete resolution of skin lesions and adequate control of CLL.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg) and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg) on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.
Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is an extremely rare disorder in which injuries can often be missed by patient, parents and even by orthopedic surgeon. Pain and tenderness, on which a trauma team so much depends to make a clinical diagnosis and to decide whether to go for radiological evaluation can be misleading in this rare syndrome. So complete clinical examination still forms the corner stone to avoid misdiagnosis and pick up the rare disorders.
We present a 5 year old girl child, who was brought to us as a case of one and a half month old neglected trauma left leg and was diagnosed to be suffering from congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (HSAN Type IV).
Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is extremely rare entity, in which patients are subjected to repeated injuries which are often neglected. There is no specific treatment but patient training and parent education are key to avoid further neglect and damage.
Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis; Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy; Anhidrosis; Osteoacrolysis; Hyperpyrexia
To compare the efficacy of gatifloxacin, azithromycin with amoxicillin as positive control for the treatment of Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). To monitor adverse drug reaction profile of amoxicillin, azithromycin and gatifloxacin in patient of ARS. An open randomized trial of comparative efficacy and safety of amoxicillin, azithromycin and gatifloxacin in patients with ARS. Patients were randomized into three groups as under: group 1: patients on oral amoxicillin 500 mg TDS for 10 days; group 2: patients on oral azithromycin 500 mg OD for 5 days; group 3: patients on oral gatifloxacin 400 mg OD for 10 days. Patients were evaluated for signs and symptoms at day 1, day 7 (for group 2), on day 12 (for group 1, 3) as primary end points and 28 days after post therapy as secondary end point. All the three antimicrobial drugs i.e., amoxicillin, azithromycin and gatifloxacin were effective in reducing symptoms of acute sinusitis on visual analogue scale scoring. Azithromycin showed significant improvement radiographically on day 7 (P < 0.01) and on day 35 (P < 0.01). Gatifloxacin elicited very highly significant improvement radiographically on day 40 (P < 0.001) and significant improvement on day 12 (P < 0.01) when compared with amoxicillin. Azithromycin, the ketolide was associated with lesser adverse effects as compared to amoxicillin. All the three antimicrobial drugs i.e., amoxicillin, azithromycin and gatifloxacin were effective in reducing symptoms of acute sinusitis on visual analogue scale scoring. Gatifloxacin was found to be most effective drug both in terms of improvement in signs and symptoms on visual analogue scale and radiographic scoring and was associated with least adverse events in comparison to rest of two drugs under study.
Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS); Gatifloxacin-respiratory fluoroquinolone, ketolide-azithromycin; Aminopenicillin-amoxicillin
Gastrointestinal involvement is common in patients of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Specific gastrointestinal disorders often correlate with degree of immunosuppression. In advance cases of HIV infection GI symptoms are usually part of systemic infection. In such scenario multiple infections are common so failure to diagnose a specific cause is not uncommon. We here present a case study of a patient with ileal perforation with tubercular etiology and its management
AIDS; Ileal perforation; tuberculosis
Background & objectives:
The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is popularly known as lauki, ghia or dudhi in India. Its consumption is advocated by traditional healers for controlling diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver diseases, weight loss and other associated benefits. However, in last few years there have been reports of suspected toxicity due to consumption of its juice. This led to the constitution of an Expert Committee by Department of Health Research at Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India in October 2010. The committee looked into the issues related to safety of consumption of bottle gourd juice, and this paper presents the findings.
Information on cases of suspected toxicity due to consumption of bottle gourd juice was collected by internet search, advertising on website of ICMR and by writing to State and district health authorities as well as to medical colleges, hospitals and private nursing homes across the country.
Three deaths were reported, one from Delhi and two from Uttar Pradesh after consumption of extremely bitter bottle gourd juice. Three persons who died after consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice or juice mixed with bitter gourd (karela) juice were over 59 years of age and had diabetes since last 20 years. This juice was reported to be extremely bitter by all three. Twenty six persons were admitted to various hospitals of the country on complaint of abdominal pain and vomiting following consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice. Diarrhoea and vomiting of blood (haematemesis) was reported in 18 (69.2%) and 19 (73.1%) patients, respectively. Biochemical investigations revealed elevated levels of liver enzymes. More than 50 per cent patients had hypotension. Endoscopic findings showed profusely bleeding stomach with excessive ulceration seen in distal oesophagus, stomach and duodenum in most of the cases. All these patients recovered fully and no sequeale was recorded for any of the cases.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Cucurbitaceae family, of which bottle gourd is a member contains the toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste. There is no known antidote for this toxicity and clinicians treat such cases symptomatically only. The Committee made the following recommendations: (i) The community needs to be educated that bitter tasting bottle gourd juice should not be consumed and in case there is any discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or any feeling of uneasiness after consumption of juice, the person should immediately be taken to a nearby hospital. (ii) Clinicians are suggested that patients coming with symptoms (discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeding after consumption of juice) should immediately be attended to and general supportive care should be provided, i.e. IV fluids/crystalloids/blood products/fresh frozen plasma to maintain the haemodynamics and electrolyte balance; Ryle's tube to be put in for gastric lavage and to assess gastrointestinal (GI) bleed- aspirate to be preserved; Proton pump inhibitors should be given for management of GI bleed and appropriate treatment for other complications should be given. (iii) The possible research areas identified are chemical composition studies on bitter and normal bottle gourd and other members of cucurbitaceae family; animal toxicity studies and studies on interaction between bottle gourd juice and other drugs.
Bitter taste; bottle gourd; calabash; cucurbitacins; juice; Lagenaria sicraria; toxicity
Accuracy of aminoacylation is dependent on maintaining fidelity during attachment of amino acids to cognate tRNAs. Cis- and trans-editing protein factors impose quality control during protein translation, and 8 of 36 Plasmodium falciparum aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) assemblies contain canonical putative editing modules. Based on expression and localization profiles of these 8 aaRSs, we propose an asymmetric distribution between the parasite cytoplasm and its apicoplast of putative editing-domain containing aaRSs. We also show that the single copy alanyl- and threonyl-tRNA synthetases are dually targeted to parasite cytoplasm and apicoplast. This bipolar presence of two unique synthetases presents opportunity for inhibitor targeting their aminoacylation and editing activities in twin parasite compartments. We used this approach to identify specific inhibitors against the alanyl- and threonyl-tRNA synthetases. Further development of such inhibitors may lead to anti-parasitics which simultaneously block protein translation in two key parasite organelles, a strategy of wider applicability for pathogen control.
Thioredoxins are vital components of Plasmodium proteome and act as both reducing
agents and protein disulfide reductases. The malaria parasite P. falciparum
thioredoxin-2 (PfTrx-2) is part of the multi-protein complex embedded within the parasite
parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) which purportedly directs protein secretion. We have
characterized structural and enzymatic features of PfTrx-2, and we show that PfTrx-2 adopts
a canonical thioredoxin fold but with significant structural differences in its N-terminus.
Our confocal localization data suggest distinct PVM residency of PfTrx-2. Based on the
crystal structure of PfTrx-2, we screened and tested small molecule drug-like libraries for
compounds which target unique structural features of PfTrx-2. Disruption of PfTrx-2
interactions using specific inhibitors may result in a dysfunctional parasite translocon
that is rendered unable to secrete pathogenic proteins into hosts. This approach therefore
offers a new focus for anti-malarial drug development.
The region around Chandigarh in India has witnessed a resurgence of cholera. However, isolation of V. cholerae O1 from the environment is infrequent. Therefore, to study whether environmental nonO1-nonO139 isolates, which are native to the aquatic ecosystem, act as precursors for pathogenic O1 strains, their virulence potential and evolutionary relatedness was checked.
V. cholerae was isolated from clinical cases of cholera and from water and plankton samples collected from freshwater bodies and cholera-affected areas. PCR analysis for the ctxA, ctxB, tcpA, toxT and toxR genes and AFLP with six primer combinations was performed on 52 isolates (13 clinical, 34 environmental and 5 reference strains).
All clinical and 3 environmental isolates belonged to serogroup O1 and remaining 31 environmental V. cholerae were nonO1-nonO139. Serogroup O1 isolates were ctxA, tcpA (ElTor), ctxB (Classical), toxR and toxT positive. NonO1-nonO139 isolates possessed toxR, but lacked ctxA and ctxB; only one isolate was positive for toxT and tcpA. Using AFLP, 2.08% of the V. cholerae genome was interrogated. Dendrogram analysis showed one large heterogeneous clade (n = 41), with two compact and distinct subclades (1a and 1b), and six small mono-phyletic groups. Although V. cholerae O1 isolates formed a distinct compact subclade, they were not clonal. A clinical O1 strain clustered with the nonO1-nonO139 isolates; one strain exhibited 70% similarity to the Classical control strain, and all O1 strains possessed an ElTor variant-specific fragment identified with primer ECMT. Few nonO1-nonO139 isolates from widely separated geographical locations intermingled together. Three environmental O1 isolates exhibited similar profiles to clinical O1 isolates.
In a unique study from freshwater environs of a cholera-endemic area in India over a narrow time frame, environmental V. cholerae population was found to be highly heterogeneous, diverse and devoid of major virulence genes. O1 and nonO1-nonO139 isolates showed distinct lineages. Clinical isolates were not clonal but were closely related, indicating accumulation of genetic differences over a short time span. Though, environment plays an important role in the spread of cholera, the possibility of an origin of pathogenic O1 strains from environmental nonO1-nonO139 strains seems to be remote in our region.
Now days, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Since last two decades, researches related to the breast cancer has lead to extraordinary progress in our understanding of the disease, resulting in more efficient and less toxic treatments. Increased public awareness and improved screening have led to earlier diagnosis at stages amenable to complete surgical resection and curative therapies. Consequently, survival rates for breast cancer have improved significantly, particularly in younger women. This article addresses the types, causes, clinical symptoms and various approach both non- drug (such as surgery and radiation) and drug treatment (including chemotherapy, gene therapy etc.) of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer; Tumor; Chemotherapy; Gene Therapy
Our present work focuses on the set of genes, which are involved in primary brain tumors ‐ the glioma pathway. These gliomas are mostly malignant
(cancerous) in nature and are difficult to be cured and that’s why they attract the attention of all the workers. To understand the relative functionality of
these genes, we analyzed the expression pattern of all genes, using gene expression data, at genomic level, and then to check their universality in all other
cancers, we compared their expression levels and patterns in all other types of cancers by using gene expression graphs, and observed their expression
levels in all these cancers, whether they are over or under expressed. We found that every gene has its own unique expression pattern and level and on that
basis it can be classified. We also found that oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that were involved in the glioma pathway were showing similar
expression patterns in other cancers too but their expression level is low.
cancer; co-expression; gene expression pattern; glioma pathway
This study is aimed to determine the clinical and radiological corellations of adult patients with Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormalities (SCIWORA).
The study population consisted of all adult patients with suspected cervical spine injury. SCIWORA was defined as the presence of either no injury or a neural injury on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the absence of radiographic or Computed Tomographic (CT) Scan findings suggestive of trauma in patients with neurological deficit. Purely extra neural compressive lesions were excluded from the study.
Twelve of ninety seven (12.4%) patients had a neural injury on MRI with normal radiographs and CT scan. These included cord contusion in five cases, cord edema in five cases and cord hemorrhage in two cases. Ten patients were managed conservatively and two patients with disc prolapse were managed surgically. All patients showed at least one ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grade improvement and three patients (25%) recovered completely.
Parenchymal spinal cord injury is the single most important determinant in the long term outcome of adult SCIWORA patients. Cord hemorrhage has the worst prognosis and cord edema has the best. Longitudinal signal extension and associated extra neural injuries are also associated with poorer outcomes. Cases with purely neural injuries can be managed conservatively, but associated extra neural injuries, especially disc prolapse and ligamentous instability, warrant surgical management.
Post Traumatic Myelopathy; Spinal Cord Trauma; Computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging; SCIWORA
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common disorder, but some of its atypical presentations are uncommon and difficult to diagnose. We report one such case which on initial presentation appeared to be psychotic protocol but after detailed workup was diagnosed as OCD with marked avoidance symptoms.
Compulsion; obsession; pervasive avoidance
A three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study using the comparative molecular field analysis method was performed on a series of 3-aryl-4-[α-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) aryl methyl] pyrroles for their anticandida activity. This study was performed using 40 compounds, for which comparative molecular field analysis models were developed using a training set of 33 compounds. Database alignment of all 33 compounds was carried out by root-mean-square fit of atoms and field fit of the steric and electrostatic molecular fields. The resulting database was analyzed by partial least squares analysis with cross-validation; leave one out and no validation to extract optimum number of components. The analysis was then repeated with bootstrapping to generate the quantitative structure-activity relationship models. The predictive ability of comparative molecular field analysis model was evaluated by using a test set of 7 compounds. The 3D- quantitative structure-activity relationship model demonstrated a good fit, having r2 value of 0.964 and a cross validated coefficient r2 value as 0.598. Further comparison of the coefficient contour maps with the steric and electrostatic properties of the receptor has shown a high level of compatibility and good predictive capability.
CoMFA; 3D-QSAR; pyrroles; anticandida activity
Asian Indian dyslipidemia is characterized by: borderline high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B; high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apoA1; and high lipoprotein(a) (lp[a]). We performed a controlled multicentric trial in India to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed dose combination of lovastatin and niacin extended release (niacinER) formulation in patients with moderate to severe dyslipidemia. Consecutive subjects that satisfied the selection criteria, agreed to an informed consent, and with no baseline presence of liver/renal disease or heart failure were enrolled in the study. After a 4-week run-in period there were 142 patients with LDL levels ≥130 mg/dL. Eleven patients were excluded because of uncontrolled hyperglycemia and 131 patients were recruited. After baseline evaluation of clinical and biochemical parameters all subjects were administered lovastatin (20 mg) and niacinER (500 mg) combination once daily. Dose escalation was done on basis of lipid parameters at 8 weeks and in 11 patients increased to lovastatin (20 mg) and niacinER (1000 mg). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed and data was analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirteen patients (10%) were lost to follow-up and 4 (3%) withdrew because of dermatological adverse effects: flushing, pruritus, and rash. The mean values of various lipid parameters (mg/dL) at baseline, and at weeks 4, 12, and 24 respectively were: total cholesterol 233.9 ± 27, 206.3 ± 27, 189.8 ± 31, and 174.9 ± 27 mg/dL; LDL cholesterol 153.4 ± 22, 127.3 ± 21, 109.2 ± 27, and 95.1 ± 23 mg/dL; triglycerides 171.1 ± 72, 159.5 ± 75, 149.2 ± 45, and 135.2 ± 40 mg/dL; HDL cholesterol 45.6 ± 7, 48.9 ± 7, 51.6 ± 9, and 53.9 ± 10 mg/dL; lp(a) 48.5 ± 26, 40.1 ± 21, 35.4 ± 21, and 26.9 ± 19 mg/dL; and apoA1/apoB ratio 0.96 ± 0.7, 1.04 ± 0.4, 1.17 ± 0.5, and 1.45 ± 0.5 (p < 0.01). The percentage of decline in various lipids at 4, 12, and 24 weeks was: total cholesterol 11.8%, 18.8%, and 25.2%; LDL cholesterol 17.0%, 28.8%, and 38.0%; triglyceride 6.8%, 12.8%, and 21.0%; lp(a) 17.5%, 26.9%, and 44.5% respectively (p < 0.01). HDL cholesterol and apoA1/apoB increased by 7.2%, 13.1%, and 18.2%; and 7.9%, 21.9%, and 51.6% respectively (p < 0.01). Target LDL levels (<100 mg/dL in subjects with manifest coronary heart disease or diabetes; <130 mg/dL in subjects with >2 risk factors) were achieved in 92 (80.7%) patients. No significant changes were observed in systolic or diastolic blood pressure, blood creatinine, transaminases, or creatine kinase. A fixed dose combination of lovastatin and niacinER significantly improved cholesterol lipoprotein lipids as well as lp(a) and apoA1/apoB levels in Asian Indian dyslipidemic patients. Satisfactory safety and tolerability profile in this population was also demonstrated.
Hypercholesterolemia; South Asians; coronary heart disease; lipid abnormalities; low HDL; lipoprotein(a)
The incidence of falciparum malaria is very high in India. Falciparum malaria is a multiorgan disease which can present with extremely varied presentations. The severity of the disease and difficulty in its diagnosis require a keen sense of suspicion on the part of the treating physician to diagnose it. Here is an unusual case of falciparum malaria presenting as acute appendicitis. This case did not respond to artemether therapy and that also points towards drug resistance emerging in malaria. The child was operated upon and appendix was found to be inflamed. After a tumultuous postoperative course with symptoms suggestive of acute renal failure, a diagnosis of falciparum malaria was made and quinine started. Recovery was uneventful thereafter.
The bioprocess employing acyl transferase activity of intracellular amidase of Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 was harnessed for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important acetohydroxamic acid. G. pallidus BTP-5x exhibited highest acyl transferase activity with acetamide: hydroxylamine in ratio of 1:5 in 0.1 M NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.5) at 65°C. In one liter fed-batch reaction containing 1:5 ratio of two substrates total of eight feedings of 0.05 M/20 min of acetamide were made and it was found that maximum acetohydroxamic production was achieved at 3:5 ratios of substrate and cosubstrate. In 1 l bench scale batch reaction containing 0.3 M acetamide, 0.5 M hydroxylamine in 0.1 M NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.5, 50°C, 400 rpm) and 0.5 mg/ml (dry cell weight) of whole cells of G. pallidus BTP-5x (as biocatalyst) resulted in an yield of 0.28 M of acetohydroxamic acid after 20 min reaction time at 50°C. The acetamide bioconversion rate was 90–95% (mol mol−1) and 51 g powder containing 40% (w/w) acetohydroxamic acid was recovered after lyophilization.
Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225; Acetohydroxamic acid; Thermophilic amidase; Acyl transferase activity; Hydroxamic acid
Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the frequency of the phenotypic expression of the inducible resistance to clindamycin which was due to the expression of the erm genes in various clinical isolates of the Staphylococcus species.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Govt. Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Srikot, Uttarakhand, from July 2010 to December 2011. A total of 373 consecutive, non duplicate strains of Staphylococci isolated from various clinical samples like pus, wound swab, blood, urine and other body fluids, were tested. The isolates which had a discordant resistance pattern (clindamycin-sensitive and erythromycin-resistant) by Kirby Bauer Disk Diffusion method were selected and subjected to the D-test for inducible clindamycin resistance, as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI) guidelines.
Results: Among the 373 clinical isolates of Staphylococci which were studied, 134 isolates showed a discordant resistance pattern. Among these discordant strains, 45 (33.6%) isolates were D-test positive, which had inducible clindamycin resistance and belonged to the inducible macrolide lincosamide streptogramin- B phenotype (MLSBi). 89 (66.4%) isolates were D-test negative and they belonged to the macrolide streptogramin phenotype (MS). Among the MLSBi phenotypes, 6 (13.3%) isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 13 (28.9%) were Methicillin-sensitive S.aureus (MSSA) and 26 (57.8%) were coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS).
Conclusion: The D-test is a simple, effective and an important method for the phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance and it should be used routinely, as it will help in guiding the empirical therapy. The possible clinical failures can thus be avoided.
Clindamycin; D-Test; Erythromycin; MLSBi; Staphylococci
Context: Renal transplantation is the definitive treatment in renal failure patients. Liver disease is a known problem in renal transplant recipients. They may be consequent to immunosuppression, drug toxicity, altered immune response to viruses and hemodialysis.
Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze and correlate the biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver biopsy among renal transplant recipients with both HBV and HCV infection and to correlate them.
Setting: The study group had thirty cases. Enrolment criteria included coinfection with HBV and HCV ; elevated liver enzymes and recipient of renal allograft. There was acontrol group of ten patients who were HBC and HCV positive but had not undergone renal transplant.
Material & Methods: Liver function tests including alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, SGPT and serum bilirubin levels were donet. Percutaneous liver biopsies were carried out using Menghini’s needle.. Stains done included hematoxylin and eosin (H & E), vanGieson, reticulin and Perl’s stain. Histopathological grading was performed using Metavir scoring system. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done where required for ground glass hepatocytes. Correlation of SGOT, SGPT and Alkaline phosphatase of the study group and the controls was carried out with the grading.
Statistical Analysis: Statistical tests done included paired “t” test at 5% and test of probability.
Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between the controls and the transplanted patients. It was concluded that serum enzyme levels could be used to predict histological grade in the control group but not in the transplant recipients (p>0.05).
Liver biopsy; kidney transplant; Hepatitis B & C
Minimal change disease (MCD), the most common idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children, is characterized by proteinuria and loss of glomerular visceral epithelial cell (podocyte) ultrastructure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) are used to study podocyte injury in models of MCD in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that LPS and PAN influence components of the innate immune system in podocytes such as the Toll-Like Receptor (TLRs), TLR adapter molecules, and associated cytokines. Our results show that cultured human podocytes constitutively express TLRs 1–6 and TLR-10, but not TLRs 7–9. LPS (25 μg/ml) or PAN (60 μg/ml) caused comparable derangement of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis show that LPS differentially up-regulated the expression of genes for TLRs (1 > 4 ≥ 2 > 3 > 6 > 5), the adapter molecule, MyD88, and transcription factor NF-κB within one hour. LPS also caused increased levels of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP1 without exerting any effect on TNF-α, IFN-α or TGF-β1 at 24 h. Immunofluorescence intensity analysis of confocal microscopy images showed that LPS induced a significant increase in nuclear translocation of NF-κB by 6 h. In contrast, PAN-induced only small changes in the expression of TLRs 2–6 that included a persistent increase in TLRs 2 and 5, a transient increase in TLR-4, and a gradual increase in TLRs 3 and 6 between 1 and 6 h. Correspondingly, it did not alter pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in podocytes. However, PAN induced a low but significant increase in NF-κB nuclear translocation within one hour that remained unchanged up to 6 h. In summary, these novel findings show that LPS, a known TLR-4 ligand, induced the gene expression of multiple TLRs with maximum effect on the expression of TLR-1 suggesting a loss of receptor selectivity and induction of receptor interactions in podocytes. A comparable derangement of the podocyte cytoskeleton and significant increase in the nuclear translocation of NF-κB by PAN suggest that disparate but complementary mechanisms may contribute to the development of podocytopathy in MCD.
Innate immunity; Toll-like receptors; Cytokines; Lipopolysaccharide; Puromycin Aminonucleoside; Minimal Change Disease; Glomerular filtration barrier; Podocytes
Phosphorylation plays important roles in several processes including synaptic plasticity and memory. The critical role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in these processes is well established. ERK is activated in a sustained manner by different stimuli. However, the mechanisms of sustained ERK activation are not completely understood. Here we show that KCl depolarization-induced sustained ERK activation in the hippocampal slices is critically dependent on protein synthesis and transcription. In addition, the sustained ERK activation requires receptor tyrosine kinase(s) activity. In support of a role for a growth factor in sustained ERK activation, KCl depolarization enhances the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Furthermore, BDNF antibody blocks KCl-induced sustained ERK activation. These results suggest a positive feed-back loop in which depolarization-induced BDNF maintains ERK activation in the sustained phase.