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1.  Population Pharmacokinetics of Oseltamivir: Pediatrics through Geriatrics 
Oseltamivir is a potent inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase enzymes essential for viral replication. This study aimed to investigate the impact of covariates on pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of oseltamivir and its active metabolite form, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC). Dosing history, plasma drug concentrations, and demographic information were pooled from 13 clinical trials providing data for 390 healthy and infected subjects ranging in age from 1 to 78 years and given oseltamivir doses of 20 to 1,000 mg. Candidate population PK models simultaneously characterizing the time course of oseltamivir and OC in plasma were evaluated by using the NONMEM software program, and subject covariates were assessed using stepwise forward selection (α = 0.01) and backward elimination (α = 0.001). A two-compartment model with first-order absorption of oseltamivir and first-order conversion of oseltamivir to OC and a one-compartment model with first-order elimination of OC were utilized. Body weight when evaluated using a power function was a significant predictor of the apparent oseltamivir clearance and both apparent OC clearance (CLm/F) and central volume of distribution (Vcm/F). Creatinine clearance was a significant predictor of CLm/F, while Vcm/F also decreased linearly with age. A visual predictive check indicated that the final model described oseltamivir and OC concentrations in plasma adequately across dose regimens and subject covariate ranges. Concordance of population mean and individual post hoc predictions of maximum concentration of drug at steady state (Cmax) and area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h at steady state (AUC0–24) was high (r2 = 0.81 and 0.71, respectively). In conclusion, a comprehensive population PK model was constructed to bridge the adult to pediatric oseltamivir PK data, allowing for reasonable estimation of the PK of OC using subject demographic data alone.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02438-12
PMCID: PMC3719735  PMID: 23669384
2.  Use of Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analyses To Optimize Therapy with the Systemic Antifungal Micafungin for Invasive Candidiasis or Candidemia▿† 
Echinocandins have become a first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC). Using phase 3 trial data for patients with IC, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationships for efficacy for micafungin were examined. Micafungin exposures were estimated using a population pharmacokinetic model, and univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with outcome, including the micafungin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the probability of achieving AUC/MIC ratios associated with efficacy. Mycological and clinical success rates for evaluable cases were 89.4 and 90.9, respectively. MIC50s and MIC90s for Candida species inhibition were 0.008 and 0.5 mg/liter, respectively. The median AUC/MIC ratio was 15,511 (range, 41.28 to 98,716). Univariable analyses revealed a significant relationship between the AUC/MIC ratio and mycological response, with the worst response being among patients with lower (≤3,000) AUC/MIC ratios (P = 0.005). For patients with Candida parapsilosis, AUC/MIC ratios of ≥285 were predictive of a higher mycological response (P = 0.11). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated the AUC/MIC ratio, APACHE II score, and history of corticosteroid use to be significant independent predictors of a favorable response. PK-PD target attainment analyses suggested that 76.7% and 100% of patients would achieve an AUC/MIC ratio of ≥3,000 for an MIC of 0.03 mg/liter and an AUC/MIC ratio of ≥285 for an MIC of <0.5 mg/liter, respectively. The identification of a lower AUC/MIC ratio target for C. parapsilosis than other Candida species suggests consideration of species-specific echinocandin susceptibility breakpoints and values that are lower than those currently approved by regulatory agencies.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01430-10
PMCID: PMC3088268  PMID: 21300835
3.  Randomized Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Fluoroquinolones for Tuberculous Meningitis ▿ † ‡ 
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most lethal form of tuberculosis, and new treatments that improve outcomes are required. We randomly assigned adults with TBM to treatment with standard antituberculosis treatment alone or in combination with ciprofloxacin (750 mg/12 h), levofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), or gatifloxacin (400 mg/24 h) for the first 60 days of therapy. Fluoroquinolone concentrations were measured with plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens taken at predetermined, randomly assigned times throughout treatment. We aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of each fluoroquinolone during TBM treatment and evaluate the relationship between drug exposure and clinical response over 270 days of therapy (Controlled Trials number ISRCTN07062956). Sixty-one patients with TBM were randomly assigned to treatment with no fluoroquinolone (n = 15), ciprofloxacin (n = 16), levofloxacin (n = 15), or gatifloxacin (n = 15). Cerebrospinal fluid penetration, measured by the ratio of the plasma area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) to the cerebrospinal fluid AUC0–24, was greater for levofloxacin (median, 0.74; range, 0.58 to 1.03) than for gatifloxacin (median, 0.48; range, 0.47 to 0.50) or ciprofloxacin (median, 0.26; range, 0.11 to 0.77). Univariable and multivariable analyses of fluoroquinolone exposure against a range of different treatment responses revealed worse outcomes among patients with lower and higher plasma and CSF exposures than for patients with intermediate exposures (a U-shaped exposure-response). TBM patients most likely to benefit from fluoroquinolone therapy were identified, along with exposure-response relationships associated with improved outcomes. Fluoroquinolones add antituberculosis activity to the standard treatment regimen, but to improve outcomes of TBM, they must be started early, before the onset of coma.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00064-11
PMCID: PMC3122453  PMID: 21502621
4.  Trends in Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight Among Children Enrolled in the New York State WIC Program, 2002–2007 
Public Health Reports  2010;125(2):218-224.
SYNOPSIS
Objective
We examined recent overweight and obesity trends in a multiethnic population of low-income preschool children.
Methods
We defined overweight as sex-specific body mass index (BMI)-for-age ≥85th and <95th percentile and obesity as sex-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile, and calculated them using demographic data and randomly selected height and weight measurements that were recorded while 2- to <5-year-old children were enrolled in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) during 2002–2007.
Results
Obesity prevalence peaked at 16.7% in 2003, declined from 2003 through 2005, and stabilized at 14.7% through 2007. Among both boys and girls, the downward trend in annual prevalence of obesity was evident only among Hispanic children (22.8% boys and 20.9% girls in 2002 vs. 19.3% boys and 17.5% girls in 2007) and non-Hispanic black children (15.6% boys and 14.2% girls in 2002 vs. 13.6% boys and 12.4% girls in 2007). In contrast, the annual prevalence estimate for overweight showed an increasing trend from 2002 through 2007.
Conclusions
These results showed a slight decline in prevalence of childhood obesity and a continuing rise in prevalence of childhood overweight among children enrolled in the NYS WIC program during 2002–2007. Future research should investigate the extent to which the slight decline in childhood obesity prevalence may be attributable to population-based and high-risk obesity prevention efforts in NYS.
PMCID: PMC2821849  PMID: 20297748

Results 1-4 (4)