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1.  A Summary of Public Access Defibrillation Laws, United States, 2010 
Introduction
On average, less than 8% of people who experience an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survive. However, death from sudden cardiac arrest is preventable if a bystander quickly retrieves and applies an automated external defibrillator (AED). Public access defibrillation (PAD) policies have been enacted to create programs that increase the public availability of these devices. The objective of this study was to describe each state's legal requirements for recommended PAD program elements.
Methods
We reviewed state laws and described the extent to which 13 PAD program elements are mandated in each state.
Results
No jurisdiction requires all 13 PAD program elements, 18% require at least 10 elements, and 31% require 3 or fewer elements. All jurisdictions provide some level of immunity to AED users, 60% require PAD maintenance, 59% require emergency medical service notification, 55% impose training requirements, and 41% require medical oversight. Few jurisdictions require a quality improvement process.
Conclusion
PAD programs in many states are at risk of failure because critical elements such as maintenance, medical oversight, emergency medical service notification, and continuous quality improvement are not required. Policy makers should consider strengthening PAD policies by enacting laws that can reduce the time from collapse to shock, such as requiring the strategic placement of AEDs in high-risk locations or mandatory PAD registries that are coordinated with local EMS and dispatch centers. Further research is needed to identify the most effective PAD policies for increasing AED use by lay persons and improving survival rates.
PMCID: PMC3372977  PMID: 22420314
2.  Changes in Receiving Preventive Care Services Among US Adults With Diabetes, 1997-2007 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;7(3):A56.
Introduction
Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires complex continuing medical care and patient self-management to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Receipt of multiple recommended preventive care services can prevent or delay diabetes-related complications such as blindness and lower-extremity amputations.
Methods
We analyzed 1997 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine change in rates of adults with diabetes receiving 4 essential preventive care services (influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations and annual foot and eye examinations).
Results
The overall age-adjusted rate of receiving all 4 of the preventive care services was 10% in 1997 but increased to 20% in 2007. Rates for receiving all 4 services increased significantly in all demographic subgroups except Hispanics.
Conclusion
Use of preventive care services is increasing, but most US adults with diabetes do not meet recommendations, and the problem is particularly pronounced among Hispanics. The need to receive preventive care services should continue to be emphasized in clinical and community settings to increase the percentage of adults with diabetes who receive them.
PMCID: PMC2879988  PMID: 20394695
4.  Development of the Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT) 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2005;3(1):A20.
Developing a Web-based tool that involves the input, buy-in, and collaboration of multiple stakeholders and contractors is a complex process. Several elements facilitated the development of the Web-based Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT). The DIDIT is designed to enhance the ability of staff within the state-based Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCPs) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to perform diabetes surveillance. It contains information on 38 diabetes indicators (measures of health or factors associated with health) and 12 national- and state-level data sources. Developing the DIDIT required one contractor to conduct research on content for diabetes indicators and data sources and another contractor to develop the Web-based application to house and manage the information. During 3 years, a work group composed of representatives from the DPCPs and the Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT) at the CDC guided the development process by 1) gathering information on and communicating the needs of users and their vision for the DIDIT, 2) reviewing and approving content, and 3) providing input into the design and system functions. Strong leadership and vision of the project lead, clear communication and collaboration among all team members, and a commitment from the management of the DDT were essential elements in developing and implementing the DIDIT. Expertise in diabetes surveillance and software development, enthusiasm, and dedication were also instrumental in developing the DIDIT.
PMCID: PMC1500969  PMID: 16356373
5.  Evaluating Progress Toward Healthy People 2010 National Diabetes Objectives 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2005;3(1):A11.
Introduction
In 1999, the National Diabetes Prevention and Control Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its 59 Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs adopted five Healthy People 2010 objectives. These objectives aim to improve the rates of preventive care services among people with diabetes and include annual foot examinations, hemoglobin A1c tests, and annual dilated eye examinations. This paper examines progress toward meeting these three objectives.
Methods
Questions from the diabetes module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to evaluate changes in age-adjusted rates for annual foot examinations, hemoglobin A1c tests, and annual dilated eye examinations of 44 jurisdictions between 2000 and 2003. Questions from the diabetes module were also used to compare percentage rates of 47 jurisdictions in 2003 with Healthy People 2010 percentage targets.
Results
From 2000 to 2003, for the 44 jurisdictions, the aggregate, age-adjusted rate of annual foot examinations increased from 63.7% to 69.3% (P <.001); the rate of self-reported hemoglobin A1c tests increased from 68.3% to 69.5% (P = .35); and the rate of annual dilated eye examinations decreased from 67.7% to 65.2% (P = .05). In 2003, 20 of 47 jurisdictions met the Healthy People 2010 target for foot or eye examinations, and all 47 jurisdictions met the target for hemoglobin A1c tests. An inverse association was found between baseline rates in 2000 and the magnitude of change from 2000 to 2003 for all three national diabetes objectives.
Conclusion
The National Diabetes Prevention and Control Program should consider adopting additional Healthy People 2010 objectives. Baseline rates should be considered in 1) selecting objectives, 2) setting percentage targets, and 3) evaluating current or future objectives. Program-related information should be linked with traditional data sources such as BRFSS so that we can understand the role of environmental factors and evaluate progress of jurisdictions toward national diabetes objectives.
PMCID: PMC1500968  PMID: 16356364
6.  An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Surveillance Capacity of State-based Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs: The Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT) 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2005;2(3):A14.
The Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT) is an interactive Web-based resource with information on 38 diabetes indicators (e.g., diabetes-associated complications, care, lifestyle) and 12 associated data sources frequently used by state diabetes prevention and control programs. This tool is designed to strengthen the ability of states to conduct diabetes surveillance and to promote consistency in defining and tracking indicators across states. In this way, the DIDIT supports one of the 10 essential public health services: the timely and accurate assessment of public health.
In addition to serving as a central repository of information on diabetes surveillance, the DIDIT also allows users to share experiences of using these indicators and data sources in their diabetes surveillance activities, data analysis, and tracking of diabetes-related objectives stated by Healthy People 2010. The DIDIT is an innovative approach to enhancing public health surveillance at the state and national levels.
PMCID: PMC1364523  PMID: 15963316

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