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1.  INFORMANT-BASED DEMENTIA SCREENING IN A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF AFRICAN AMERICANS 
BACKGROUND
An informant-based screening tool for dementia may be useful in population-based studies of minority populations.
OBJECTIVE
Investigate the feasibility of screening for very mild dementia in a community sample of African Americans using an informant-based screening tool (AD8).
DESIGN
Cohort study
PARTICIPANTS
147 persons from the African American Health (AAH) project were screened for dementia; 61 of 93 who were invited had follow-up clinical assessments for dementia diagnosis.
MEASUREMENTS
The AD8, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Short Blessed Test (SBT), Brief Instrument for Dementia Detection (BIDD), and a neuropsychological battery were administered at visit 1. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) was administered at visit 2 by clinicians blinded to visit 1 results; the presence of dementia was determined by a CDR greater than 0.
RESULTS
465 individuals from the AAH cohort were sent a letter describing the study and, among this group, 252 individuals were contacted by phone to request participation in this study. 6% (14 / 252) of participants contacted by phone were unable to identify an informant (required for the AD8). 150 individuals agreed by phone to participate of which 2% (n=3) did not have an informant available at the time of participation. The AD8 alone was effective at discriminating between CDR 0 and CDR 0.5 (area under the curve = .847; p <.001; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.96).
CONCLUSIONS
A brief informant-based instrument, the AD8, has high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing CDR 0 from CDR 0.5 in the community. Informant availability may not be a barrier to using the AD8 in an African American community sample; however, further study in larger samples with a higher response rate, different community settings (e.g., community clinics), and among older age groups (e.g., age 75+) is warranted to confirm this.
PMCID: PMC2763355  PMID: 19484913
African Americans; Dementia; Screening
2.  Graphical aid for determining power of clinical trials involving two groups. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1988;297(6649):672-676.
Physicians need to evaluate clinical research critically, and determining the power of a study is an essential component of research evaluation. This report presents a graphical aid that permits rapid power determination for clinical trials with two groups. Power curves were developed for dichotomous outcomes by setting two tail alpha at 0.05 and varying the sample size, the control group response rate, and the clinically important difference between control and experimental groups as defined by the user. Use of the graphical aid was demonstrated to a group of 18 medical students, residents, fellows, and faculty in a 15 minute session. Evaluation of the trainees' application of the aid showed a small average bias of -0.0003 and an average variance of 0.006. Ninety percent of power estimates were within 0.05 of the true value determined by formula. This graphical aid is recommended as a rapid and accurate method for determining power in the critical appraisal of clinical research.
PMCID: PMC1834346  PMID: 3179550
3.  INDUCED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE BLOOD TO INDOL 
1. Indol, orally administered, causes anemia when certain deficient diets are fed. 2. The same amount of indol causes no considerable hematologic disturbance when normal diets are fed. 3. The anemia can be cured by supplementing the diet with liver extract, or by substituting a normal diet for the deficient diet. 4. Neither the diet alone nor the administration of indol alone produces marked anemia under the experimental conditions observed.
PMCID: PMC2133566  PMID: 19870720
4.  THE INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HEMOLYSIS BY INDOL IN DOGS FED DEFICIENT DIETS 
1. Indol is more hemolytic in the presence of a deficiency complex than when a normal diet is fed. 2. The hemolytic effect can be abolished by supplementing the deficient diet with liver extract curative of pernicious anemia in man. 3. The hemolysis affects all hemoglobin-containing cells, including reticulocytes. 4. The repair of the anemia resulting from the administration of indol in the presence of a deficiency represents the cessation of a hemolytic process. 5. An abnormally low rate of production of erythrocytes may well be a factor in the production of the anemia.
PMCID: PMC2133558  PMID: 19870721
5.  THE ABSENCE FROM THE URINE OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA PATIENTS OF A MOSQUITO GROWTH FACTOR PRESENT IN NORMAL URINE 
Extracts prepared from the urine of normal persons or patients with aplastic anemia or leukemia contain a substance, possibly flavine or a flavine compound, which under suitable conditions of test enhances the growth of larvae of the mosquito, Aëdes aegypti. This substance is lacking, or is present in much smaller amount, in extracts from the urine of pernicious anemia patients showing symptoms of the disease. Extracts from the urine of the same patients after adequate treatment contain as much of the substance as normal urine extracts.
PMCID: PMC2180326  PMID: 19870733
6.  HEPATIC DYSFUNCTION IN DOGS FED DIETS CAUSATIVE OF BLACK TONGUE 
1. The feeding to dogs of a diet lacking the vitamin B2 (G) complex results in a lowered capacity of the liver to excrete intravenously injected bilirubin. 2. Normal function can be partly restored by supplementing the diet with liver extract. 3. Normal function can be completely restored by feeding a normal diet.
PMCID: PMC2180325  PMID: 19870732
7.  THE EFFECT OF DIET ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE CANINE HEMATOPOIETIC FUNCTION TO DAMAGE BY AMIDOPYRINE 
1. By feeding dogs a black tongue diet and at the same time administering amidopyrine, acute stomatitis and anemia may be produced. 2. Both stomatitis and anemia occur some time before they could be expected to appear as result of the diet feeding alone. 3. The anemia is associated with suppression of maturation of the hematopoietic bone marrow elements.
PMCID: PMC2133619  PMID: 19870669
8.  THE PROTECTIVE ACTION OF TYPE I ANTIPNEUMOCOCCUS SERUM IN MICE  
Observations are reported which concern the nature of the infectious process resulting from the intraperitoneal injection of mice with virulent pneumococci. The course of the infection has been figuratively reconstructed on the basis of the following data: The rate of bacterial multiplication, the numbers of cells present in the peritoneal cavity, the character of these cells at various stages, and the rate of phagocytosis. The significant alterations in this infectious process brought about by the administration of type specific immune serum are described, and the general significance of the findings discussed with reference to the functions of the immune serum and the rôle of phagocytes in protection.
PMCID: PMC2133284  PMID: 19870422
9.  THE PROTECTIVE ACTION OF TYPE I ANTIPNEUMOCOCCUS SERUM IN MICE  
The power of specific antipneumococcus serum to protect mice against infection with Type I Pneumococcus has been studied with reference to the capacity of the animal to utilize the specific antibodies. With a single strain of mice it was found that smaller animals and those with large numbers of white cells in the peritoneal cavity are much better able to utilize the passively conferred immune principles. These two intrinsic factors were resolved into a single element; namely, the number of monocytes in the peritoneal cavity at the time of injection of culture and serum. The interrelation of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors participating in the process of protection have been discussed.
PMCID: PMC2133287  PMID: 19870423
10.  THE ASSOCIATION OF BARTONELLA BODIES WITH INDUCED ANEMIA IN THE DOG 
On feeding to splenectomized dogs a diet producing black tongue, severe anemia developed associated with the presence of small bodies in or on the erythrocytes. The bodies were morphologically similar to Bartonella muris and Bartonella canis. The addition of lean beef to the diet, a material prophylactic against its effects, was followed by improvement of the blood levels, the presence of increased numbers of reticulocytes in the circulating blood, and the disappearance of the bodies. When the blood containing Bartonella-like bodies was injected into other splenectomized dogs fed a normal or a black tongue-producing diet, anemia developed in them and the bodies appeared in large numbers. Similar injections into non-splenectomized animals fed in the same way had anemia alone as its result. Injections into normal animals fed a normal diet caused not even anemia.
PMCID: PMC2133202  PMID: 19870342
11.  THE EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION IN DOGS OF ACUTE STOMATITIS, ASSOCIATED WITH LEUCOPENIA AND A MATURATION DEFECT OF THE MYELOID ELEMENTS OF THE BONE MARROW 
An ulcerative stomatitis associated with leucopenia and granulopenia can be induced in dogs by means of a diet causing black tongue. The decrease of circulating leucocytes is due to a suppression of maturation of the erythropoietic elements of the bone marrow. The changes as a whole have a resemblance to those occurring in human beings with acute agranulocytosis.
PMCID: PMC2133211  PMID: 19870352
13.  THE VITAMIN B1 AND B2 G CONTENT OF LIVER EXTRACT AND BREWERS' YEAST CONCENTRATE 
1. Liver extract powder, No. 343 Lilly, and the same material prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by mouth in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats weighing from 40 to 50 gm., contain sufficient vitamin B1 to support normal growth, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B2 G. Moreover, liver extract in the forms mentioned, administered in the same amounts, does not contain sufficient vitamin B2 G to maintain normal growth of similar rate when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 2. Liver extract (Lilly) in the form prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by intraperitoneal injections, in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats under standard experimental conditions, does not contain sufficient vitamin B2 G to maintain normal growth. Furthermore, the amount of vitamin B1 present in liver extract in this form is not as effective in supporting normal growth when given by intraperitoneal injection as it is when given by mouth. 3. Vegex, when administered daily in amounts of 50, 150, and 250 mg. to rats of 40 to 50 gm. in weight contains sufficient vitamin B1 to maintain normal growth of the rats, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B2 G. However, vegex in the same amounts does not contain sufficient vitamin B2 G to support normal growth of similar rats when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 4. These experiments indicate that the extrinsic, anti-anemic factor of Castle and the thermostable growth-promoting food constituent, commonly known as vitamin B2 G, are not identical.
PMCID: PMC2132355  PMID: 19870249
14.  THE EFFECT OF HEMOGLOBIN INJECTIONS ON ERYTHROPOIESIS AND ERYTHROCYTE SIZE IN RABBITS RENDERED ANEMIC BY BLEEDING 
1. An anemia characterized by increased size of the red blood cells and a high color index was produced in rabbits by repeated bleeding and by the subcutaneous injection of stroma-free hemoglobin solution. 2. The bone marrow of these rabbits reverted to a more primitive stage than did the marrows of rabbits rendered anemic in the same manner but not treated with hemoglobin.
PMCID: PMC2132361  PMID: 19870250
15.  THE PRODUCTION IN DOGS OF CHRONIC BLACK TONGUE WITH ANEMIA 
1. By the feeding of a particular diet, apparently lacking a substance closely associated with vitamin B2 G, a chronic disease may be produced irregularly in dogs. 2. The disease is characterized by atrophic glossitis, diarrhea, loss of weight, and anemia. 3. The disease can be prevented and relieved by materials rich in vitamin B2 G.
PMCID: PMC2132322  PMID: 19870218
17.  Further assessment of the reliability and validity of a Nutritional Risk Index: analysis of a three-wave panel study of elderly adults. 
Health Services Research  1986;20(6 Pt 2):977-990.
This paper reports on the further assessment of the reliability and validity of a short (16-item), portable method for assessing nutritional risk which is easily administered in the typical social survey setting. Data were obtained from a three-wave panel study of 401 randomly selected, noninstitutionalized elderly persons (age 65 and over) in St. Louis. Reliability was assessed by both internal consistency and test-retest methods. Reliability coefficients (internal consistency) of .603, .544, and .515 were obtained at T-1, T-2, and T-3, respectively. Cross-panel intercorrelations (test-retest) ranged between .67 and .71. Validity was assessed using factor analysis and various outcome measure comparisons for those at risk versus those not at risk. A five-factor orthogonally rotated solution explained 47.9 percent of the variance in the 16 items. Individuals with higher risk scores had significantly poorer health as measured by other standard indexes, and used significantly more health services than those with lower risk scores. These results underscore the potential of the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) as a screening device for use among the elderly.
PMCID: PMC1068917  PMID: 3949544

Results 1-17 (17)