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1.  Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalating Phase I, Healthy Subjects Study of Intravenous OPN-305, a Humanized Anti-TLR2 Antibody 
Upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a critical role in inflammation associated with ischemia/reperfusion–induced tissue damage. OPN-305 is the first humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody against TLR2 in development and is intended for the prevention of reperfusion injury following renal transplantation and other indications. A phase I, single-center, prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate single ascending doses of OPN-305 in 41 healthy male subjects (age range: 19–58 years) randomized to OPN-305 or placebo across six cohorts. OPN-305 was well tolerated across all doses, with no elevations in endogenous cytokines. A dose-proportional increase in maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was observed, with area under the curve increasing in a greater-than-dose-proportional manner with increasing elimination half-life. OPN-305 produced full TLR2 receptor blockade on CD14+CD45+ cells (monocytes), from 14 (0.5 mg/kg) to >90 (10 mg/kg) days, with a linear effect on the duration of inhibition of interleukin-6 release after TLR2 stimulation.
doi:10.1038/clpt.2013.150
PMCID: PMC3805945  PMID: 23880971
2.  L-carnitine in cyclical vomiting syndrome 
doi:10.1136/adc.2003.047183
PMCID: PMC1719739  PMID: 15557068
4.  Explanation at the opioid receptor level for differing toxicity of morphine and morphine 6-glucuronide. 
British Journal of Cancer  1992;65(1):122-126.
The radiolabelled opioid receptor binding affinities of morphine and its active metabolite morphine 6-glucuronide at the total mu, mu 1, mu 2 and delta receptors were determined. Morphine 6-glucuronide was found to have a 4-fold lower affinity for the mu 2 receptor (IC50 17 nM and 82 nM for morphine and morphine 6-glucuronide respectively, P = 0.01), the receptor postulated to be responsible for mediating the respiratory depression and gastrointestinal effects after morphine. This provides a possible explanation for the reduced respiratory depression and vomiting seen following morphine 6-glucuronide in man. A similar reduction in affinity of morphine 6-glucuronide was seen at the total mu receptor whilst there was no significant difference seen at the mu 1 or delta receptor. Hence the increased analgesic potency of morphine 6-glucuronide over morphine remains unexplained.
PMCID: PMC1977344  PMID: 1310249
5.  Expression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene and quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone-like immunoreactivity in human normal peripheral mononuclear cells and lymphoid and myeloid malignancies. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1989;83(2):733-737.
Using Northern blotting with a human genomic DNA probe for the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene, we have shown specific mRNA in normal human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC); the presence of specific mRNA was also observed in a T lymphocyte cell line derived from a patient with lymphoma. We then demonstrated that PBMC translate the message into protein. Thus, using a radioimmunoassay with an antibody for ACTH, a median of 29 pg of ACTH-like immunoreactivity (ACTH-LIR) was found in 10(7) PBMC. ACTH-LIR was also detected in seven different cell lines derived from patients with lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, two of them JM and U937 showing the highest values 135 and 108 pg/10(7) cells, respectively. The chromatographic characterization of this ACTH-LIR showed, at least, three molecular forms of immunoreactive ACTH with molecular weights of the order of 31,000 POMC, 22,000 ACTH, and 4,500 ACTH, in addition to high-molecular-weight material (greater than 43,000). We conclude that PBMC produce ACTH-LIR which may act as a paracrine immunomodulator in a similar way to lymphokines and/or may signal the adrenal gland to secrete glucocorticoids.
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PMCID: PMC303737  PMID: 2536407

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