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author:("Luo, kunming")
1.  Matrilin-2 Is a Widely Distributed Extracellular Matrix Protein and a Potential Biomarker in the Early Stage of Osteoarthritis in Articular Cartilage 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:986127.
In this study, we first generated and characterized a polyclonal antibody against unique domain of matrlin-2 and then used this specific antibody to assess the expression pattern of matrilin-2 by immunohistochemistry. We found that marilin-2 is widely distributed in the connective tissues of many mouse tissues including heart, colon, penis, esophagus, lung, kidney, tracheal cartilage, developmental bone, and adult bone. The expression level of matrilin-2 was remarkably increased in the tissues of osteoarthritis developmental articular cartilage, compared to normal healthy tissues. Furthermore, we determined matrilin-2 expression in specific epithelial cells in stomach and ductal epithelial cells of salivary gland. In other tissues, the positive signals were mainly located around cardiac muscle cells and Purkinje fibers in the heart; corpus spongiosum in the penis; submucosa in the colon and esophagus; extracellular matrix of cartilage in the tracheal cartilage; and, glomerulus, the basement membrane of distal convoluted tubule and renal matrix in kidney. These observations indicated that the distribution pattern of matrilin-2 is heterogeneous in each tissue. Matrilin-2 may play an important role in the communication of matrix to matrix and matrix to cells and will be used as a potential biomarker in the early stage of osteoarthritis of articular cartilage.
PMCID: PMC3967717  PMID: 24741569
2.  Abscopal antitumor immune effects of magnet-mediated hyperthermia at a high therapeutic temperature on Walker-256 carcinosarcomas in rats 
Oncology Letters  2014;7(3):764-770.
The abscopal effect has previously been described in various tumors and is associated with radiation therapy and hyperthermia, with possible underlying mechanisms explaining each observed case. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of magnet-mediated hyperthermia on Walker-256 carcinosarcomas in rats at two different temperature ranges (42–46°C and 50–55°C). We also aimed to identify whether a higher therapeutic temperature of magnetic-mediated hyperthermia improves the abscopal antitumor effects, where localised irradiation of the tumor causes not only the irradiated tumor to shrink, but also tumors located far from the area of irradiation. Following induction of carcinosarcoma in both sides of the body, magnet-mediated hyperthermia was applied to one side only, leaving the other side as a control. The changes in tumor growth were observed. Our results demonstrated that magnet-mediated hyperthermia at a higher temperature inhibited the growth of carcinosarcoma at the site of treatment. Furthermore, the growth of the carcinosarcoma on the untreated side was also inhibited. The expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen were decreased in the hyperthermia group, which was more significant in the higher temperature test group. Flow cytometric analysis showed an increased number of CD4- and CD8-positive T cells, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed increased levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 in the higher temperature group. These results suggested that magnet-mediated hyperthermia at a higher temperature (50–55°C) can improve the abscopal antitumor effects and stimulate a greater endogenous immune response in carcinosarcoma-bearing rats.
PMCID: PMC3919910  PMID: 24527084
magnet-mediated hyperthermia; abscopal effect; temperature; Walker-256 carcinosarcoma; tumor immunity
3.  Expression of pAkt affects p53 codon 72 polymorphism-based prediction of response to radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma 
Codon 72 (Arg/Pro), the most frequently studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of p53 to date, is associated with the ability of the gene to induce cell apoptosis. The PI3K/Akt pathway plays an essential role in the transcriptional activation function of p53, and is an important factor in radiotherapy resistance. The present study was designed to evaluate the prediction of response to radiotherapy based on p53 codon 72 SNP and pAkt expression in biopsy specimens of locoregional nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) before treatment.
Materials and methods
In total, 75 consecutive patients with locoregional NPC were enrolled. The p53 codon 72 SNP was identified from retrospectively collected paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens using Sanger sequencing. Expression patterns of p53, p21, 14-3-3σ, and pAkt proteins were investigated using immunohistochemical analyses. The effects of genetic polymorphisms and protein expression on progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model, Kaplan–Meier method, and log-rank test.
The p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro carriers showed lower risk of disease progression (local recurrence and distant metastases) (HR: 0.300; 95% CI: 0.092–0.983; p=0.047). However, this association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and PFS was not significant in the pAkt-positive subgroup. No association was observed between protein expression of p53, p21 or 14-3-3σ and p53 codon72 polymorphisms. Notably, positive expression of p53 protein appeared to be correlated with poorer PFS among patients diagnosed as local regional lymph node metastasis (N+) before treatment (p=0.032).
The p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro genotype may be an effective independent prognostic marker for better outcome in patients with locoregional NPC. Based on the current findings, we hypothesize that pAkt weakens the predictive value of p53 codon 72 SNP in NPC. A combination of positive p53 protein expression and local regional lymph node metastasis may additionally be predictive of high risk of disease progression.
PMCID: PMC3720183  PMID: 23663243
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; p53 codon 72 polymorphism; pAkt; Radiotherapy
4.  A Comparison of Differential Biomarkers of Osteoarthritis with and without Post-traumatic Injury in the Hartley Guinea Pig Model 
The objective was to compare biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism in synovial fluid from Hartley guinea pig knees with and without anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) to establish whether there are detectable differences in biomarker levels between primary and secondary OA. Synovial fluid lavages and knees were obtained from 3 months (control group) and 12 months (primary OA group) animals. Another group of animals (post-traumatic OA group) underwent unilateral ACLT at 3 months and samples were obtained 9 months post-surgery. Synovial fluid concentrations of stromal cell-derived-factor (SDF-1), collagen fragments (C2C), proteoglycan (GAG), lubricin, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and Interleukin-1 (IL-1β) were evaluated. Cartilage damage was assessed via histology. The highest concentrations of C2C and SDF-1 in synovial fluid were found in the post-traumatic OA group, moderate concentrations were found in the primary OA group, and low concentrations in the control group. GAG release in synovial fluid was similar to C2C and SDF-1. The lubricin concentrations were significantly lower in ACLT joints than either the control or 12-month primary OA groups, but not between the control and primary OA groups. Higher levels of MMP-13 and IL-1β were detected in the joints of the post-traumatic OA group as compared to the control or primary OA groups. Histology revealed greatest OA damage in the post-traumatic OA group, followed by moderate and minimal damage in primary OA and control groups, respectively. This study indicates that the biomarkers and progression of OA may differ in the Hartley guinea pig models with and without post-traumatic OA.
PMCID: PMC2875364  PMID: 20108346
Cartilage; osteoarthritis; trauma; ACL; biomarker; guinea pig
5.  Surfactant protein (SP) B associations and interactions with SP-A in white and black subjects with respiratory distress syndrome 
The etiology of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is multifactorial and/or multigenic. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and/or SP-B genetic variants have been identified as risk or protection factors for RDS.
We genotyped subjects with and without RDS for the SP-B intron 4 size variants (invariant (inv), deletion (del), insertion (ins) and for four (−18 (A/C), 1013 (A/C), 1580 (C/T), 9306 (A/G)) SP-B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), to study case–control associations in black and white subjects. We also determined whether specific SP-B variants interact with RDS susceptibility or protective SP-A variants to enhance or reduce risk for RDS.
Based on odds ratio: (1) the SP-B intron 4 del variant in white subjects is more of an RDS risk factor for males and for subjects of 28 weeks
The SP-B polymorphisms are important determinants for RDS. These may identify differences between black and white subjects, as well as, between males and females regarding the risk for RDS. Furthermore, SP-A susceptibility or protective alleles, in specific SP-B background, are associated, based on OR, with an increased or reduced risk for RDS.
PMCID: PMC2907917  PMID: 11737731
gene interactions; genetic determinant; respiratory distress syndrome; surfactant protein B; synergism
Cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been proposed to play key roles in modulating cellular phenotypes during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Matrilin (MATN) 1 and 3 are among the most up-regulated ECM proteins during chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze their roles in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts from synovium.
Primary synovial fibroblasts (SFBs) were purified from porcine synovium and incubated in pellet culture for 18 days. Chondrogenesis of SFB was analyzed by histological staining with safranin-O/fast green, and by quantifying glycosaminoglycans with dimethylmethylene blue assay. The mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers including collagen II, aggrecan, and Sox 9 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR, while the protein levels of Col II and matrilins were determined by western blot analysis.
SFBs underwent chondrogenesis after incubation with TGF-β1 for three days; however, this process was attenuated during the subsequent incubation period. Expression of a MATN1 or 3 cDNA maintained and further enhanced chondrogenesis of SFBs as shown by increased cartilaginous matrix areas, elevated amount of glycosaminoglycans, and stimulated expression of chondrogenic markers.
Our findings suggest a novel function for MATN1 and 3 to maintain and enhance chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts initiated by TGF-β. Our results also support a critical role of cartilage-specific ECM proteins to modulate cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment during chondrogenic differentiation.
PMCID: PMC2596998  PMID: 18282772
Matrilin; Synovium; Mesenchymal stem cells; Chondrogenesis; TGF-β
PLoS ONE  2008;3(12):e3858.
GPRC6A is a widely expressed orphan G-protein coupled receptor that senses extracellular amino acids, osteocalcin and divalent cations in vitro. The physiological functions of GPRC6A are unknown.
Methods/Principal Findings
In this study, we created and characterized the phenotype of GPRC6A−/− mice. We observed complex metabolic abnormalities in GPRC6A−/− mice involving multiple organ systems that express GPRC6A, including bone, kidney, testes, and liver. GPRC6A−/− mice exhibited hepatic steatosis, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. In addition, we observed high expression of GPRC6A in Leydig cells in the testis. Ablation of GPRC6A resulted in feminization of male GPRC6A−/− mice in association with decreased lean body mass, increased fat mass, increased circulating levels of estradiol, and reduced levels of testosterone. GPRC6A was also highly expressed in kidney proximal and distal tubules, and GPRC6A−/− mice exhibited increments in urine Ca/Cr and PO4/Cr ratios as well as low molecular weight proteinuria. Finally, GPRC6A−/− mice exhibited a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) in association with impaired mineralization of bone.
GPRC6A−/− mice have a metabolic syndrome characterized by defective osteoblast-mediated bone mineralization, abnormal renal handling of calcium and phosphorus, fatty liver, glucose intolerance and disordered steroidogenesis. These findings suggest the overall function of GPRC6A may be to coordinate the anabolic responses of multiple tissues through the sensing of extracellular amino acids, osteocalcin and divalent cations.
PMCID: PMC2585477  PMID: 19050760
Disease Markers  2002;15(4):269-281.
We have previously identified an allele of the human SP-A2 gene that occurs with greater frequency in an RDS population [12]. Because of the importance of SP-A in normal lung function and its newly emerging role in innate host defense and regu-lation of inflammatory processes, we wish to better characterize genotypes of both SP-A1 and SP-A2 genes. It has been determined that SP-D shares similar roles in immune response. Therefore, in this report we 1) describe a novel, non radioactive PCR based-cRFLP method for genotyping both SP-A and SP-D; 2) describe two previously unpublished biallelic polymorphisms within the SP-D gene; 3) present the partial sequence of one new SP-A1 allele (6A14) and describe other new SP-A1 and SP-A2 alleles; and 4) describe additional methodologies for SP-A genotype assessment. The ability to more accurately and efficiently genotype samples from individuals with various pulmonary diseases will facilitate population and family based association studies. Genetic poly-morphisms may be identified that partially explain individual disease susceptibility and/or treatment effectiveness.
PMCID: PMC3851098  PMID: 10689550
surfactant SP-A; SP-D; SNPs; genotype analysis

Results 1-8 (8)