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1.  CoagVDb: a comprehensive database for coagulation factors and their associated SAPs 
Biological Research  2015;48(1):35.
The current state of the art in medical genetics is to identify and classify the functional (deleterious) or non-functional (neutral) single amino acid substitutions (SAPs), also known as non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs). The primary goal is to elucidate the mechanisms through which functional SAPs exert their effects, and ultimately interrogating this information for association with complex phenotypes. This work focuses on coagulation factors involved in the coagulation cascade pathway which plays a vital role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the human system. We developed an integrated coagulation variation database, CoagVDb, which makes use of the biological information from various public databases such as NCBI, OMIM, UniProt, PDB and SAPs (rsIDs/variant). CoagVDb enriched with computational prediction scores classify SAPs as either deleterious or tolerated. Also, various other properties are incorporated such as amino acid composition, secondary structure elements, solvent accessibility, ordered/disordered regions, conservation, and the presence of disulfide bonds. This specialized database provides integration of various prediction scores from different computational methods along with gene, protein, and disease information. We hope our database will act as a useful reference resource for hematologists to reveal protein structure–function relationship and disease genotype–phenotype correlation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40659-015-0028-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s40659-015-0028-5
PMCID: PMC4506595  PMID: 26187044
Coagulation cascade pathway; Coagulation factor proteins; Single amino acid substitutions; SIFT; PolyPhen 2; I-Mutant 3; Fathmm; Align GVGD; PhD-SNP; SNPs&GO; SNAP
3.  Occurrence of Schistosoma nasale infection in bullocks of Puducherry 
Nasal schistosomiasis is caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma nasale (S. nasalis) adversely affects the health and production of domestic livestock in various parts of India. The present report describes the occurrence of S. nasale infection in two Hallikar breed bullocks of Union Territory of Puducherry. Eggs of S. nasale were noticed in nasal washings/scrapings of animals and identified as per the standard taxonomical keys.
doi:10.1007/s12639-012-0225-x
PMCID: PMC4000370  PMID: 24808659
Schistosoma nasale; Nasal washings; Bullocks; Puducherry
4.  Comparison of the Effects of Zonisamide, Ethosuximide and Pregabalin in the Chronic Constriction Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats 
Background:
Evidence has been generated that various anticonvulsant agents provide relief of several chronic pain syndromes and therefore as an alternative to opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, and tricyclic antidepressant drugs in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The results of these studies thus raise the question of whether all anticonvulsant drugs or particular mechanistic classes may be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes.
Aim:
The aim was to compare the clinically used anticonvulsant drugs which are differ in their mechanism of action in a chronic pain model, the chronic constriction injury, in order to determine if all anticonvulsants or only particular mechanistic classes of anticonvulsants are analgesic.
Materials and Methods:
The study included zonisamide, ethosuximide and pregabalin. All compounds were anticonvulsant with diverse mechanism of actions. The peripheral neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Zonisamide (80 and 40 mg/kg), ethosuximide (300 and 100 mg/kg), pregabalin (50 and 20 mg/kg), and saline was administered intraperitoneally in respective groups in a blinded, randomized manner from postoperative day (POD) 7-13. Paw withdrawal duration to spontaneous pain, chemical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia and paw withdrawal latency to mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were tested before drug administration on POD7 and after administration on POD 7, 9, 11 and 13.
Results:
The present study suggests that these drugs could provide an effective alternative in the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, zonisamide and pregabalin appears to have suitable efficacy to treat a wide spectrum of neuropathic pain condition.
Conclusion:
The present findings suggest that the inhibition of N-type calcium channels or voltage-gated sodium and T-type calcium channels provides better analgesic potential instead of inhibition of T-type calcium channels alone.
doi:10.4103/2141-9248.157501
PMCID: PMC4455009  PMID: 26097761
Chronic constriction injury model; Ethosuximide; Neuropathic pain; Pregabalin; Zonisamide
5.  New free radical scavenging neolignans from fruits of Piper attenuatum 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2015;11(42):235-241.
Objective:
The aim was to study and identify free radicals scavenging and antihyperglycemic principles in fruit of Piper attenuatum.
Materials and Methods:
Bioassay guided identification of extracts possessing potent free radical scavenging activity, and isolation of compounds was done. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum possessing potent radical scavenging activity was also evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats.
Results:
Nine neolignans namely, denudatin B (1), iso-4’, 5’-dimethoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy-2’-oxo-Δ3’,5’,8’-8.1’-lignan (2), lancifolin D (3), denudatin A (4), wallichinin (5), piperenone (6), lancifolin C (7), 2-oxo-piperol B (8), piperkadsin A (9) and a crotepoxide (10) was identified in Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum. Neolignans (1-9) displayed potent 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and piperkadsin A (9) also displayed 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Analysis of structure-activity relationship revealed that presence of furan ring and methoxy groups is an important criterion to influence 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging potentials. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum fruit could not display antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats.
Conclusion:
Neolignans present in P. attenuatum fruits are potent free radical scavengers and this is the first report identifying these compounds and activities in this fruit.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.153063
PMCID: PMC4378119  PMID: 25829760
2, 2’-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical; chloroform extract; 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical; glucose tolerance test; Piper attenuatum
6.  Effect of oral hypoglycaemic agents on bone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus & occurrence of osteoporosis 
Background & objectives:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered to be a protective factor against development of osteoporosis. But oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) are likely to increase the risk of osteoporosis. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various OHA on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with T2DM.
Methods:
Forty one patients (study group) with T2DM (mean age 51.9±5.5 yr; 31 females) receiving treatment with oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) [thiazolidinediones alone (n=14) or in combination with other OHA (n=27)] for a period of at least three consecutive years and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age 51.4±5.1 yr) were included in the study. A detailed clinical history was taken and all were subjected to physical examination and recording of anthropometric data. BMD was assessed for both patients and controls.
Results:
The mean body mass index (kg/m2) (26.5±4.90 vs 27.3 ±5.33) and median [inter-quartile range (IQR)] duration of menopause (yr) among women [6(2-12) vs 6(1-13)] were comparable between both groups. The bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) at the level of neck of femur (NOF) (0.761±0.112 vs 0.762±0.110), lumbar spine antero-posterior view (LSAP) (0.849±0.127 vs 0.854±0.135); median Z-score NOF {0.100[(-0.850)-(0.550)] vs -0.200[(-0.800)-(0.600)]}, LSAP {-1.200[(-1.700)-(-0.200)] vs -1.300 [(-1.85)-(-0.400)]} were also similar in study and control groups. Presence of normal BMD (9/41 vs 8/41), osteopenia (16/41 vs 18/41) and osteoporosis (16/41 vs 15/41) were comparable between the study and control groups. No significant difference was observed in the BMD, T-scores and Z-scores at NOF and LSAP among T2DM patients treated with thiazolidinediones; those treated with other OHA and controls.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The present findings show that the use of OHA for a period of three years or more does not significantly affect the BMD in patients with T2DM.
doi:10.4103/0971-5916.159287
PMCID: PMC4510723  PMID: 26112844
Bone mineral density; oral hypoglycaemic agents; osteoporosis; thiazolidinediones; type 2 diabetes mellitus
7.  Bullous Lichen Planus treated with Oral Minipulse Therapy: A Rare Case Report 
Oral Lichen planus (OLP) is a common mucocutaneous disorder with a multifactorial aetiology, affecting the women more commonly than men. Most OLP are asymptomatic, except the atrophic and erosive forms.Till date many treatment modalities are implicated to treat this disorder, but no therapy is considered as the single most effective, without side-effects and remission of the lesion. As the treatment of OLP is challenging to the oral practitioners, here we report a case of successful management of extensive, symptomatic bullous and erosive oral lichen planus with a novel treatment protocol- oral minipulse therapy with betamethasone.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/11465.5338
PMCID: PMC4316353  PMID: 25654047
Alopecia; Auto-immune disease; Betamethasone; Reticular; Wickham striae
8.  Longitudinal evaluation of T1ρ and T2 spatial distribution in osteoarthritic and healthy medial knee cartilage 
SUMMARY
Objective
To investigate longitudinal changes in laminar and spatial distribution of knee articular cartilage magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1ρ and T2 relaxation times, in individuals with and without medial compartment cartilage defects.
Design
All subjects (at baseline n = 88, >18 years old) underwent 3-Tesla knee MRI at baseline and annually thereafter for 3 years. The MR studies were evaluated for presence of cartilage defects (modified Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring – mWORMS), and quantitative T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps. Subjects were segregated into those with (mWORMS ≥2) and without (mWORMS ≤1) cartilage lesions at the medial tibia (MT) or medial femur (MF) at each time point. Laminar (bone and articular layer) and spatial (gray level co-occurrence matrix – GLCM) distribution of the T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps were calculated. Linear regression models (cross-sectional) and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) (longitudinal) were used.
Results
Global T1ρ, global T2 and articular layer T2 relaxation times at the MF, and global and articular layer T2 relaxation times at the MT, were higher in subjects with cartilage lesions compared to those without lesions. At the MT global T1ρ relaxation times were higher at each time point in subjects with lesions. MT T1ρ and T2 became progressively more heterogeneous than control compartments over the course of the study.
Conclusion
Spatial distribution of T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps in medial knee OA using GLCM technique may be a sensitive indicator of cartilage deterioration, in addition to whole-compartment relaxation time data.
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2013.10.014
PMCID: PMC3934359  PMID: 24188868
GLCM; Texture; Quantitative MRI; Cartilage defects; Laminar
9.  Discoid lupus erythematosis occurring as an isotopic response 
doi:10.4103/2229-5178.148948
PMCID: PMC4314892  PMID: 25657921
11.  Nipah virus infection: current scenario 
Indian Journal of Virology  2013;24(3):398-408.
The emergence of Nipah virus (NiV) infection into the pig population and subsequently into the human population is believed to be due to changes in ecological conditions. In Malaysia, A major NiV outbreak occurred in pigs and humans from September 1998 to April 1999 that resulted in infection of 265 and death of 105 persons. About 1.1 million pigs had to be destroyed to control the outbreak. The disease was recorded in the form of a major outbreak in India in 2001 and then a small incidence in 2007, both the outbreaks in West Bengal only in humans without any involvement of pigs. There were series of human Nipah incidences in Bangladesh from 2001 till 2013 almost every year with mortality exceeding 70 %. The disease transmission from pigs acting as an intermediate host during Malaysian and Singapore outbreaks has changed in NIV outbreaks in India and Bangladesh, transmitting the disease directly from bats to human followed by human to human. The drinking of raw date palm sap contaminated with fruit bat urine or saliva containing NiV is the only known cause of outbreak of the disease in Bangladesh outbreaks. The virus is now known to exist in various fruit bats of Pteropus as well as bats of other genera in a wider belt from Asia to Africa.
doi:10.1007/s13337-013-0171-y
PMCID: PMC3832692  PMID: 24426305
Nipah virus; NiV; Henipavirus; Fruit bats; Pigs; Encephalitis
12.  Crystal structure of ethyl (6-hy­droxy-1-benzo­furan-3-yl)acetate sesquihydrate 
The crystal structure of ethyl (6-hy­droxy-1-benzo­furan-3-yl)acetate sesquihydrate exhibits a one-dimensional hydrogen-bond motif consisting of (12) rings joined at water mol­ecules located on a twofold rotation axis.
In the title hydrate, C12H12O4·1.5H2O, one of the water mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit is located on a twofold rotation axis. The mol­ecule of the benzo­furan derivative is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation for the non-H atoms = 0.021 Å), with the ester group adopting a fully extended conformation. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the hy­droxy groups generate a centrosymmetric R 6 6(12) ring motif. These R 6 6(12) rings are fused, forming a one-dimensional motif extending along the c-axis direction.
doi:10.1107/S1600536814024349
PMCID: PMC4257409  PMID: 25552987
crystal structure; hydrates; O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds; C—H⋯π inter­actions; benzo­furan
13.  Fluorinated Graphene Oxide; a New Multimodal Material for Biological Applications 
Fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO) is reported for the first time as a magnetically responsive drug carrier that can serve as a MRI and photoacoustic contrast agent, under pre-clinical settings, as well as a photothermal therapy Its hydrophilic nature facilitates biocompatibility. FGO as a broad wavelength absorber, with high charge transfer and strong nonlinear scattering is optimal for NIR laser-induced hyperthermia.
doi:10.1002/adma201301804
PMCID: PMC3938113  PMID: 24038195
multifunctional graphene; MRI; photoacoustic; photothermal therapy; drug delivery
14.  Crystal structure of (R)-6′-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-3′,4′-di­hydro-2′H-spiro­[cyclo­hexane-1,3′-1,2,4-benzo­thia­diazine] 1′,1′-dioxide 
In the title compound, the mean plane of the cyclo­hexane ring is almost normal to the benzene ring and to the mean plane of the 1,2,4-thia­diazinane ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [10], which are in turn linked via C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming sheets parallel to (010).
In the title compound, C14H19BrN2O2S, the 1,2,4-thia­diazinane ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom (attached to the sulfonyl group) as the flap, while the cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The mean plane of the cyclo­hexane ring is almost normal to the benzene ring and the mean plane of the 1,2,4-thia­diazinane ring, making dihedral angles of 70.4 (2) and 71.43 (19)°, respectively. Furthermore, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane of the 1,2,4-thia­diazinane ring is 4.91 (18)°. The mol­ecular structure is stabilized by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which encloses an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into chains along [10-1], forming a C(6) graph-set motif. These chains are inter­connected via C—H⋯π inter­actions, leading to chains along [-101], so finally forming sheets parallel to (010).
doi:10.1107/S1600536814022417
PMCID: PMC4257282  PMID: 25484745
crystal structure; benzo­thia­diazine; hydrogen bonding; chirality
15.  Expression and DNA methylation of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3 in colorectal cancer and their prognostic significance 
British Journal of Cancer  2014;111(8):1581-1589.
Background:
Colorectal cancer (CRC) progression is associated with suppression of host cell-mediated immunity and local immune escape mechanisms. Our aim was to assess the immune function in terms of expression of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3 in CRC.
Methods:
Sixty patients with CRC and 15 matched controls were recruited. TaqMan quantitative PCR and methylation-specific PCR was performed for expression and DNA methylation analysis of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3. Survival analysis was performed over a median follow-up of 48 months.
Results:
TNF was suppressed in tumour and IFNG was suppressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with CRC. Tumours showed enhanced expression of FOXP3 and was significantly higher when tumour size was >38 mm (median tumour size; P=0.006, Mann–Whitney U-test). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell IFNG was suppressed in recurrent CRC (P=0.01). Methylated TNFpromoter (P=0.003) and TNFexon1 (P=0.001) were associated with significant suppression of TNF in tumours. Methylated FOXP3cpg was associated with significant suppression of FOXP3 in both PBMC (P=0.018) and tumours (P=0.010). Reduced PBMC FOXP3 expression was associated with significantly worse overall survival (HR=8.319, P=0.019).
Conclusions:
We have detected changes in the expression of immunomodulatory genes that could act as biomarkers for prognosis and future immunotherapeutic strategies.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.477
PMCID: PMC4200101  PMID: 25225903
expression; DNA methylation; TNF; IFNG; FOXP3; survival
16.  Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets 
Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids  2013;89(5):10.1016/j.plefa.2013.08.004.
Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early postnatal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (Formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA content compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early post-natal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development.
doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2013.08.004
PMCID: PMC3818473  PMID: 24075244
Arachidonic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; fatty acid desaturase gene; infant nutrition; piglet
17.  Platelet rich fibrin and xenograft in treatment of intrabony defect 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2014;5(4):550-554.
For complete periodontal regeneration, delivery of growth factors in the local environment holds a great deal in adjunct to bone grafts. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is considered as second generation platelet concentrate, consisting of viable platelets, releasing various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Hence, this case report aims to investigate the clinical and radiological (bone fill) effectiveness of autologous PRF along with the use of xenogenic bone mineral in the treatment of intra bony defects. Intrabony defect was treated with autologous PRF along with the use of xenogenic bone mineral. A decrease in probing pocket depth, gain in clinical attachment level and significant bone fill was observed at end of 6 months. The result obtained with the use of PRF may be attributed to the sustained and simultaneous release of various growth factors over a period of 7 days. In this case report, the positive clinical impact of additional application of PRF with xenogenic graft material in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defect was seen.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.142830
PMCID: PMC4229771  PMID: 25395778
Intrabony defects; periodontal regeneration; platelet-rich fibrin; xenograft
18.  Spectrum of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: A single center study from South India 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2014;24(5):280-285.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in intensive care unit (ICU) and carries a high mortality rate. Reliable and comparable data about the clinical spectrum of AKI is necessary for optimizing management. The study was conducted to describe epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients without pre-existing renal disease, diagnosed using RIFLE criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data of 500 adult patients admitted to ICU with AKI or who developed AKI in ICU. Patients with pre-existing renal disease, renal transplant recipients were excluded. AKI was predominantly encountered in older males. Diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease were the most commonly prevalent comorbidities. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI, accounting for 38.6% of patients. 24.4% belonged to risk class, 37.0% to injury class, 35.0% to failure class, 3% to loss and 0.6% to ESRD class of the RIFLE criteria. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 37.2% (n = 186) of patients. About 60% recovered complete renal function. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was a sequel in 2.4% (n = 12) of patients. Average duration of ICU stay was 5.6 days. Crude mortality rate was 37.6% (n = 188). In critically ill patients without pre-existing renal disease, elderly age, male sex, type 2 diabetes along with a primary diagnosis of sepsis were most commonly associated with AKI. Majority of the patients’ recovered complete renal function.
doi:10.4103/0971-4065.132991
PMCID: PMC4165051  PMID: 25249716
Acute kidney injury; critically ill patients; end stage criteria; failure; India; injury; loss; risk; spectrum
19.  Controlled Hypotension for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Comparison of Esmolol and Nitroglycerine 
Intraoperative bleeding causing poor visibility of surgical field is of major concern during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and impaired visibility may result in many complications. The study aimed to compare surgical conditions for FESS during controlled hypotension provided by esmolol or nitroglycerine (NTG) under general anaesthesia. 52 adult patients of both sexes requiring FESS under general anaesthesia were randomly divided to receive either esmolol (group ESM, n = 26) or NTG (group NTG, n = 26) to provide controlled hypotension. Surgical condition was assessed by surgeon using average category scale (ACS) of 0–5, a value of 2–3 being ideal. In both groups mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was gradually reduced till ACS for assessment of surgical condition (ACS) of 2–3 or lowest targeted MABP (60 mm of Hg) was achieved. Both the drugs produced desired hypotension and improved surgical condition by reducing operative field bleeding but ideal operative conditions were achieved at mild hypotension (MABP 75–70) in ESM group while same conditions were achieved at MABP of 69–65 mm of Hg in NTG group. Mean heart rate was significantly higher in NTG group as compared to ESM group. Blood loss was significantly less in ESM group. Both NTG and esmolol can be used safely to provide controlled hypotension during FESS. Both the drugs improved visibility of surgical field by reducing capillary bleeding. But esmolol offered better operative conditions with only minimal reduction in MABP. No reflex tachycardia and less intraoperative haemorrhage were additional advantages of esmolol.
doi:10.1007/s12070-013-0655-5
PMCID: PMC3738799  PMID: 24427694
FESS; Controlled hypotension; Esmolol; Nitroglycerine
20.  Anything Rare is Possible: Letrozole Induced Eczematous Skin Eruption 
Letrozole is used as first line drug in postmenopausal women with early-stage or advanced hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Letrozole has favourable tolerability profile when administered once daily and significant adverse reactions occur rarely. The objective of this report is to describe a case of eczematous skin eruption that occurred during letrozole treatment. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted with lump in the left breast. FNAC, HPE were done and the patient was diagnosed to have invasive ductal breast carcinoma. After a month of completing CT and EBRT, the patient was given 2.5 mg OD tab. letrozole at night. She developed itchy skin lesions over the right thigh that later generalised, at 6- weeks of treatment. The lesion has been defined as eczematous moderate to severe drug eruption. These lesions were attributed to letrozole therapy and recurred within 24h after rechallenge. Drug eruption is associated with many drugs but this is the first such report with letrozole. We suggest of being aware of such reactions during letrozole usage.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/9028.4498
PMCID: PMC4129361  PMID: 25121052
Breast carcinoma; Old age; Rechallenge
21.  Imaging in emphysematous epididymo-orchitis: A rare cause of acute scrotum 
Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon, acute inflammatory process of epididymis and testis characterized by the presence of air within the tissue. Patient presents with fever, acute pain, swelling and tenderness in the scrotum. Imaging is needed for rapid accurate diagnosis and to differentiate it from other causes of acute scrotum such as testicular torsion. We report a case of emphysematous epididymo-orchitis with imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI and a brief review of the literature.
doi:10.4103/0971-3026.137067
PMCID: PMC4126149  PMID: 25114397
Acute scrotum; computed tomography; emphysematous epididymo-orchitis; magnetic resonance imaging; ultrasound
22.  Laparoscopic Removal of Lithopaedion 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2011;75(Suppl 1):38-40.
Lithopaedion means a calcified Dead foetus and it is usually extrauterine. We report a case of 32 year old female who presented to us with right iliac fossa mass. On diagnostic laparoscopy, it was found to be Lithopaedion and the same was removed in toto through laparoscopic approach.
doi:10.1007/s12262-011-0313-7
PMCID: PMC3693287  PMID: 24426507
Lithopaedion; Fetus; Abdominal pregnancy; Laparoscopy
23.  Lingual Thyroid—Conservative Management or Surgery? A Case Report 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;75(Suppl 1):118-119.
A Lingual thyroid is relatively rare. Of all ectopic thyroids 90 % are found to be Lingual thyroids. We report a case of 32 year old female who presented to us with history of mass on back of the tongue with history of dysphagia.The clinical, biochemical and radioisotope scanning confirms the diagnosis of lingual thyroid with hypothyroidism. Patient was treated with levothyroxine. After treatment, Lingual thyroid reduced in size and patient improved symptomatically.
doi:10.1007/s12262-012-0518-4
PMCID: PMC3693310  PMID: 24426535
Lingual thyroid; Levothyroxine
24.  Predictable aesthetic outcome with immediate placement and early loading of one piece mini implant - A 5 year follow-up case report 
One piece mini implants are viable and predictable options to conventional implants in areas of deficit bone width. These can be placed without complex surgical augmentation procedures and are cost effective. Four mini implants were placed in a 40 year old female patient replacing her mobile mandibular anterior teeth. Provisional restoration was given after 2 weeks followed by individual ceramic crowns after 6 months. 5 year follow-up showed aesthetic soft tissue contours and successful osseointegration. One piece mini implants are viable treatment option in the aesthetic management of partial edentulism especially in the mandibular anterior region. How to cite the article: Mohan CS, Harinath P, Cholan PK, Kumar DL . Predictable aesthetic outcome with immediate placement and early loading of one piece mini implant - A 5 year follow-up case report. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):132-5.
PMCID: PMC4037757  PMID: 24876715
Early loading; immediate placement; one piece mini implants; osseointegration
25.  World Health Organization-Body Mass Index for Age Criteria as a Tool for Prediction of Childhood and Adolescent Morbidity: A Novel Approach in Southern Karnataka, India 
Background:
Health status of children and adolescents is determined to a larger extent by their nutritional status. There are no published studies available on the influence of thinness on childhood morbidity using new World Health Organization-body mass index (WHO-BMI) for age criteria.
Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary, high schools, pre-university and degree colleges at southern Karnataka for a period of 1 year.
Results:
Majority 6924 (53.6%) were in the age group of 15-19 years with the mean age of 14.2 ± 3.1 years. 6167 (47.7%) were males and 6749 (52.3%) were females. As per WHO growth standards for children between 5 and 19 years, taking BMI for age criteria into account, 9092 (70.4%) subjects were found to be normal, 3660 (28.3%) thin and 164 (1.3%) overweight/obesity. 8224 (63.7%) subjects were suffering from some sort of morbidities. Mean morbidities rank for subjects with thinness was found to be significantly higher compared with normal and overweight/obese subjects. Thinness was found to be the major predictor of morbidity age, sex and residing in rural areas.
Conclusions:
Magnitude of thinness among children and adolescents was 28.3%. BMI for age criteria was found to be a significant predictor of childhood and adolescent morbidity.
PMCID: PMC4085921  PMID: 25013688
Adolescent; body mass index for age criteria; childhood; morbidity; obese; overweight; thinness

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