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1.  Exploring the Feasibility of Combining Chronic Disease Patient Registry Data to Monitor the Status of Diabetes Care 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2008;5(4):A124.
Introduction
To provide direction and to support improvements in diabetes care, states must be able to measure the effectiveness of interventions and gain feedback on progress. We wanted to know if data from multiple health clinics that are implementing quality improvement strategies could be combined to provide useful measurements of diabetes care processes and control of intermediate outcomes.
Methods
We combined and analyzed electronic patient health data from clinic sites across Washington State that used the Chronic Disease Electronic Management System (CDEMS) registry. The data were used to determine whether national and state objectives for diabetes care were met. We calculated the percentage of patients that met standards of care in 2004.
Results
The pooled dataset included 17,349 adult patients with diabetes from 90 clinics. More than half of patients were above recommended target levels for hemoglobin A1c testing, foot examination, hemoglobin A1c control, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control. Fewer patients met recommendations for nephropathy assessment, eye examinations, and blood pressure control. In terms of meeting these standards, rates of diabetes care varied across clinics. CDEMS rates of care were compared with those reported by other data sources, but no consistent pattern of similarities or differences emerged.
Conclusion
With committed staff time, provider support, and resources, data from clinical information systems like CDEMS can be combined to address a deficiency in state-level diabetes surveillance and evaluation systems — specifically, the inability to capture clinical biometric values to measure intermediate health outcomes. These data can complement other surveillance and evaluation data sources to help provide a better picture of diabetes care in a state.
PMCID: PMC2578765  PMID: 18793512
2.  Development of the Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT) 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2005;3(1):A20.
Developing a Web-based tool that involves the input, buy-in, and collaboration of multiple stakeholders and contractors is a complex process. Several elements facilitated the development of the Web-based Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT). The DIDIT is designed to enhance the ability of staff within the state-based Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCPs) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to perform diabetes surveillance. It contains information on 38 diabetes indicators (measures of health or factors associated with health) and 12 national- and state-level data sources. Developing the DIDIT required one contractor to conduct research on content for diabetes indicators and data sources and another contractor to develop the Web-based application to house and manage the information. During 3 years, a work group composed of representatives from the DPCPs and the Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT) at the CDC guided the development process by 1) gathering information on and communicating the needs of users and their vision for the DIDIT, 2) reviewing and approving content, and 3) providing input into the design and system functions. Strong leadership and vision of the project lead, clear communication and collaboration among all team members, and a commitment from the management of the DDT were essential elements in developing and implementing the DIDIT. Expertise in diabetes surveillance and software development, enthusiasm, and dedication were also instrumental in developing the DIDIT.
PMCID: PMC1500969  PMID: 16356373
3.  Perceived Likelihood of Developing Diabetes Among High-Risk Oregonians 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2005;2(Spec No):A07.
Introduction
Prevention of diabetes in people at highest risk for developing the disease is an important public health opportunity, considering the disease's increasing prevalence, its devastating impact on health and its high economic cost, the availability of efficacious and cost-effective treatments to reduce complications, and recent evidence that it can be delayed or prevented with lifestyle interventions.
Methods
The Oregon Diabetes Prevention and Control Program collected and analyzed responses from a statewide telephone survey conducted in 2003 to determine whether Oregon adults at highest risk for diabetes 1) believed that they were at risk for developing diabetes in the future, 2) had talked with a health care professional about diabetes, and 3) had been tested for the disease. Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent associations of select characteristics with the study factors of interest.
Results
Even among respondents at highest risk for developing diabetes, at most one third reported being concerned about developing diabetes, one fifth reported having discussed their risk with a health professional in the previous year, and less than half reported having been tested for diabetes by a health provider in the previous year. After adjusting for multiple factors, we found that having a family history of diabetes was consistently associated with perceived risk of developing diabetes, discussion about diabetes with a health professional, and diabetes testing.
Conclusion
Many Oregon adults at high risk for developing diabetes are unconcerned about their risk for developing the disease, and few have discussed their risk of diabetes with a health professional. Findings from this study suggest the need for increased recognition of future diabetes risk by high-risk individuals and health professionals to help translate diabetes prevention into practice.
PMCID: PMC1459463  PMID: 16263040
4.  An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Surveillance Capacity of State-based Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs: The Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT) 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2005;2(3):A14.
The Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT) is an interactive Web-based resource with information on 38 diabetes indicators (e.g., diabetes-associated complications, care, lifestyle) and 12 associated data sources frequently used by state diabetes prevention and control programs. This tool is designed to strengthen the ability of states to conduct diabetes surveillance and to promote consistency in defining and tracking indicators across states. In this way, the DIDIT supports one of the 10 essential public health services: the timely and accurate assessment of public health.
In addition to serving as a central repository of information on diabetes surveillance, the DIDIT also allows users to share experiences of using these indicators and data sources in their diabetes surveillance activities, data analysis, and tracking of diabetes-related objectives stated by Healthy People 2010. The DIDIT is an innovative approach to enhancing public health surveillance at the state and national levels.
PMCID: PMC1364523  PMID: 15963316

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