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1.  Sex dimorphism in the association of cardiometabolic characteristics and osteophytes-defined radiographic knee osteoarthritis among obese and non-obese adults: NHANES III 
SUMMARY
Objective
To examine the relationship of knee osteoarthritis (OA) with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors by obesity status and gender.
Methods
Data from 1,066 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III participants (≥60 years of age) was used to examine relationships of osteophytes-defined radiographic knee OA and cardiovascular and metabolic measures. Analyses were considered among obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2] and non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) men and women.
Results
The prevalence of osteophytes-defined radiographic knee OA was 34%. Leptin levels and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a proxy measure of insulin resistance, were significantly associated with knee OA; those with knee OA had 35% higher HOMA-IR values and 52% higher leptin levels compared to those without knee OA. The magnitude of the association between HOMA-IR and knee OA was strongest among men, regardless of obesity status; odds ratios (ORs) for HOMA-IR were 34% greater among non-obese men (OR = 1.18) vs obese women (OR = 0.88). Among obese women, a 5-µg/L higher leptin was associated with nearly 30% higher odds of having knee OA (OR = 1.28). Among men, ORs for the association of leptin and knee OA were in the opposite direction.
Conclusions
Cardiometabolic dysfunction is related to osteophytes-defined radiographic knee OA prevalence and persists within subgroups defined by obesity status and gender. A sex dimorphism in the direction and magnitude of cardiometabolic risk factors with respect to knee OA was described including HOMA-IR being associated with OA prevalence among men while leptin levels were most important among women.
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2012.02.644
PMCID: PMC3595163  PMID: 22521953
Osteoarthritis; Obesity; Leptin; Insulin resistance; Sex; Epidemiology
2.  Twelve-month mental disorders in South Africa: prevalence, service use and demographic correlates in the population-based South African Stress and Health Study 
Psychological medicine  2007;38(2):211-220.
Background
South Africa’s history and current social conditions suggest that mental disorders are likely to be a major contributor to disease burden, but there has been no national study using standardized assessment tools.
Method
The South African Stress and Health Study was a nationally representative in-person psychiatric epidemiological survey of 4351 adults (aged ≥18 years) that was conducted as part of the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative between January 2002 and June 2004. Twelve-month prevalence and severity of DSM-IV disorders, treatment, and sociodemographic correlates were assessed with Version 3.0 of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0).
Results
The 12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV/CIDI disorder was 16.5%, with 26.2% of respondents with disorder classified as severe cases and an additional 31.1% as moderately severe cases. The most common disorders were agoraphobia (4.8 %), major depressive disorder (4.9%) and alcohol abuse or dependence (4.5 %). Twenty-eight percent of adults with a severe or moderately severe disorder received treatment compared to 24.4% of mild cases. Some 13.8% of persons with no disorder received treatment. Treatment was mostly provided by the general medical sector with few people receiving treatment from mental health providers.
Conclusions
Psychiatric disorders are much higher in South Africa than in Nigeria and there is a high level of unmet need among persons with severe and moderately severe disorders.
doi:10.1017/S0033291707001420
PMCID: PMC2718686  PMID: 17903333
Mental disorders; mental health services; South Africa
3.  Prevalence of Dementia in the United States: The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study 
Neuroepidemiology  2007;29(1-2):125-132.
Aim
To estimate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementias in the USA using a nationally representative sample.
Methods
The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study sample was composed of 856 individuals aged 71 years and older from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who were evaluated for dementia using a comprehensive in-home assessment. An expert consensus panel used this information to assign a diagnosis of normal cognition, cognitive impairment but not demented, or dementia (and dementia subtype). Using sampling weights derived from the HRS, we estimated the national prevalence of dementia, AD and vascular dementia by age and gender.
Results
The prevalence of dementia among individuals aged 71 and older was 13.9%, comprising about 3.4 million individuals in the USA in 2002. The corresponding values for AD were 9.7% and 2.4 million individuals. Dementia prevalence increased with age, from 5.0% of those aged 71–79 years to 37.4% of those aged 90 and older.
Conclusions
Dementia prevalence estimates from this first nationally representative population-based study of dementia in the USA to include subjects from all regions of the country can provide essential information for effective planning for the impending healthcare needs of the large and increasing number of individuals at risk for dementia as our population ages.
doi:10.1159/000109998
PMCID: PMC2705925  PMID: 17975326
Dementia; Aging; Epidemiology; Population-based research
4.  Prevalence of Dementia in the United States: The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study 
Neuroepidemiology  2007;29(1-2):125-132.
Aim
To estimate the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias in the USA using a nationally representative sample.
Methods
The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study sample was composed of 856 individuals aged 71 years and older from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who were evaluated for dementia using a comprehensive in-home assessment. An expert consensus panel used this information to assign a diagnosis of normal cognition, cognitive impairment but not demented, or dementia (and dementia subtype). Using sampling weights derived from the HRS, we estimated the national prevalence of dementia, AD and vascular dementia by age and gender.
Results
The prevalence of dementia among individuals aged 71 and older was 13.9%, comprising about 3.4 million individuals in the USA in 2002. The corresponding values for AD were 9.7% and 2.4 million individuals. Dementia prevalence increased with age, from 5.0% of those aged 71–79 years to 37.4% of those aged 90 and older.
Conclusions
Dementia prevalence estimates from this first nationally representative population-based study of dementia in the USA to include subjects from all regions of the country can provide essential information for effective planning for the impending healthcare needs of the large and increasing number of individuals at risk for dementia as our population ages.
doi:10.1159/000109998
PMCID: PMC2705925  PMID: 17975326
Dementia; Aging; Epidemiology; Population-based research

Results 1-4 (4)