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1.  Male reproductive health under threat: Short term exposure to radiofrequency radiations emitted by common mobile jammers 
Modern life prompted man to increasingly generate, transmit and use electricity that leads to exposure to different levels of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to common sources of EMF such as mobile phones, laptops or wireless internet-connected laptops decreases human semen quality. In some countries, mobile jammers are occasionally used in offices, shrines, conference rooms and cinemas to block the signal.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of short term exposure of human sperm samples to radiofrequency (RF) radiations emitted by common mobile jammers.
Fresh semen samples were collected by masturbation from 30 healthy donors who had referred to Infertility Treatment Center at the Mother and Child Hospital with their wives. Female problem was diagnosed as the reason for infertility in these couples.
T-test and analysis of variance were used to show statistical significance.
The motility of sperm samples exposed to jammer RF radiation for 2 or 4 h were significantly lower than those of sham-exposed samples. These findings lead us to the conclusion that mobile jammers may significantly decrease sperm motility and the couples’ chances of conception.
Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places.
PMCID: PMC3778601  PMID: 24082653
Electromagnetic fields; male reproductive health; microwave; mobile jammers; radiofrequency; sperm motility
2.  Aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: safety and absolute benefit related to coronary risk derived from meta-analysis of randomised trials 
Heart  2001;85(3):265-271.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the cardiovascular and coronary risk thresholds at which aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease is safe and worthwhile.
DESIGN—Meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials of aspirin for primary prevention. The benefit and harm from aspirin treatment were examined to determine: (1) the cardiovascular and coronary risk threshold at which benefit in prevention of myocardial infarction exceeds harm from significant bleeding; and (2) the absolute benefit expressed as number needed to treat (NNT) for aspirin net of cerebral haemorrhage and other bleeding complications at different levels of coronary risk.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Benefit from aspirin, expressed as reduction in cardiovascular events, myocardial infarctions, strokes, and total mortality; harm caused by aspirin in relation to significant bleeds and major haemorrhages.
RESULTS—Aspirin for primary prevention significantly reduced all cardiovascular events by 15% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6% to 22%) and myocardial infarctions by 30% (95% CI 21% to 38%), and non-significantly reduced all deaths by 6% (95% CI −4% to 15%). Aspirin non-significantly increased strokes by 6% (95% CI −24% to 9%) and significantly increased bleeding complications by 69% (95% CI 38% to 107%). The risk of major bleeding balanced the reduction in cardiovascular events when cardiovascular event risk was 0.22%/year. The upper 95% CI for this estimate suggests that harm from aspirin is unlikely to outweigh benefit provided the cardiovascular event risk is 0.8%/year, equivalent to a coronary risk of 0.6%/year. At coronary event risk 1.5%/year, the five year NNT was 44 to prevent a myocardial infarction, and 77 to prevent a myocardial infarction net of any important bleeding complication. At coronary event risk 1%/year the NNT was 67 to prevent a myocardial infarction, and 182 to prevent a myocardial infarction net of important bleeding.
CONCLUSIONS—Aspirin treatment for primary prevention is safe and worthwhile at coronary event risk ⩾ 1.5%/year; safe but of limited value at coronary risk 1%/year; and unsafe at coronary event risk 0.5%/year. Advice on aspirin for primary prevention requires formal accurate estimation of absolute coronary event risk.

Keywords: aspirin; coronary heart disease; primary prevention; meta-analysis
PMCID: PMC1729640  PMID: 11179262
3.  Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Voriconazole following Intravenous- to Oral-Dose Escalation Regimens 
In this study, the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous (i.v.)- to oral-dose regimens of voriconazole were evaluated with a group of 42 healthy men, 41 of whom completed the study. Two cohorts of subjects participated in the study. Cohort 1 (n = 28) took part in two study periods, each consisting of 14 days separated by a minimum 7-day washout. In one of the periods, 14 subjects received 6 mg/kg i.v. twice a day (b.i.d.) on day 1 followed by 3 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on days 2 to 7 and were then switched to 200 mg orally b.i.d. for days 8 to 14. In the other period, subjects received 6 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on day 1 followed by 5 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on days 2 to 7and were then switched to 400 mg orally b.i.d. for days 8 to 14. The remaining 14 subjects in cohort 1 received a matching placebo throughout the study. In cohort 2 (n = 14), 7 subjects received 6 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on day 1 followed by 4 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on days 2 to 7 and were then switched to 300 mg orally b.i.d. for days 8 to 14. The remaining seven subjects in cohort 2 received a matching placebo. Blood samples were taken prior to dosing on days 1 to 6 and on days 8 to 13. Blood samples were drawn prior to dosing and at frequent intervals up to 12 h following the morning dose on days 7 and 14 of each study period. The samples were assayed for voriconazole by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) occurred at the end of the 1-h i.v. infusion and between 1.4 and 1.8 h after oral administration. Voriconazole exhibited nonlinear pharmacokinetics, possibly due to saturable metabolism. For cohort 1, both Cmax and the area under the concentration-time curve within a dosage interval (AUCτ) increased disproportionately with dose for both i.v. and oral dosing. For i.v. dosing, a 1.7-fold increase in dose resulted in 2.4- and 3.1-fold increases in Cmax and AUCτ, respectively. Similarly, a 2-fold increase in oral dosing resulted in 2.8- and 3.9-fold increases in Cmax and AUCτ, respectively. The mean values for Cmax observed following oral dosing were lower than those obtained after i.v. administration, ranging from 62.7 to 89.6% of the i.v. value. After the switch from i.v. to oral dosing, most subjects achieved steady state by day 4, and mean minimum concentrations in plasma remained above clinically important MICs. The pharmacokinetic profiles for saliva followed a pattern similar to those observed for plasma; there was a highly significant correlation between plasma and saliva voriconazole concentrations (P < 0.0001). Voriconazole was well tolerated; the most commonly reported adverse events in voriconazole-treated subjects were mild to moderate headache, rash, and abnormal vision. Visual function tests detected no further abnormalities during voriconazole treatment.
PMCID: PMC127341  PMID: 12121931

Results 1-3 (3)