This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha × piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
This was a randomised, double-blind clinical trial study. Prior to the study, patients were randomly assigned into four groups to receive M. spicata or M. × piperita. Statistical analysis included the χ2 test, relative risk, and Student’s t-test. Fifty courses were analysed for each group that met our eligibility criteria. The treatment and placebo groups applied essential oils of M. spicata, M. × piperita, or a placebo, while the control group continued with their previous antiemetic regimen. Patients or guardians recorded the number of emetic events, the intensity of nausea over 20 h of chemotherapy, as well as any possible adverse effects that occurred during this time.
There was a significant reduction in the intensity and number of emetic events in the first 24 h with M. spicata and M. × piperita in both treatment groups (p < 0.05) when compared with the control and no adverse effects were reported. The cost of treatment was also reduced when essential oils were used.
M. spicata or M. × piperita essential oils are safe and effective for antiemetic treatment in patients, as well as being cost effective.
chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV); essential oils; Mentha spicata; Mentha × piperita; Lamiaceae
In spite of dozens of clinical trials to establish effective therapeutic and/or preventive vaccine to resolve HCV infection, no real vaccine has been proved to date. Genetic vaccines based on replication-defective adenoviruses have proved to elicit strong and long lasting T-cell responses against a number of viral antigens and are even currently being used for vaccine trials in humans. According to the controversy in the immune modulatory effects of both core and NS3 full length genes, it seemed more practical to employ some parts of these HCV proteins for vaccine design.
To generate recombinant Adenoviral vectors containing new overlapping-truncated region of NS3 gene or both the N- and C-terminal deleted parts of core gene, as well as a fusion fragment derived from both of them.
Materials and Methods
The corresponding transfer vectors expressing truncated fragments of core, NS3 or a fusion fragment of both genes were prepared. The integrity and sequence of the transfer vectors were confirmed, and followed by experiments involving homologous recombination between them and the adenovirus backbone plasmid in the bacterial host. Recombinant Ad-pNS3, Ad-pCore and Ad-pNS3pCore viruses were prepared by transfection of these new recombined constructs into 293 packaging cell lines. The virus titer was then calculated by an immunohistochemistry based method. The RT-PCR, Real-Time PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate gene expression by all recombinant constructs. The production of complete virion particles was evaluated by detailed electron microscopy in addition to the appearance of typical cytopathic effects (CPE) and GFP expression patterns in 293 cells. The RT-PCR and GFP detection were employed to monitor the integrity as well as infectivity potency of the viral particles in Hep-G2 cells.
RT-PCR, Real-Time PCR or western blotting confirmed expression of truncated fragment of NS3, core or a fusion fragment of theirs by newly constructed Ad-pNS3, Ad-pCore, Ad- pNS3pCore particles. Electron microscopy, which revealed many adenovirus-like particles and characteristics of CPE in infected cells in addition to GFP detection, confirmed the infectivity, potency and integrity of recombinant adenoviral particles.
These adenoviruses expressing novel fragments of NS3 and core genes may be suitable tools to overcome shortcomings associated with full gene expression in the setting of HCV vaccine therapy.
Vaccines; Genetic Vector; Genes
Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder experienced by up to 50% of women during reproductive age. The prevalence of severe form of PMS (PMDD) is 3% to 8 %. Psychiatric disorders in PMS patients have resulted in significant morbidity and in some cases caused resistance to the treatment process.
Material and Method
390 participants (264 with PMS/PMDD, and 126 healthy students of University of Guilan) who completed the demographic questionnaire, daily symptom rating (DSR) and the checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R) took part in this study. This study was conducted using a cross sectional method.
According to repeated measure variance, the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity) in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p< 0/05), and increase in severity of PMS from mild to severe was accompanied by increase in mean score of these subscales. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle. Significant effect of the DSR grouping (PMS and Healthy group) and time interaction emerged in interpersonal sensitivity and aggression, significant effect on the DSR grouping (Mild, Moderate, Severer) and time interaction demonstrated in interpersonal sensitivity.
Patients with prospective confirmed PMDD seemed to suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, recognizing co-morbid psychiatric symptoms in patients with PMDD is of prime importance. All healthcare providers should be sensitive to mental status of women with PMS.
Premenstrual syndrome; Psychiatric symptoms; Severity of illness
The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in the general population. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of IBS and describe the associated factors including demographic, life style and health-seeking behaviors in Shiraz city, southern Iran.
From April to September 2004, 1978 subjects aged > 35 years old completed a validated and reliable questionnaire on IBS.
The prevalence rate of IBS was 10.9%, higher in females, in 35-44 years old age group and among subjects eating fast food (14.1%) but was lower in those taking more fruits and vegetables (10.5%). The occurrence of anxiety, nightmare and restlessness was also significantly higher in subjects with IBS. It had an association with psychological distress and recurrent headaches but not with drinking tea/coffee, smoking or physical activity.
In our area, IBS was correlated with gender, age, psychological distress, recurrent headaches and consumption of fast foods that necessitate health planning programs by health policy makers.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Prevalence; Demography; Life Style; Health Behavior
The use of administrative databases to perform epidemiological studies in asthma has increased in recent years. The absence of clinical parameters to measure the level of asthma severity and control is a major limitation of database studies. A study was undertaken to develop and validate two database indexes to measure the control and severity of asthma.
Database indexes of asthma severity and control were derived from definitions in the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines based on dispensed prescriptions and on medical services recorded in two large administrative databases from the Canadian province of Québec (Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ) and MED‐ECHO) over 12 months. The database indexes of asthma severity and control were validated against the pulmonary function test results of 71 patients with asthma randomly selected from two asthma clinics, and they were also applied to a cohort of patients with asthma followed up for 139 283 person‐years selected from the RAMQ and MED‐ECHO databases between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2004.
According to the database indexes, 49.3%, 29.6% and 21.1% of patients recruited at the asthma clinics were found to have mild, moderate and severe asthma, respectively, while 53.5% were found to have controlled asthma. The mean predicted value of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ranged from 89.8% for mild asthma to 61.5% for severe asthma (p<0.001), whereas the range from controlled to uncontrolled asthma was 89.5% to 67.3% (p<0.001). The ratio of the FEV1 to the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC ratio) measured in 56 patients ranged from 75.8% for mild asthma to 61.8% for severe asthma (p = 0.030), whereas the range from controlled to uncontrolled asthma was 75.3% to 65.7% (p<0.001).
In the absence of clinical data, these database indexes could be used in epidemiological studies to assess the severity and control of asthma.
Mutations and promoters' methylation of a set of candidate cancer genes (CAN genes) are associated with progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that these genes' promoters are inactivated through epigenetic silencing and may show a different profile in high-risk populations. We investigated the status of CAN gene methylation and CHD5 protein expression in African American CRC tissue microarrays (TMA) using immunohistochemical staining.
The promoter methylation status of the CAN genes was studied by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in 51 Iranians (a white population) and 51 African Americans (AA). Microsatellite instability (MSI) was analyzed as well. The differential frequency of methylation for each gene was tested by chi-square analysis between the two groups based on matched age and sex. CHD5 protein expression was evaluated in moderate to well differentiated and poorly differentiated carcinomas compared to matched normal tissue using TMA. In addition, the correlation between these epigenetic biomarkers and various clinicopathological factors, including, age, location, and stage of the disease were analyzed.
Seventy-seven and 34% of tumors were distal in Iranian and African American patients, respectively. In both populations, the percentage of methylation was >65% for SYNE1, MMP2, APC2, GPNMB, EVL, PTPRD, and STARD8, whereas methylation was <50% for LGR6, RET, CD109, and RNF. The difference in methylation between the two populations was statistically significant for CHD5, ICAM5 and GPNMB. Thirty-one percent AA tumors showed MSI-H, compared to 28% in Iranians.
A significantly higher methylation rate was found for GPNMB, ICAM5, and CHD5 genes in AA patients compared to Iranians. These genes might play a role in the high incidence and aggressiveness of CRC in the AA population. The hypermethylation of the CAN genes can be considered as a marker of colon carcinogenesis.
AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in Qashqai migrating nomads with a different life style in Fars province, southern Iran.
METHODS: In summer 2006, 748 Qashqai migrating nomads aged 25 years or more were enrolled using a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. A questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, lifestyle and GERD symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, dysphagia, hoarseness and cough) as completed for each subject.
RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed in 717 subjects. The prevalence rate of GERD, defined as reflux occurring at least one time per week in the preceding year, was 33% (237 subjects). The prevalence was higher in older individuals (36.0% vs 28.9%, P < 0.05) and in those with other gastrointestinal complaints (51.0% vs 27.8%, P < 0.001), but not different in obese and non-obese subjects. It was also higher in those consuming fruits and vegetables more than once a week (36.2% vs 17.3%, P < 0.001). GERD had a positive correlation with smoking (42.1% vs 27.8%, P < 0.001), but a negative relation with non-alcoholic beverages. The association between GERD and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) consumption was also significant (40.2% vs 25.4%, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of GERD (33%) is very high in Qashqai migrating nomads which may be due to a lower socioeconomic and educational level of these people and difference in the life style. Older age, frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking and NSAIDs are risk factors for GERD in this population.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Preva-lence; Risk factors; Nomads; Iran
In the title compound, (C4H14N2)[Cd(C7H3NO4)2]·2H2O, the CdII ion is coordinated by four O atoms [Cd—O = 2.2399 (17)–2.2493 (17) Å] and two N atoms [Cd—N = 2.3113 (15) and 2.3917 (15) Å] from two tridentate pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylato ligands in a distorted octahedral geometry. The uncoordinated water molecules are involved in O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure, along with π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances of 3.5313 (13) and 3.6028 (11) Å between the pyridine rings of neighbouring dianions].
AIM: To study halothane hepatitis (HH) in Iran and its associated risk factors.
METHODS: We retrospectively studied files of all cases diagnosed with HH referred to three referral hospitals and four private centers in Iran from April 1994 to September 2006. Information on age at surgery, gender, medications history, obesity, history of previous exposure, previous reaction to halothane, familial history, type of surgery, perioperative hypoxia or sepsis, morbidity and mortality were recorded and analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 59 cases were identified. Forty-eight (81%) were women. The median age at the time of surgery was 44 years (range, 18 to 80 years). Sixty percent of patients were above 40-year-old. Obesity was observed in 22.2%. Previous history of exposures to halothane was noted in 61% of which 50% had history of post-exposure reaction. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), cholecystectomy, and cosmetic surgeries (mainly weight reduction) were the most frequent surgeries. The mortality rate was 12.2%. In patients developing encephalopathy, it was as high as 50%.
CONCLUSION: HH remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in centers still using this anesthetic. However, a large percentage of these cases could have been avoided. To lessen occurrence of further cases of HH, the authors suggest that in female patients having a history of surgery (or delivery) with general anesthesia, the use of halothane should be absolutely avoided. Utilization of proper substitutes in adults’ anesthesia is advocated.
Anesthesia; Inhalation; Halothane; Hepatitis; Drug-induced
The reaction of chromium(III) nitrate hexahydrate, pyridine-2,6-diamine and 4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid in a 1:2:2 molar ratio in aqueous solution resulted in the formation of the title compound, (C5H8N3)[Cr(C7H3NO5)2]·2H2O or (pydaH)[Cr(hypydc)2]·2H2O (where pyda is pyridine-2,6-diamine and hypydcH2 is 4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid). Each CrIII atom is hexacoordinated by four O and two N atoms from two (hypydc)2− fragments, which act as tridentate ligands, in a distorted octahedral geometry. The O—Cr—O—C torsion angles between the two planes of the (hypydc)2− fragments [−99.81 (17) and 97.77 (17)°] indicate that these two units are almost perpendicular to one another. In the crystal structure, extensive O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with D⋯A distances ranging from 2.560 (2) to 3.279 (3) Å, ion pairing, C—O⋯π [O⋯π = 3.166 (2) Å] and π–π stacking interactions between (hypydc)2− and (pydaH)+ rings [with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.3353 (14) Å] contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.
We have identified an alternative pathway of tumorigenesis in sporadic colon cancer, involving microsatellite instability due to mismatched repair methylation, which may be driven by mutations in the BRAF gene (V600E). Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer in the world, and African Americans show a higher incidence than other populations in the United States. We analyzed sporadic CRCs in Omani (of African origin, N = 61), Iranian (of Caucasian origin, N = 53) and African American (N = 95) patients for microsatellite instability, expression status of mismatched repair genes (hMLH1, hMSH2) and presence of the BRAF (V600E) mutation. In the Omani group, all tumors with BRAF mutations were located in the left side of the colon, and for African Americans, 88%  of tumors with BRAF mutations were found in the right side of the colon. In African Americans, 31% of tumors displayed microsatellite instability at two or more markers (MSI-H), while this rate was 26% and 13% for tumors in the Iranian and Omani groups, respectively. A majority of these MSI-H tumors were located in the proximal colon (right side) in African American and Iranian subjects, whereas most were located in the distal colon (left side) in Omani subjects. Defects in hMLH1 gene expression were found in 77% of MSI-H tumors in both African Americans and Iranians and in 38% of tumors in Omanis. BRAF mutations were observed in all subjects: 10% of tumors in African Americans (8/82), 2% of tumors in Iranians (1/53), and 19% of tumors in Omanis (11/59). Our findings suggest that CRC occurs at a younger age in Omani and Iranian patients, and these groups showed a lower occurrence of MSI-H than did African American patients. Our multivariate model suggests an important and significant role of hMLH1 expression and BRAF mutation in MSI-H CRC in these populations. The high occurrence of MSI-H tumors in African Americans may have significant implications for treatment, since patients with MSI-H lesions display a different response to chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-fluorouracil.
Background: Twenty four hour oesophageal pH monitoring is frequently used to quantify the association between a patient’s symptom and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Three indices (symptom association probability (SAP), symptom index (SI), and symptom sensitivity index (SSI)) are used to quantify and establish this relation.
Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare these indices against the omeprazole test (OT) as an objective indicator of reflux induced symptoms.
Methods: Fifty two patients with a predominant symptom of heartburn were enrolled from gastroenterology and primary care clinics. Baseline symptom score was calculated at the fist visit. All patients underwent 24 hour oesophageal pH monitoring, and symptom-reflux association indices were calculated. All patients were placed on high dose omeprazole (40 mg in the morning, 20 mg at night) after completion of pH monitoring and symptom score was recorded again after one week.
Results: Thirty eight patients completed the study. All three indices were significantly related to each other (p<0.001). SAP and SSI (with a new cut off of 1.3, but not with the commonly used 5%) had statistically significant relations with OT (p<0.05 for both). SSI had the highest positive and negative predictive values and sensitivity. The specificity of SSI and SAP was equal and lower than SI. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the three indices were not significantly different from each other or from a hypothetical non-discriminating test. Per cent time pH <4, sex, and age had no relation to OT and no effect on its correlation with association indices. No cut off point could be found at which the results of SI could be related significantly to the OT results.
Conclusion: SAP and SSI are significantly related to symptomatic response to high dose omeprazole; however, they are far from perfect, with a significant number of discordant cases as well as relatively small areas under the ROC curves. We suggest that the new cut off of 1.3 be used for SSI in the future. Further research is needed to identify possible methods to improve the discrimination power of these indices or to identify possible patient characteristics that may affect this relation.
gastro-oesophageal reflux; heartburn; symptom index; symptom association probability; symptom sensitivity index
AIM: To evaluate joint effects of Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotypes, and serum folate/vitamin B12 concentrations on promoter methylation of tumor-associated genes among Iranian colorectal cancer patients.
METHODS: We examined the associations between MTHFR C677T genotype, and promoter methylation of P16, hMLH1, and hMSH2 tumor-related genes among 151 sporadic colorectal cancer patients. The promoter methylation of tumor-related genes was determined by methylation-specific PCR. Eighty six patients from whom fresh tumor samples were obtained and 81 controls were also examined for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations by a commercial radioimmunoassay kit.
RESULTS: We found 29.1% of cases had tumors with at least one methylated gene promoter. In case-case comparison, we did not find a significant association between methylation in tumors and any single genotype. However, in comparison to controls with the CC genotype, an increased risk of tumor methylation was associated with the CT genotype (OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.6). In case-case comparisons, folate/vitamin B12 levels were positively associated with tumor methylation. Adjusted odds ratios for tumor methylation in cases with high (above median) versus low (below median) serum folate/vitamin B12 levels were 4.9 (95% CI, 1.4-17.7), and 3.9 (95% CI, 1.1-13.9), respectively. The frequency of methylated tumors was significantly higher in high methyl donor than low methyl donor group, especially in those with MTHFR CT (P = 0.01), and CT/TT (P = 0.002) genotypes, but not in those with the CC genotype (P = 1.0).
CONCLUSION: We conclude that high concentrations of serum folate/vitamin B12 levels are associated with the risk of promoter methylation in tumor-specific genes, and this relationship is modified by MTHFR C677T genotypes.
Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase; Folate; Vitamin B12; Methylation; Colorectal cancer
In the title compound, (C4H14N2)[Cu(C7H3NO4)2]·3H2O or (bdaH2)[Cu(pydc)2]·3H2O (where bda is butane-1,4-diamine and pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid), the CuII atom is coordinated by four O atoms [Cu—O = 2.0557 (16)–2.3194 (16) Å] and two N atoms [Cu—N = 1.9185 (18) and 1.9638 (18) Å] from two chelating rings of the pydc2− anions, which act as tridentate ligands. The geometry of the resulting CuN2O4 coordination can be described as distorted octahedral. The the two pydc2− fragments are almost perpendicular to one another [77.51 (11)°]. To balance the charges, two centrosymmetric protonated butane-1,4-diammonium, (bdaH2)2+ cations are present. In the crystal structure, extensive O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds [D⋯A = 2.720 (2)–3.446 (3) Å], ion pairing, C—O⋯π [O⋯π = 3.099 (2) Å] and π–π stacking interactions between the pydc2− rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5334 (15) Å] contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.
Objectives: To define physiological upper limits of left ventricular (LV) cavity size in trained adolescent athletes.
Design: Cross sectional echocardiographic study.
Setting: British national sports training grounds and Olympic Medical Institute.
Subjects: 900 elite adolescent athletes (77% boys) aged 15.7 (1.2) years participating in ball, racket, and endurance sports and 250 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and size.
Main outcome measures: LV end diastolic cavity size.
Results: Compared with controls, athletes had a larger LV cavity (50.8 (3.7) v 47.9 (3.5) mm), a difference of 6%. The LV cavity was > 54 mm in 18% athletes, whereas none of the controls had an LV cavity > 54 mm. The LV cavity exceeded predicted sizes in 117 (13%) athletes. Among the athletes with LV dilatation, 78% were boys, LV size ranged from 52–60 mm, and left atrial diameter and LV wall thickness were enlarged. Systolic and diastolic function were normal. None of the athletes in the study had an LV cavity size > 60 mm. LV cavity size correlated with age, sex, heart rate, and body surface area.
Conclusion: Highly trained junior athletes usually have only modest increases in LV cavity size. A proportion of trained adolescent athletes have LV cavity size exceeding predicted values but, in absolute terms, LV cavity rarely exceeds 60 mm as in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. In highly trained adolescent athletes with an LV cavity size > 60 mm and any impairment of systolic or diastolic function, the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy should be considered.
adolescent; elite athlete; athlete’s heart; cardiomyopathy; ventricular cavity dilatation
biventricular pacing, Doppler; heart failure; shortening fraction
Objectives: To determine whether pregnancy is well tolerated in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Setting: Referral clinic.
Design: The study cohort comprised 127 consecutively referred women with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Forty (31.5%) underwent clinical evaluation before pregnancy. The remaining 87 (68.5%) were referred after their first pregnancy. All underwent history, examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Pregnancy related symptoms and complications were determined by questionnaire and review of medical and obstetric records where available.
Results: There were 271 pregnancies in total. Thirty six (28.3%) women reported cardiac symptoms in pregnancy. Over 90% of these women had been symptomatic before pregnancy. Symptoms deteriorated during pregnancy in fewer than 10%. Of the 36 women with symptoms during pregnancy, 30 had further pregnancies. Symptoms reoccurred in 18 (60%); symptomatic deterioration was not reported. Heart failure occurred postnatally in two women (1.6%). No complications were reported in 19 (15%) women who underwent general anaesthesia and in 22 (17.4%) women who received epidural anaesthesia, three of whom had a significant left ventricular outflow tract gradient at diagnosis after pregnancy. Three unexplained intrauterine deaths occurred in women taking cardiac medication throughout pregnancy. No echocardiographic or clinical feature was a useful indicator of pregnancy related complications.
Conclusions: Most women with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy tolerate pregnancy well. However, rare complications can occur and therefore planned delivery and fetal monitoring are still required for some patients.
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; pregnancy; complications
The majority of sudden deaths in young athletes occur in the context of underlying inherited or genetic cardiac disorders. The evaluation of every athlete regarding underlying cardiac disease is impractical and therefore needs to be targeted at those who are at a higher risk. A practical approach would be to channel efforts towards athletes with cardiac symptoms, those with a family history of inherited cardiac disease, and those with a family history of premature sudden death. There are potential pitfalls in the evaluation of young athletes using non-invasive tests when making the distinction between physiological adaptations to exercise and cardiac pathology. Physicians evaluating young athletes need to be aware of the spectrum of physiological adaptations and to be familiar with conditions responsible for sudden death in this population.
young athlete; sudden death; cardiovascular evaluation; competitive sports; cardiomyopathy
Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) are progressive disorder which has a significant impact on the well-being of patients and leads to significant morbidity. CLDs are characterized by disturbances in physical, psychological and social aspects of well-being. It causes significant health-related quality of life (QOL) impairment. Psycho-educational interventions targeting to functional factors could be beneficial for patients with CLDs.
An interventional study was conducted on 110 patients with CLDs in Shiraz Liver Transplantation Center (SLTC). Subjects with the required CLDs criteria were selected and randomly divided into experimental (55) and control (55) groups. A two part questionnaire with 25 items concerning demographic and general information and 29 items regarding QOL was used. The psycho-educational needs of the experimental group were assessed in a session before the intervention, then the experimental group took part in 3 sessions individually and one session in groups. The questionnaires were filled in again for both groups but the control group did not receive the intervention program. The questionnaires were filled in again for both groups one day and three months after the intervention.
Findings revealed no significant differences between the two groups from the view point of demographic characteristics such as marital status, gender, etc... (p > 0.05) and from the point of clinical variables no statistically significant differences were found (p > 0.05).
Findings revealed statistically significant differences in all domain of QOL in the experimental group three months after the intervention (p = 0.001), while there was no statistically significant differences in the control group.
The results of this study revealed that psycho-educational intervention had a significant effect on QOL of patients with CLDs.