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author:("despierres, I")
1.  Neurodegeneration associated with genetic defects in phospholipase A2 
Neurology  2008;71(18):1402-1409.
Objective:
Mutations in the gene encoding phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6) are associated with two childhood neurologic disorders: infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) and idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). INAD is a severe progressive psychomotor disorder in which axonal spheroids are found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. High globus pallidus iron is an inconsistent feature of INAD; however, it is a diagnostic criterion of NBIA, which describes a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that share this hallmark feature. We sought to delineate the clinical, radiographic, pathologic, and genetic features of disease resulting from defective phospholipase A2.
Methods:
We identified 56 patients clinically diagnosed with INAD and 23 with idiopathic NBIA and screened their DNA for PLA2G6 mutations.
Results:
Eighty percent of patients with INAD had mutations in PLA2G6, whereas mutations were found in only 20% of those with idiopathic NBIA. All patients with two null mutations had a more severe phenotype. On MRI, nearly all mutation-positive patients had cerebellar atrophy, and half showed brain iron accumulation. We observed Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles in association with PLA2G6 mutations.
Conclusion:
Defects in phospholipase A2 lead to a range of phenotypes. PLA2G6 mutations are associated with nearly all cases of classic infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy but a minority of cases of idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, and genotype correlates with phenotype. Cerebellar atrophy predicts which patients are likely to be mutation-positive. The neuropathologic changes that are caused by defective phospholipase A2 suggest a shared pathogenesis with both Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases.
GLOSSARY
= infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy;
= idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation;
= pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000327094.67726.28
PMCID: PMC2676964  PMID: 18799783
2.  A second locus for Aicardi‐Goutières syndrome at chromosome 13q14–21 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2005;43(5):444-450.
Background
Aicardi‐Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an autosomal recessive, early onset encephalopathy characterised by calcification of the basal ganglia, chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis, and negative serological investigations for common prenatal infections. AGS may result from a perturbation of interferon α metabolism. The disorder is genetically heterogeneous with approximately 50% of families mapping to the first known locus at 3p21 (AGS1).
Methods
A genome‐wide scan was performed in 10 families with a clinical diagnosis of AGS in whom linkage to AGS1 had been excluded. Higher density genotyping in regions of interest was also undertaken using the 10 mapping pedigrees and seven additional AGS families.
Results
Our results demonstrate significant linkage to a second AGS locus (AGS2) at chromosome 13q14–21 with a maximum multipoint heterogeneity logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 5.75 at D13S768. The AGS2 locus lies within a 4.7 cM region as defined by a 1 LOD‐unit support interval.
Conclusions
We have identified a second AGS disease locus and at least one further locus. As in a number of other conditions, genetic heterogeneity represents a significant obstacle to gene identification in AGS. The localisation of AGS2 represents an important step in this process.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2005.031880
PMCID: PMC2649012  PMID: 15908569
AGS2; Aicardi‐Goutières syndrome; interferon α; intracranial calcification; 13q14–21
3.  Dominant X linked subcortical laminar heterotopia and lissencephaly syndrome (XSCLH/LIS): evidence for the occurrence of mutation in males and mapping of a potential locus in Xq22. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1997;34(3):177-183.
X linked subcortical laminar heterotopia and lissencephaly syndrome (XSCLH/ LIS) is an intriguing disorder of cortical development, which causes classical lissencephaly with severe mental retardation and epilepsy in hemizygous males, and subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH) associated with milder mental retardation and epilepsy in heterozygous females. Here we report an exclusion mapping study carried out in three unrelated previously described families in which males are affected with lissencephaly and females with SCLH, using 38 microsatellite markers evenly distributed on the X chromosome. Most of the X chromosome was excluded and potential intervals of assignment in Xq22.3-q23 or in Xq27 are reported. Although the number of informative meioses did not allow a decision between these two loci, it is worth noting that the former interval is compatible with the mapping of a breakpoint involved in a de novo X;autosomal balanced translocation 46,XX,t(X;2)(q22;p25) previously described in a female with classical lissencephaly. In addition, haplotype inheritance in two families showed a grandpaternal origin of the mutation and suggested in one family the presence of mosaicism in germline cells of normal transmitting males.
Images
PMCID: PMC1050888  PMID: 9132485
4.  A duplication of distal Xp associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, hypoplastic external genitalia, mental retardation, and multiple congenital abnormalities. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1996;33(9):767-771.
An unusual familial case of three sibs with a partial duplication of distal Xp sequences is described. The proband, an 18 year old boy, showed mental retardation, severe dysmorphic features, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HHG), and hypoplastic external genitalia. His karyotype was 46,Y,inv dup(X) (p22.11-->p 22.32). The proband has two sisters each with the same inv dup(Xp) chromosome. Both sisters presented with short stature but were otherwise phenotypically normal. The abnormal X chromosome was inactive in the majority of cells examined. Southern blot dosage analysis indicated a duplication of distal Xp sequences. The proximal breakpoint is located between DXS28 and DXS41, and is therefore at least 2 Mb distal to the DSS locus. The relationship between the phenotype and the Xp duplication is discussed.
Images
PMCID: PMC1050733  PMID: 8880579

Results 1-4 (4)