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author:("carrect, C.")
1.  The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi 
Nature  2008;455(7214):799-803.
Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the ‘kra’ monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia1,2. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated3, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax​4, the second most important species of human malaria parasite (reviewed in ref. 4). Despite their relatedness, there are important phenotypic differences between them, such as host blood cell preference, absence of a dormant liver stage or ‘hypnozoite’ in P. knowlesi, and length of the asexual cycle (reviewed in ref. 4). Here we present an analysis of the P. knowlesi (H strain, Pk1(A+) clone5) nuclear genome sequence. This is the first monkey malaria parasite genome to be described, and it provides an opportunity for comparison with the recently completed P. vivax genome4 and other sequenced Plasmodium genomes6-8. In contrast to other Plasmodium genomes, putative variant antigen families are dispersed throughout the genome and are associated with intrachromosomal telomere repeats. One of these families, the KIRs9, contains sequences that collectively match over one-half of the host CD99 extracellular domain, which may represent an unusual form of molecular mimicry.
doi:10.1038/nature07306
PMCID: PMC2656934  PMID: 18843368
2.  Antibodies Raised against Bcvir15, an Extrachromosomal Double-Stranded RNA-Encoded Protein from Babesia canis, Inhibit the In Vitro Growth of the Parasite  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(3):1056-1067.
As part of a search for homologous members of the Plasmodium falciparum Pf60 multigene family in the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia canis, we report here the characterization of a cDNA of 1,115 bp, which was designated Bcvir for its potential viral origin. The Bcvir cDNA contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) (ORF1 from nucleotide [nt] 61 to 486 and ORF2 from nt 417 to 919), where Bcvir15, the deduced ORF1 peptide (M1 to I141), is the main expressed product. The Bcvir cDNA was derived from an extrachromosomal dsRNA element of 1.2 kbp that was always found associated with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of 2.8 kbp by hybridization, and no copy of this cDNA sequence was found in B. canis genomic DNA. Biochemical characterization of Bcvir15, by using polyclonal rabbit sera directed against recombinant proteins, indicated that it is a soluble protein which remained associated with the cytoplasm of the B. canis merozoite. Interestingly, purified immunoglobulins from the anti-glutathione S-transferase-Bcvir15 (at a concentration of 160 μg/ml) induced 50% inhibition of the in vitro growth of B. canis, and the inhibitory effect was associated with morphological damage of the parasite. Our data suggest that the extrachromosomal dsRNA-encoded Bcvir15 protein might interfere with the intracellular growth of the parasite rather than with the process of invasion of the host cell by the merozoite. Epitope mapping of Bcvir15 identified three epitopes that might be essential for the function of the protein.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.3.1056-1067.2003
PMCID: PMC148844  PMID: 12595415

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