Babesiosis is a parasitic infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host, which includes a wide variety of vertebrates including small ruminants causing decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. The objective of the present study was to establish a PCR based method for the detection of Babesia sp. in small ruminant population in Southern Punjab and to determine the risk factors involve in the spread of babesiosis. A total of 107 blood samples were collected from 40 sheep and 67 goats in seven districts of Southern Punjab from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals and the herd were collected through questionnaires. 36 blood samples (34% of total) produced the DNA fragment specific for 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, of which 20 were sheep and 16 were goats. Samples from all seven district contained Babesia positive samples and prevalence varied between 18 to 68%. It was observed that male animals (P = 0.009) and young animals under one year of age (P = 0.01) were more prone to the parasite. It was observed that herds consist of more than 15 animals (P = 0.007), composed of mixed species of small ruminants (P = 0.022), associated with dogs (P = 0.003) and dogs having ticks on their bodies (P = 0.011) were among the major risk factors for the spread of babesiosis in small ruminants.
sheep; goats; PCR amplification; Babesia sp; ovin; caprin; PCR; amplification; Babesia sp
The expression pattern and regulatory functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) are intensively investigated in various tissues, cell types and disorders. Differential miRNA expression signatures have been revealed in healthy and unhealthy tissues using high-throughput profiling methods. For further analyses of miRNA signatures in biological samples, we describe here a simple and efficient method to detect multiple miRNAs simultaneously in total RNA. The size-coded ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (SL-PCR) method is based on size-coded DNA probe hybridization in solution, followed-by ligation, PCR amplification and gel fractionation. The new method shows quantitative and specific detection of miRNAs. We profiled miRNAs of the let-7 family in a number of organisms, tissues and cell types and the results correspond with their incidence in the genome and reported expression levels. Finally, SL-PCR detected let-7 expression changes in human embryonic stem cells as they differentiate to neuron and also in young and aged mice brain and bone marrow. We conclude that the method can efficiently reveal miRNA signatures in a range of biological samples.
A major impediment to performing virological field studies in developing nations is the lack of ultra-low freezers as well as the expense and difficulty of shipping frozen samples. A commercially available product, ViveST™, was developed to preserve nucleic acids at ambient temperature for use in specimen storage and transportation. However, its applications as a viral storage, transport and recovery device have not been evaluated.
To examine the ability of ViveST to preserve live virus following storage at ambient temperature.
A panel of six viruses was stored at ambient temperature (~22°C) in ViveST with fetal bovine serum (FBS), or ViveST with minimal essential media (MEM) and compared with virus stored in universal transport media (M4RT), MEM, and FBS alone. Stored viruses included: human adenovirus (14p), dengue virus 2 (16608), echovirus 3 (Morrisey), human rhinovirus 15 (1734), Coxsackie virus B5 (Faulkner), and herpes simplex virus 1 (HF). After 7 days storage at ambient temperature, virus recovery was measured via titration using viral plaque assays or focus-forming unit assays.
Viral titer studies indicate that ViveST with either FBS or M4RT preserved/recovered 5 different viruses for 1 week at ambient temperature. MEM preserved 4 viruses while FBS and ViveST with MEM preserved 3 viruses each. Statistical analyses indicate that M4RT and ViveST with FBS preserved significantly more virus than the other treatments.
These data suggest that ViveST with either FBS or M4RT may be useful in field specimen collection scenarios where ultra-cold storage is not available.
virus; preservation; recovery; storage; transport
Myosin VI (myoVI) and myosin Va (myoVa) serve roles both as intracellular cargo transporters and tethers/anchors. In both capacities, these motors bind to and processively travel along the actin cytoskeleton, a network of intersecting actin filaments and bundles that present directional challenges to these motors. Are myoVI and myoVa inherently different in their abilities to interact and maneuver through the complexities of the actin cytoskeleton? Thus, we created an in vitro model system of intersecting actin filaments and individual unipolar (fascin-actin) or mixed polarity (α-actinin-actin) bundles. The stepping dynamics of individual Qdot-labeled myoVI and myoVa motors were determined on these actin tracks. Interestingly, myoVI prefers to stay on the actin filament it is traveling on, while myoVa switches filaments with higher probability at an intersection or between filaments in a bundle. The structural basis for this maneuverability difference was assessed by expressing a myoVI chimera in which the single myoVI IQ was replaced with the longer, 6 IQ myoVa lever. The mutant behaved more like myoVI at actin intersections and on bundles, suggesting that a structural element other than the lever arm dictates myoVI’fs preference to stay on track, which may be critical to its role as an intracellular anchor.
molecular motors; processivity; anchor; tether; cargo transporter; cytoskeleton; single molecule; Qdot
Behavioral economic demand curves measure individual differences in motivation for alcohol and have been associated with problematic patterns of alcohol use, but little is known about the variables that may contribute to elevated demand. Negative visceral states have been theorized to increase demand for alcohol and to contribute to excessive drinking patterns, but little empirical research has evaluated this possibility. The present study tested the hypothesis that symptoms of depression and PTSD would be uniquely associated with elevated alcohol demand even after taking into account differences in typical drinking levels.
An Alcohol Purchase Task (APT) was used to generate a demand curve measure of alcohol reinforcement in a sample of 133 college students (50.4% male, 64.4% Caucasian, 29.5% African-American) who reported at least one heavy drinking episode (5/4 or more drinks in one occasion for a man/woman) in the past month. Participants also completed standard measures of alcohol consumption and symptoms of depression and PTSD.
Regression analyses indicated that symptoms of depression were associated with higher demand intensity (alcohol consumption when price = 0; ΔR2 = .05, p = .002) and lower elasticity (ΔR2 = .04, p = .03), and that PTSD symptoms were associated with all five demand curve metrics (ΔR2 = .04 – .07, ps < .05).
These findings provide support for behavioral economic models of addiction that highlight the role of aversive visceral states in increasing the reward value of alcohol and provide an additional theoretical model to explain the association between negative affect and problematic drinking patterns.
behavioral economics; alcohol abuse; reinforcement; demand curve; comorbidity
The molecular conformation of title compound, C12H11N3S, is almost planar [maximum deviation = 0.063 (2) Å]; an intramolecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bond is noted. In the crystal, molecules interact with each other via π–π stacking interactions between thiazole rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7475 (9) Å] and methyl-H⋯π(C6) interactions, forming columns along the a axis.
In the title compound, C13H13NO3S, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 64.15 (7)° and the C—S—N—C torsion angle is −57.18 (12)°. An intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond closes an S(5) ring. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(8) chains propagating in . Weak C—H⋯π interactions are also observed.
The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a homologous series of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid gadolinium(III) complexes bearing thiol-terminated alkyl sidechains from three to nine carbons in length are reported. The observed binding with human serum albumin (HSA) of the compounds having C-3 through C-7 sidechain lengths was inhibited by homocysteine in a manner consistent with single-site binding. The observed binding with HSA of the compounds having C-8 and C-9 sidechain lengths was only partly inhibited by homocysteine, consistent with multi-site binding. The binding affinity of the C-7 compound could be related to the HSA oxidation state. 2D 1H–1H NMR TOCSY provided evidence of covalent binding of the europium analog of the C-6 compound to HSA-Cys34. The longitudinal water-proton MRI relaxivities of the gadolinium complexes at 7 Tesla increased upon binding to HSA. Based on these results, the C-6 and C-7 compounds were identified as promising redox-sensitive MRI contrast agents.
Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) represents the underlying etiology in a significant percentage of posterior circulation ischemic strokes and subarachnoid hemorrhages. These lesions are particularly challenging in their diagnosis, management, and in the prediction of long-term outcome. Advances in the understanding of underlying processes leading to dissection, as well as the evolution of modern imaging techniques are discussed. The data pertaining to medical management of intracranial VADs, with emphasis on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, is reviewed. Surgical intervention is discussed, including, the selection of operative candidates, open and endovascular procedures, and potential complications. The evolution of endovascular technology and techniques is highlighted.
intracranial, vertebral artery, stroke, hemorrhage, subarachnoid, dissection, dissecting aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, surgery, endovascular, stent
Smoking is the most common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, in part because it is an independent risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, mechanisms responsible for smoking-induced insulin resistance are unclear. In this study, we found smokers were less insulin sensitive compared with controls, which increased after either 1 or 2 weeks of smoking cessation. Improvements in insulin sensitivity after smoking cessation occurred with normalization of IRS-1ser636 phosphorylation. In muscle cell culture, nicotine exposure significantly increased IRS-1ser636 phosphorylation and decreased insulin sensitivity, recapitulating the phenotype of smoking-induced insulin resistance in humans. The two pathways known to stimulate IRS-1ser636 phosphorylation (p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] and mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR]) were both stimulated by nicotine in culture. Inhibition of mTOR, but not p44/42 MAPK, during nicotine exposure prevented IRS-1ser636 phosphorylation and normalized insulin sensitivity. These data indicate nicotine induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by activating mTOR. Therapeutic agents designed to oppose skeletal muscle mTOR activation may prevent insulin resistance in humans who are unable to stop smoking or are chronically exposed to secondhand smoke.
The aim of this study is applying nonlinear methods to assess changes in brain dynamics in a placebo-controlled study of midazolam-induced amnesia. Subjects injected with saline and midazolam during study, performed old/new recognition memory tests with EEG recording. Based on previous studies, as midazolam causes anterograde amnesia, we expected that midazolam would affect the EEG’s degree of complexity. Recurrence quantification analysis, and approximate entropy were used in this assessment. These methods compare with other nonlinear techniques such as computation of the correlation dimension, are suitable for non-stationary EEG signals. Our findings suggest that EEG’s complexity decreases during memory retrieval. Although this trend is observed in nonlinear curves related to the midazolam condition, the overall complexity were greater than in the saline condition. This result implies that impaired memory function caused by midazolam is associated with greater EEG’s complexity compared to normal memory retrieval in saline injection.
Nonlinear analysis; Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA); Approximate entropy; Memory; ERP
We propose a novel reduced order neuronal network modeling framework that includes an enhanced firing rate model and a corresponding synaptic calcium-based synaptic learning rule. Specifically, we propose enhancements to the Wilson-Cowan firing rate neuron model that permits full spike frequency adaptation seen in biological LA neurons, while being sufficiently general to accommodate other spike frequency patterns. We also report a technique to incorporate calcium-dependent plasticity in the synapses of the network using a regression scheme to link firing rate to postsynaptic calcium. Together, the single cell model and the synaptic learning scheme constitute a general framework to develop computationally efficient neuronal networks that employ biologically-realistic synaptic learning. The reduced order modeling framework was validated using a previously reported biophysical conductance-based neuronal network model of a rodent lateral amygdala (LA) that modeled features of Pavlovian conditioning and extinction of auditory fear (Li et al., 2009). The framework was then used to develop a larger LA network model to investigate the roles of tone and shock distributions and of intrinsic connectivity in auditory fear learning. The model suggested combinations of tone and shock densities that would provide experimental estimates of tone responsive and conditioned cell proportions. Furthermore, it provided several insights including how intrinsic connectivity might help distribute sensory inputs to produce conditioned responses in cells that do not directly receive both tone and shock inputs, and how a balance between potentiation of excitation and inhibition prevents stimulus generalization during fear learning.
firing rate model; fear learning; Pavlovian learning; intrinsic connectivity
The involvement of ceramide in death receptor-mediated apoptosis has been widely examined with most studies focusing on the role of ceramide generated from sphingomyelin hydrolysis. We now analyze the effect of the ceramide acyl chain length by studying tumor necrosis factor α receptor-1 (TNFR1)-mediated apoptosis in a ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) null mouse, which cannot synthesize very-long acyl chain ceramides. CerS2 null mice were resistant to lipopolysaccharide/galactosamine-mediated fulminant hepatic failure even though TNFα secretion from macrophages was unaffected. Cultured hepatocytes were also insensitive to TNFα-mediated apoptosis. In addition, in both liver and in hepatocytes, caspase activities were not elevated, consistent with inhibition of TNFR1 pro-apoptotic signaling. In contrast, Fas receptor activation resulted in the death of CerS2 null mice. Caspase activation was blocked because of the inability of CerS2 null mice to internalize the TNFR1; whereas Fc-TNFα was internalized to a perinuclear region in hepatocytes from wild-type mice, no internalization was detected in CerS2 null mice. Our results indicate that altering the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids inhibits TNFR1 internalization and inhibits selective pro-apoptotic downstream signaling for apoptosis.
ceramide; sphingolipids; apoptosis; fulminant hepatic failure; clathrin
Recent studies have shown that circadian clock disruption is associated with pathological remodeling in the arterial structure and vascular stiffness. Moreover, chronic circadian disruption is associated with dysfunction in endothelial responses and signaling. Reactive oxygen species have emerged as key regulators in vascular pathology. Previously, we have demonstrated that circadian clock dysfunction exacerbates superoxide production through eNOS uncoupling. To date, the impact of circadian clock mutation on vascular NADPH oxidase expression and function is not known. The goal in the current study was to determine if the circadian clock controls vascular Nox4 expression and hydrogen peroxide formation in arteries, particularly in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. In aorta, there was an increase in hydrogen peroxide and Nox4 expression in mice with a dysfunctional circadian rhythm (Bmal1-KO mice). In addition, the Nox4 gene promoter is activated by the core circadian transcription factors. Lastly, in synchronized cultured human endothelial cells, Nox4 gene expression exhibited rhythmic oscillations. These data reveal that the circadian clock plays an important role in the control of Nox4 and disruption of the clock leads to subsequent production of reaction oxygen species.
During a study of the epipelagic zooplankton carried out near the fringing reef around Sharm El-Sheikh area, in the northern Red Sea, female and male specimens of the poorly known calanoid copepod Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 were collected. This is the first record of species occurrence in the Red Sea. Macandrewella cochinensis was previously known only from the offshore water of Cochin, south west of India. The Red Sea specimens are described in details herein to allow their comparison with the specimens from the type locality, because original description of M. cochinensis is incomplete and causes some taxonomic confusion. The most important characters that may have been overlooked in the original description are: shape of projections of the female distolateral prosomal borders, details of morphology of the asymmetrical female genital double-somite and presence of leg 5 in female.
Zooplankton; copepods; Macandrewella cochinensis; swarm; Red Sea
The effects of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of mercury (Hg), an oxidative-stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite production in kidney tissues. In addition, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymes in renal tissues were significantly decreased. Pretreatment of rats with AG (7.5 g/kg/day per oral administration), starting 5 days before mercuric chloride injection and continuing through the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite to control values. Histopathologic examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data; pretreatment of AG prevented Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity by a mechanism related at least in part to its ability to decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues.
mercury; acacia gum; oxidative stress; lipid per oxidation; kidney toxicity
The basic concept for the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery is to assist in highlighting preretinal membranes and tissues which are very thin and semitransparent and thus difficult to detect. The vital dyes may be classified according to different criteria, where the most commonly applied includes chemical classification. In ophthalmic surgery, vital dyes are widely used in cataract and vitreoretinal surgery. The vital dyes, indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue stain the internal limiting membrane, and trypan blue and triamcinolone acetonide help to visualize epiretinal membranes and vitreous, respectively. This review exhibits the current literature regarding the properties of vital dyes, techniques of application, indications, and toxicities during vitreoretinal surgery and, also suggests that the field of chromovitrectomy represents an expanding area of research.
Chromovitrectomy; Vital dyes; Indocyanine green; Internal limiting membrane; Vitreoretinal surgery
Postoperative delirium is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery. Risk factors for postoperative delirium include poor cerebral haemodynamics and perioperative cerebral desaturations. Our aim was to reduce the postoperative delirium rate by using a new prevention strategy called the Haga Brain Care Strategy. This study evaluates the efficacy of the implementation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy to reduce the postoperative delirium rate after elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures. The primary endpoint was the postoperative delirium rate, and the secondary endpoint was the length of stay in the intensive care unit.
The Haga Brain Care Strategy consisted of the conventional screening protocol for delirium with the addition of preoperative transcranial Doppler examinations, perioperative cerebral oximetry, modified Rankin score, delirium risk score and (if indicated) duplex examination of the carotid arteries. In case of poor preoperative haemodynamics, the cerebral blood flow was optionally optimized by angioplasty or the patient was operated on under mild hypothermic conditions. Perioperative cerebral desaturations >20% outside the normal range resulted in intervention to restore cerebral oxygenation. Cerebral oximetry was discontinued when patients regained consciousness. Patients undergoing elective CABG procedures in 2010 were compared with patients scheduled for coronary bypass graft procedures in 2009 who had not been exposed to additional Haga Brain Care Strategy assessment.
A total of 233 and 409 patients were included in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The number of patients subjected in 2010 to transcranial Doppler examinations, cerebral oximetry or both (Haga Brain Care Strategy) were 262 (64.1%), 201 (49.1%) and 139 (34.0%), respectively. The overall rate of postoperative delirium decreased from 31 (13.3%) in 2009 to 30 (7.3%) in 2010 (P = 0.019). A binary logistic regression model showed that the Haga Brain Care Strategy was an independent predictor of a reduced risk of developing a postoperative delirium (odd ratio = 0.37, P = 0.021).
With the implementation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy in 2010, a reduction of the incidence of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing elective CABG procedures was observed. In addition, the length of stay in the intensive care unit showed an overall tendency to decline. The limited number of observations and the current study design do not allow a full evaluation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy but the data support the idea that a sophisticated preoperative assessment of cerebral haemodynamics and perioperative monitoring of cerebral oximetry reduce the incidence of the postoperative delirium in CABG surgery.
Postoperative delirium; Cerebral oximetry; Transcranial Doppler; Coronary artery bypass grafting
To compare the results of Extracorporeal shock wave (ESWT) with a modified endoscopic plantar fasciotomy technique for the treatment of recalcitrant heel pain.
Sixty-five patients suffering from chronic heel pain that failed to respond to standard nonoperative methods were randomized to undergo either high-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (group 1), or modified endoscopic plantar fasciotomy (group 2). The primary outcome measure was the reduction of pain in the two groups from base line to month three post intervention at the first few steps in the morning. In addition, patients' functions were assessed using American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) at week three, month three, and month 12 post-intervention, and finally, Roles and Maudsley scores were assessed. The primary analysis was intention-to-treat and involved all patients who were randomly assigned.
Both groups achieved improvement from the base line at 3 weeks, 3 months and 12 months post-intervention. The success rate (Roles and Maudsley score excellent and good) in the ESWT group at month 12 was 70.6 %, while in the fasciotomy group, the success rate was 77.4 % (p = 0.19).
In patients who had experienced failure of conventional treatment of plantar fasciopathy, both endoscopic plantar fasciotomy and shock wave therapy can be potentially helpful lines of management.
Drug-eluting stents (DES) are used in the majority of patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and have reduced the rate of in-stent restenosis and repeated revascularization in comparison to bare metal stents. However, stent thrombosis (ST) is an uncommon but serious complication of coronary artery stents that is mostly fatal or presents as a large non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), usually with ST elevation.
To study the incidence of stent thrombosis in Middle Eastern Saudi patients who underwent PCI using both drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare metal stents (BMS). ST can occur acutely (within 24 h), sub acutely (within 30 days), or as late as one year (late) or even more than one year (very late).
In an observational, single center study in catheterization (cath) lab a total of 1386 patients underwent PCI between January 2008 and September 2010. The study included all patients in that period who had acute coronary syndrome and stable coronary artery disease (CAD).
A total of 1386 patients had PCI and stent deployments; 19 (1.3%) patients had stent thrombosis, four patients (21%) received BMS and 15 patients (79%) received DES. Four patients had acute ST; five had subacute ST; eight patients had late ST; while two patients had very late ST. Nine patients (47%) had DM and eight patients (42%) had hypertension.
The incidence of ST in Saudi patients who received DES at our center is similar to internationally reported numbers. Almost half of ST patients are diabetics and there is increasing concern that the risk for late stent thrombosis is slightly higher with DES than BMS.
Drug-eluted stent; Stent thrombosis; Percutaneous coronary intervention; In-stent restenosis
The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C8H10N5
+·C7H7O3S−, consists of two amino[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)amino]methaniminium cations and two 4-methylbenzenesulfonate anions. The cations are each stabilized by intramolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the free amino groups and the imine N atoms of the benzimidazole units, forming S(6) ring motifs. In the crystal, cations and anions are linked by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular framework. Two strong π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.4112 (14) and 3.4104 (14) Å] also occur between the centroids of the imidazole rings of like cations.
A molecular scaffold bearing eight terminal alkyne groups was synthesized from sucrose. Eight copies of an azide-terminated, azo-linked precursor to 5-aminosalicylic acid were attached to the scaffold via copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. The resulting compound was evaluated in a DSS model of colitis in BALB/c mice against sulfasalazine as a control. Two independent studies verified that the novel pro-drug, administered in a dose calculated to result in an equimolar 5-ASA yield, outperformed sulfasalazine in terms of protection from mucosal inflammation and T cell activation. A separate study established that 5-ASA appeared in feces produced 24–48 hours following administration of the pro-drug. Thus, a new, orally administered pro-drug form of 5-aminosalicylic acid has been developed and successfully demonstrated.
Inflammatory bowel disease; 5-aminosalicylic acid; pro-drug
Objectives. To compare the outcome of early surgical intervention versus late surgical treatment in cases of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Design. Prospective study. Settings. Secondary care (Al-Minia University Hospital, Egypt) from 2007 to 2010. Participants. Thirty-five patients of NTOS (25 women and 10 men, aged 20–52 years), were classified into 2 groups. First group (20 patients) was operated within 3 months of the onset and the second group (15 patients) was operated 6 months after physiotherapy. Interventions. All patients were operated via supraclavicular surgical approach. Outcomes Measures. Both groups were evaluated clinically and, neurophysiologically and answered the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire preoperatively and 6 months after the surgery. Results. Paraesthesia, pain, and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of ulnar nerve were significantly improved in group one. Muscle weakness and denervation in electromyography EMG were less frequent in group one. The postoperative DASH score improved in both groups but it was less significant in group two (P < .001 in group 1 and P < .05 in group 2). Conclusions. Surgical treatment of NTOS improves functional disability and stop degeneration of the nerves. Early surgical treatment decreases the occurrence of muscle wasting and denervation of nerves compared to late surgery.
Thrombocytopenia is one of the common hematological problems encountered in the neonatal period particularly in the sick newborns, premature babies and neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care units and usually indicate an underlying pathologic process. Thrombocytopenia is reported in neonates with bacterial, fungal, rickettsial, protozoal and viral infection. Some patients with bacterial septicemia may develop coagulopathy associated with DIC. The presence of thrombocytopenia is seen frequently in early sepsis with or without laboratory evidence of overt DIC. This study was conducted on 85 neonates admitted in NICU with clinical diagnosis of septicemia and 50 age and weight matched neonates served as control. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 83.5% cases where as bacterial culture was positive in only 41.1% cases. Further it was noted that, in gram negative (Gm −ve) septicemia, thrombocytopenia was more severe as compared to gram positive (Gm +ve) septicemia. It is concluded that thrombocytopenia is early predictor of septicemia but other causes of neonatal thrombocytopenia should also be ruled out.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12288-011-0118-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Neonatal septicemia; Thrombocytopenia; DIC