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1.  Diagnostic Strategy Used To Establish Etiologies of Encephalitis in a Prospective Cohort of Patients in England▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(10):3576-3583.
The laboratory diagnostic strategy used to determine the etiology of encephalitis in 203 patients is reported. An etiological diagnosis was made by first-line laboratory testing for 111 (55%) patients. Subsequent testing, based on individual case reviews, resulted in 17 (8%) further diagnoses, of which 12 (71%) were immune-mediated and 5 (29%) were due to infection. Seventy-five cases were of unknown etiology. Sixteen (8%) of 203 samples were found to be associated with either N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor or voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies. The most common viral causes identified were herpes simplex virus (HSV) (19%) and varicella-zoster virus (5%), while the most important bacterial cause was Mycobacterium tuberculosis (5%). The diagnostic value of testing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for antibody was assessed using 139 samples from 99 patients, and antibody was detected in 46 samples from 37 patients. Samples collected at 14 to 28 days were more likely to be positive than samples taken 0 to 6 days postadmission. Three PCR-negative HSV cases were diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific antibody in the central nervous system (CNS). It was not possible to make an etiological diagnosis for one-third of the cases; these were therefore considered to be due to unknown causes. Delayed sampling did not contribute to these cases. Twenty percent of the patients with infections with an unknown etiology showed evidence of localized immune activation within the CNS, but no novel viral DNA or RNA sequences were found. We conclude that a good standard of clinical investigation and thorough first-line laboratory testing allows the diagnosis of most cases of infectious encephalitis; testing for CSF antibodies allows further cases to be diagnosed. It is important that testing for immune-mediated causes also be included in a diagnostic algorithm.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00862-11
PMCID: PMC3187347  PMID: 21865429
2.  Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign by oral-fluid surveys in a rural Kenyan district: interpretation of antibody prevalence data using mixture models 
Epidemiology and Infection  2008;137(2):227-233.
SUMMARY
We evaluated the effectiveness of a measles vaccine campaign in rural Kenya, based on oral-fluid surveys and mixture-modelling analysis. Specimens were collected from 886 children aged 9 months to 14 years pre-campaign and from a comparison sample of 598 children aged 6 months post-campaign. Quantitative measles-specific antibody data were obtained by commercial kit. The estimated proportions of measles-specific antibody negative in children aged 0–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years were 51%, 42% and 27%, respectively, pre- campaign and 18%, 14% and 6%, respectively, post-campaign. We estimate a reduction in the proportion susceptible of 65–78%, with ~85% of the population recorded to have received vaccine. The proportion of ‘weak’ positive individuals rose from 35% pre-campaign to 54% post-campaign. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the campaign in reducing susceptibility to measles and demonstrate the potential of oral-fluid studies to monitor the impact of measles vaccination campaigns.
doi:10.1017/S0950268808000848
PMCID: PMC2696684  PMID: 18544176
Campaign vaccination; measles antibodies; mixture modelling; oral fluid; Kenya
3.  Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign by oral-fluid surveys in a rural Kenyan district 
Epidemiology and infection  2008;137(2):227-233.
SUMMARY
We evaluated the effectiveness of a measles vaccine campaign in rural Kenya, based on oral-fluid surveys and mixture-modelling analysis. Specimens were collected from 886 children aged 9 months to 14 years pre-campaign and from a comparison sample of 598 children aged 6 months post-campaign. Quantitative measles-specific antibody data were obtained by commercial kit. The estimated proportions of measles-specific antibody negative in children aged 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years were 51%, 42% and 27%, respectively, pre- campaign and 18%, 14% and 6%, respectively, post-campaign. We estimate a reduction in the proportion susceptible of 65-78%, with ~85% of the population recorded to have received vaccine. The proportion of ‘weak’ positive individuals rose from 35% pre-campaign to 54% post-campaign. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the campaign in reducing susceptibility to measles and demonstrate the potential of oral-fluid studies to monitor the impact of measles vaccination campaigns.
doi:10.1017/S0950268808000848
PMCID: PMC2696684  PMID: 18544176
Campaign vaccination; measles antibodies; mixture modelling; oral fluid; Kenya
4.  Infant morbidity in an Indian slum birth cohort 
Archives of disease in childhood  2007;93(6):479-484.
Objective
To establish incidence rates, clinic referrals, hospitalisations, mortality rates and baseline determinants of morbidity among infants in an Indian slum.
Design
A community-based birth cohort with twice-weekly surveillance.
Setting
Vellore, South India.
Subjects
452 newborns recruited over 18 months, followed through infancy.
Main outcome measures
Incidence rates of gastrointestinal illness, respiratory illness, undifferentiated fever, other infections and non-infectious morbidity; rates of community-based diagnoses, clinic visits and hospitalisation; and rate ratios of baseline factors for morbidity.
Results
Infants experienced 12 episodes (95% confidence interval (CI) 11 to 13) of illness, spending about one fifth of their infancy with an illness. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms were most common with incidence rates (95% CI) of 7.4 (6.9 to 7.9) and 3.6 (3.3 to 3.9) episodes per child-year. Factors independently associated with a higher incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness were age (3-5 months), male sex, cold/wet season and household involved in beedi work. The rate (95% CI) of hospitalisation, mainly for respiratory and gastrointestinal illness, was 0.28 (0.22 to 0.35) per child-year.
Conclusions
The morbidity burden due to respiratory and gastrointestinal illness is high in a South Indian urban slum, with children ill for approximately one fifth of infancy, mainly with respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses. The risk factors identified were younger age, male sex, cold/wet season and household involvement in beedi work.
doi:10.1136/adc.2006.114546
PMCID: PMC2682775  PMID: 17916587
5.  Polymerase chain reaction in the detection of an ‘outbreak’ of asymptomatic viral infections in a community birth cohort in south India 
Epidemiology and infection  2007;136(3):399-405.
SUMMARY
Asymptomatic enteric infections are important where sequelae or protection from subsequent illness is an outcome measure. The use of reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) to identify asymptomatic enteric infections in a birth cohort followed for rotaviral infections in a south Indian urban slum is reported. Of 1191 non-diarrhoeal samples from 371 children collected in May–June 2003, 22 (1·9%) were positive by ELISA. A total of 147 (40·6%) of 362 samples tested by VP6 RT–PCR were positive. In those samples that could be typed, a high diversity of G types including G1, G2, G4, G8, G9 and G10, and a high proportion (34·4%) of mixed infections were detected. Noroviruses were identified in 6/28 (21·4%) samples tested. The identification of infections undetectable by conventional techniques indicates the importance of the use of sensitive diagnostic techniques in research studies. Asymptomatically infected children may also act as a source of infection for other susceptible hosts.
doi:10.1017/S0950268807008709
PMCID: PMC2467457  PMID: 17521476
6.  Deletion and Complementation of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus of the Wheat Head Blight Pathogen Gibberella zeae 
Gibberella zeae, a self-fertile, haploid filamentous ascomycete, causes serious epidemics of wheat (Triticum aestivum) head blight worldwide and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins. Anecdotal evidence dating back to the late 19th century indicates that G. zeae ascospores (sexual spores) are a more important inoculum source than are macroconidia (asexual spores), although the fungus can produce both during wheat head blight epidemics. To develop fungal strains to test this hypothesis, the entire mating type (MAT1) locus was deleted from a self-fertile (MAT1-1/MAT1-2), virulent, trichothecene-producing wild-type strain of G. zeae. The resulting MAT deletion (mat1-1/mat1-2) strains were unable to produce perithecia or ascospores and appeared to be unable to mate with the fertile strain from which they were derived. Complementation of a MAT deletion strain by transformation with a copy of the entire MAT locus resulted in recovery of production of perithecia and ascospores. MAT deletion strains and MAT-complemented strains retained the ability to produce macroconidia that could cause head blight, as assessed by direct injection into wheat heads in greenhouse tests. Availability of MAT-null and MAT-complemented strains provides a means to determine the importance of ascospores in the biology of G. zeae and perhaps to identify novel approaches to control wheat head blight.
doi:10.1128/AEM.70.4.2437-2444.2004
PMCID: PMC383016  PMID: 15066842
7.  Molecular Characterization of Bovine Enteric Caliciviruses: a Distinct Third Genogroup of Noroviruses (Norwalk-Like Viruses) Unlikely To Be of Risk to Humans 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(4):2789-2798.
Bovine enteric caliciviruses (BoCVs) have been classified in the Norovirus (Norwalk-like virus) genus of the Caliciviridae, raising questions about zoonotic transmission and an animal reservoir for the human Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs), an important cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. We examined the genetic relationship of human NLVs to BoCVs that were identified by using reverse transcription-PCR with primer pairs originally designed to detect human NLVs. Polymerase, capsid, and open reading frame 3 (ORF3) gene sequence analyses of BoCVs that were identified from 1976 to 2000 from throughout the United Kingdom showed that BoCVs formed a distinct third genogroup of closely related viruses distinct from the human genogroup I and II NLVs. Evidence was not obtained to support the concept that BoCVs are circulating in humans and pose a threat to human health.
doi:10.1128/JVI.77.4.2789-2798.2003
PMCID: PMC141104  PMID: 12552024
8.  Detection of Low-Avidity Immunoglobulin G in Oral Fluid Samples: New Approach for Rubella Diagnosis and Surveillance 
Low-avidity rubella immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detected in oral fluid samples from 30 of 32 rubella IgM-positive patients (sensitivity, 94%) and from 4 of 34 IgM-negative patients (specificity, 88%). Measuring IgG avidity in oral fluid samples could improve the reliability of rubella surveillance when the incidence of the disease and the positive predictive value of IgM tests are low.
doi:10.1128/CDLI.10.1.189-190.2003
PMCID: PMC145279  PMID: 12522062
9.  Role of type specific herpes simplex virus serology in the diagnosis and management of genital herpes 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  1998;74(3):175-178.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the indications for the use of a type specific antibody test for herpes simplex virus in a department of genitourinary medicine in the United Kingdom. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of case records of 127 patients who accepted the test during a 20 month period. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The test contributed to patient management in 79% of patients with recurrent genital ulceration of unknown cause. It was also useful for counselling a number of patients with initial episodes of disease and the asymptomatic partners of some patients when the partners were shown to possess antibodies specific to herpes simplex virus type 2. When evaluating sexual partners, the test was difficult to interpret if an isolate from the index case had not been typed. Access to viral typing may therefore be a greater priority than serological testing. As adverse psychological sequelae may follow the identification of an asymptomatic chronic infection, guidelines for the use of a type specific serological test are proposed. 



PMCID: PMC1758109  PMID: 9849551
10.  Epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus infection in pre-adolescent children: application of a new salivary method in Edinburgh, Scotland 
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) among primary school children by testing saliva with a new EBV capsid antigen "G" antibody capture radioimmunoassay (GACRIA). DESIGN: A population based sample of 7 year old schoolchildren were followed up at age 11. SETTING: 30 randomly chosen primary schools in Edinburgh, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 552 schoolchildren. MEASUREMENTS: Data on risk factors for infection were collected by questionnaire at ages 7 and 11. Saliva samples collected at age 11 were examined by GACRIA for evidence of previous infection with EBV. For 102 subjects, a second salivary specimen collected approximately one month after the first sample was available for testing as a measure of the repeatability of the method. MAIN RESULTS: Unequivocal results were found in 91% of samples and the repeatability of the test was good (kappa = 0.71). Fifty six per cent of children had antibodies to EBV. In a logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors for infection were sharing a room (odds ratio 1.78, 1.14, 2.79), head of household's social class IV/V compared with I (odds ratio 2.87, 1.08, 7.34), and schools serving predominantly rented housing estates (odds ratio 2.3, 1.09, 4.84). CONCLUSION: This study is the first application of EBV viral capsid GACRIA to salivary samples. The method was successfully used to describe the epidemiology of EBV. In this study, characteristics of the home seemed to be more important than those of the school in determining the likelihood of infection with EBV.
 
PMCID: PMC1756670  PMID: 9578856
11.  Comparison of a Monoclonal Antibody-Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay and a Strip Immunoblot Assay for Identifying Type-Specific Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Serological Responses 
Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-specific antibodies by a monoclonal antibody (MAb)-blocking enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) was compared with detection by a strip immunoblot assay (SIA) in a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic population. The study population consisted of 1,683 genitourinary medicine clinic attendees (582 women and 1,101 men). Sera were tested for the presence of HSV-2 antibody by use of the blocking EIA, in which binding of the MAb AP-1 to HSV-2 glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) is blocked by HSV-2-specific antibody. The Chiron RIBA HSV-1 and -2 strip immunoassay (SIA) utilizes HSV-1- and HSV-2-specific or cross-reactive antigens immobilized on nitrocellulose strips (HSV gB-1 and HSV gG-1 peptide bands specific for HSV-1 antibody, HSV-2 gG-2 band specific for HSV-2 antibody, and HSV gD-2 band cross-reactive for HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies). A total of 1,612 sera were tested by MAb-blocking EIA for HSV-2 antibody and by SIA for HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies. By EIA, 541 (33.6%) sera were positive for HSV-2 antibody and 1,068 sera were negative for HSV-2 antibody; 3 sera gave equivocal results. HSV-2 antibody was detected in 555 (34.4%) sera by SIA; 144 (26%) of these sera possessed only HSV-2 antibody, and 411 (74%) sera contained both HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies. SIA detected HSV-1 antibody in 1,155 (71.6%) sera; 744 (64%) of these sera contained HSV-1 antibody alone. Sixteen sera contained antibody against HSV but could not be typed by SIA. A total of 512 sera were positive for HSV-2 antibody by both the EIA and SIA. We concluded that the blocking EIA and SIA showed a high level of agreement in detecting HSV-2 antibody in this population. In contrast to the SIA, the blocking EIA is a useful tool for large epidemiological studies, though the SIA proved to be slightly more sensitive once sera with discrepant results were further tested.
PMCID: PMC95927  PMID: 10882665
12.  Detection of Rubella Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin G in Saliva by an Amplification-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Monoclonal Antibody to Fluorescein Isothiocyanate 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(2):391-395.
An immunoglobulin G (IgG)–capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rubella virus is described. The assay uses a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–anti-FITC amplification system. The detection limit of the ELISA was approximately 7 IU of rubella virus-specific IgG per ml of serum sample. For saliva samples the performances of the capture ELISA and previously described radioimmunoassay were assessed, and the results of those two assays were compared to the rubella virus-specific IgG result obtained by a commercial ELISA (Behring Enzygnost) with a panel of paired serum and saliva samples. This comparison showed that the capture ELISA with saliva was more sensitive than the radioimmunoassay and that the results correlated better with the serum IgG result than the results of the radioimmunoassay did, with an overall sensitivity of 82% and a rank correlation of 0.68, whereas the sensitivity and rank correlation for the radioimmunoassay were 74% and 0.45, respectively. For subjects of 10 years of age or younger, the ELISA with saliva had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100% compared to the results of the ELISA (Behring Enzygnost) for rubella virus-specific IgG with corresponding serum samples. The sensitivity was much lower for subjects ages 17 years or older. The assay may have wider epidemiological use with saliva specimens, particularly those from children.
PMCID: PMC84317  PMID: 9889225
13.  A Novel Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIVdrl) pol Sequence from the Drill Monkey, Mandrillus leucophaeus 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(12):10305-10309.
The drill monkey has been shown by serology and PCR to harbor a unique simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVdrl). A pol sequence, amplified from uncultured peripheral blood cells, is most closely related to the equivalent SIV sequences from the red-capped mangabey (SIVrcm), the sabaeus African green monkey (SIVagmSAB), and the chimpanzee (SIVcpz) and to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequence of humans. It is as yet unclear whether SIVdrl has a mosaic genome like SIVrcm and SIVagmSAB, is a member of the SIVcpz/HIV-1 lineage, or represents a novel primate lentivirus lineage.
PMCID: PMC110619  PMID: 9811781
14.  A Nested Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Small Round-Structured Viruses in Environmentally Contaminated Molluscan Shellfish 
We describe the evaluation of a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) procedure for the detection of small round-structured viruses (SRSVs) in molluscan shellfish and the application of this assay for the detection of SRSVs in commercially produced shellfish and in shellfish implicated in outbreaks of gastroenteritis. The range of virus strains detected and the sensitivity of detection were evaluated by using a representative panel of 21 well-characterized SRSV strains. The nested RT-PCR detected 15 of 21 SRSVs, demonstrating that the assay detects a broad range of SRSVs including strains from both genogroup I and genogroup II. Seeding experiments showed the nested RT-PCR assay to be 10 to 1,000 times more sensitive than the single-round RT-PCR assay for the detection of SRSV in shellfish. SRSV-contaminated samples were identified by nested RT-PCR for shellfish grown in polluted harvesting areas and for shellfish associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis which were negative by a previously described single-round RT-PCR. The assay was shown to be effective for investigation of virus elimination during commercial shellfish processing procedures such as depuration and relaying and has potential applications for monitoring at-risk shellfish harvesting areas, for investigation of SRSV contamination in shellfish from producers linked to gastroenteritis outbreaks, and for the direct detection of virus in shellfish implicated in outbreaks.
PMCID: PMC106338  PMID: 9501426
16.  Diagnosis of parvovirus B19 infection by detection of specific immunoglobulin M antibody in saliva. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(1):205-207.
Serum and saliva samples were simultaneously collected from patients with B19 infection. Specimens were collected in a period of 1 to 18 days after the onset of symptoms. Saliva samples were collected with a commercial device, OraSure. The quality of these samples was evaluated by determining the concentration of total immunoglobulin G (IgG) by an enzyme immunoassay. The concentration of IgG in these samples ranged from 4.8 to > 250 mg/liter. B19 infection was confirmed for 20 patients by testing sera in a 1: 100 dilution by an IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) and an IgM capture hemadherence test (MACHAT). Saliva samples from these IgM-positive patients were tested neat by MACEIA and MACHAT. IgM could be detected in 11 of 20 (55%) samples by MACEIA and in 15 of 18 (83%) samples by MACHAT. Serum and saliva samples from a further 17 patients with rash were also tested. All of these specimens were unreactive by both assays. These results show that saliva may be a convenient alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent B19 infection.
PMCID: PMC228763  PMID: 8748306
17.  Detection of small round structured viruses in shellfish by reverse transcription-PCR. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1995;61(12):4418-4424.
We describe the application of a previously developed sample extraction procedure to the detection of small round structured viruses (SRSVs) in shellfish. Initial seeding experiments showed that PCR inhibitor removal and virus recoveries were comparable to those in previous studies with poliovirus. Shellfish from a range of sewage-contaminated sites were then tested for the presence of SRSVs by using broadly reactive PCR primers followed by Southern blotting with internal probe sites. Positive results were obtained from 5 of 31 field samples tested. Four of these positive samples were from highly polluted sites. PCR product sequence analysis confirmed their identity as SRSV and showed sequence diversity compared with virus controls, suggesting that the results were not a consequence of PCR cross-contamination. Finally, shellfish associated with four separate outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis were tested by PCR and Southern blot for the presence of SRSVs. All outbreak samples tested gave positive results. As far as we are aware, this is the first demonstration of the detection in environmentally contaminated shellfish of the SRSVs responsible for human gastroenteritis. This development may help contribute to the further development of public health controls for molluscan shellfish.
PMCID: PMC167749  PMID: 8534105
18.  Norwalk-like viruses: demonstration of genomic diversity by polymerase chain reaction. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1993;31(11):3007-3012.
A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification procedure was developed for the detection of Norwalk-like viruses in fecal specimens. Ninety-nine fecal specimens collected in the United Kingdom and containing small round-structured virus particles as determined by electron microscopy were tested. They came from 50 outbreaks and 16 sporadic cases of viral gastroenteritis. RT-PCR products of the appropriate size for Norwalk virus RNA were detected in 15 specimens from three outbreaks, suggesting that viruses closely related to Norwalk virus have not been circulating widely in the United Kingdom in recent years. From four isolates, the RT-PCR amplification products of two genomic regions were sequenced and the degree of genomic variation was compared. DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed strong similarities among strains from the United Kingdom (approximately 97% for both regions amplified) but significant differences from Norwalk virus (67 to 78%). All of the viruses detected by RT-PCR were classified as serotype UK2 by solid-phase immune electron microscopy or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These findings provide evidence of a genomic relationship between Norwalk virus and serotype UK2 small round-structured viruses.
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PMCID: PMC266189  PMID: 8263187
19.  Competitive radioimmunoassay to detect antibodies to herpes B virus and SA8 virus. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1993;31(4):931-935.
A monoclonal competitive radioimmunoassay (CompRIAm) which detects antibody to herpesvirus simiae (B virus) in monkey and human sera and antibody to SA8 virus in monkey sera but not antibody to herpes simplex virus in human sera is described. Of 232 serum samples from wild-caught cynomolgus monkeys, 117 serum samples were positive when tested by CompRIAm. The results were in close agreement (97.5%) with B virus neutralizing antibody results on the same sera. Sera from 97 wild-caught rhesus monkeys and 92 wild-caught baboons were also tested. The CompRIAm was able to differentiate between sera that had neutralizing antibody to B virus and SA8 virus and those that did not, although the discrimination was not as clear as that in the tests on cynomolgus monkey sera. Sequential sera from two humans with confirmed cases of B virus infection were tested by CompRIAm. B virus antibody was detected in sera from both humans. None of 237 other serum samples from blood donors and patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics reacted in the CompRIAm.
PMCID: PMC263589  PMID: 8385154
20.  Rotavirus epidemiology in Vellore, south India: group, subgroup, serotype, and electrophoretype. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1988;26(11):2410-2414.
Rotaviruses were detected in 163 of 916 (17.8%) specimens collected from children under 3 years of age with gastroenteritis in Vellore, South India, between August 1983 and July 1985. Rotaviruses were detected throughout the study period, with a peak prevalence in December to February (winter) and June to August (southwest monsoon season). A total of 117 rotavirus strains were tested for subgroup, serotype, and rotavirus double-stranded RNA electrophoretic migration pattern; 24.8% of the strains were subgroup I, 69.2% were subgroup II, and 6.0% were neither subgroup I nor subgroup II. Subgroup I and II strains were circulating concurrently throughout the study. Of the 117 rotavirus strains, 32 (27.4%) were serotyped; 15 were serotype 1, 3 were serotype 2, 2 were serotype 3, and 12 were serotype 4. Three serotypes were circulating concurrently during the periods of peak rotavirus prevalence. In 100 of the 117 strains (85.4%) an RNA pattern was detected. One unusual subgroup I group A rotavirus with a long migration pattern and four atypical rotaviruses serologically related to group C were also detected.
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PMCID: PMC266902  PMID: 2853177
21.  Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound. 
A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed.
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PMCID: PMC1474350  PMID: 3297664
22.  Detection of Breda virus antigen and antibody in humans and animals by enzyme immunoassay. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1987;25(4):637-640.
Enzyme immunoassays were developed for the detection of Breda virus antibody and antigen. Cattle sera collected in the United Kingdom were found to have a high prevalence of antibody (55%) to Breda virus when examined in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A low prevalence of antibody was found in pigs (2.2%), and no antibody was found in sheep or goat sera. No antibody to either Breda virus or Berne virus was detected in human sera collected from veterinarians and farm workers. Only 1 of 430 human fecal specimens (0.2%) contained Breda virus antigen detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
PMCID: PMC266050  PMID: 3571473
23.  Prevalence of antibody to group B (atypical) rotavirus in humans and animals. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1987;25(2):316-319.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for the detection of group B rotavirus antigen and antibody. The specificities of both assays were evaluated for antigens and serum specific for rotavirus groups A to D. Serum collected in the United Kingdom from different animal species exhibited the following high prevalence of group B rotavirus-specific antibody: pigs, 97%; cattle, 71%; sheep, 91%; and goats, 91%. In human serum, a lower prevalence of group B-specific antibody was detected; serum from blood donors showed 10% prevalence, and serum from veterinarians showed 4% prevalence.
PMCID: PMC265891  PMID: 3029164
25.  Early diagnosis of Lassa fever by reverse transcription-PCR. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1994;32(12):2898-2903.
We developed a method based on a coupled reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection of Lassa virus using primers specific for regions of the S RNA segment which are well conserved between isolates from Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by Southern blotting with a chemiluminescent probe. The assay was able to detect 1 to 10 copies of a plasmid or an RNA transcript containing the target sequence. There was complete concordance between RT-PCR and virus culture for the detection of Lassa virus in a set of 29 positive and 32 negative serum samples obtained on admission to the hospital from patients suspected of having Lassa fever in Sierra Leone. Specificity was confirmed by the failure of amplification of specific products from serum samples collected from 129 healthy blood donors in Sierra Leone or from tissue culture supernatants from cells infected with related arenaviruses (Mopeia, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Tacaribe, and Pichinde viruses). Sequential serum samples from 29 hospitalized patients confirmed to have Lassa fever were tested by RT-PCR and for Lassa virus-specific antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IF). RT-PCR detected virus RNA in 79% of the patients at the time of admission, comparing favorably with IF, which detected antibodies in only 21% of the patients. Lassa virus RNA was detected by RT-PCR in all 29 patients by the third day of admission, whereas antibody was detectable by IF in only 52% of the patients. These results point to an important role for RT-PCR in the management of suspected cases of Lassa fever.
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PMCID: PMC264198  PMID: 7883875

Results 1-25 (34)