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1.  Chronotype Is Independently Associated With Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(9):2523-2529.
OBJECTIVE
To examine whether chronotype and daily caloric distribution are associated with glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of sleep disturbances.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Patients with type 2 diabetes had a structured interview and completed questionnaires to collect information on diabetes history and habitual sleep duration, quality, and timing. Shift workers were excluded. A recently validated construct derived from mid-sleep time on weekends was used as an indicator of chronotype. One-day food recall was used to compute the temporal distribution of caloric intake. Hierarchical linear regression analyses controlling for demographic and sleep variables were computed to determine whether chronotype was associated with HbA1c values and whether this association was mediated by a higher proportion of caloric intake at dinner.
RESULTS
We analyzed 194 completed questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, insulin use, depressed mood, diabetes complications, and perceived sleep debt found that chronotype was significantly associated with glycemic control (P = 0.001). This association was partially mediated by a greater percentage of total daily calories consumed at dinner.
CONCLUSIONS
Later chronotype and larger dinner were associated with poorer glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of sleep disturbances. These results suggest that chronotype may be predictive of disease outcomes and lend further support to the role of the circadian system in metabolic regulation.
doi:10.2337/dc12-2697
PMCID: PMC3747872  PMID: 23637357
2.  Clinical Use of U-500 Regular Insulin: Review and Meta-Analysis 
The use of U-500 regular insulin (U-500R) to treat diabetic patients with severe insulin resistance has increased. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis of PubMed studies reporting the use of U-500R to evaluate the effects of U-500R on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, and total daily insulin dose (TDD). These studies included 310 patients using U-500R as multiple daily injections (MDI) and 55 patients using U-500R via continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Overall, the use of U-500R as MDI resulted in a significant HbA1c reduction of 1.59%, a significant weight gain of 4.38 kg, and a significant increase in TDD by 51.9 units. The use of U-500R via CSII resulted in a similarly significant HbA1c reduction of 1.64% but a nonsignificant weight gain and a nonsignificant change in TDD.
The use of U-500 regular insulin both as MDI and via CSII was not reported to be associated with severe hypoglycemia but was associated with an increase in patient satisfaction as well as in cost savings. Suggestions in initiating U-500R in the outpatient setting using U-500R in hospitalized patients are reviewed. In addition, precautions for avoiding prescription and patient errors are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3380787  PMID: 22538155
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; insulin resistance; multiple daily injections; U-500 regular insulin
3.  Sleep Disturbances and Their Relationship to Glucose Tolerance in Pregnancy 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(11):2454-2457.
OBJECTIVE
To explore relationships among sleep disturbances, glucose tolerance, and pregnancy outcomes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Four validated sleep questionnaires were administered to 169 pregnant women at the time of 50-g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) during the second trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 108 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).
RESULTS
Of the participants, 41% had excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] >8); 64% had poor sleep quality; 25% snored frequently; 29% had increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB); 52% experienced short sleep (SS); 19% had both increased SDB risk and SS (SDB/SS); and 14% had daytime dysfunction. Reported sleep duration inversely correlated with glucose values from 50-g OGTT (r = −0.21, P < 0.01). Each hour of reduced sleep time was associated with a 4% increase in glucose levels. Increased likelihood of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was found in subjects with increased SDB risk (odds ratio 3.0 [95% CI 1.2–7.4]), SS (2.4 [1.0–5.9]), SDB/SS (3.4 [1.3–8.7]), and frequent snoring (3.4 [1.3–8.8], after adjustment for BMI). Among NGT subjects, preterm delivery was more frequent in those with increased ESS (P = 0.02), poor sleep quality (P = 0.02), and SS (P = 0.03). Neonatal intensive care unit admissions were associated with increased ESS (P = 0.03), SDB/SS (P = 0.03), and daytime dysfunction (P < 0.01) in mothers.
CONCLUSIONS
Pregnant women experience significant sleep disturbances that are associated with increased risk of GDM and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant women with increased SDB risk, frequent snoring, and sleep duration of <7 h/night have increased risk of developing GDM.
doi:10.2337/dc11-0780
PMCID: PMC3198297  PMID: 21926292
5.  Life-Threatening Hypocalcemia following Subtotal Parathyroidectomy in a Patient with Renal Failure and Previous Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery 
Case Reports in Endocrinology  2011;2011:370583.
Background. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) can result in calcium and vitamin D deficiency. Parathyroid surgery carries the risk of immediate and long-term hypocalcemia. Methods and Results. We describe a 54-year-old woman with history of end-stage renal disease and gastric bypass surgery who developed calciphylaxis requiring a 3.5-gland parathyroidectomy. Seven weeks later, she presented with weakness, perioral numbness, leg cramps, a positive Chvostek's sign, hypotension, prolonged QT-interval, and serum calcium of 5.4 mg/dL. Oral and intravenous calcium, calcitriol, and high calcium bath hemodialysis were given. She required 18 days of intravenous calcium and an outpatient maintenance regimen of calcitriol 6 mcg/day, calcium carbonate 8 grams/day, calcium citrate 1.2 grams/day, and ergocalciferol 50,000 IU/week. Conclusion. The patient's life-threatening prolonged hypocalcemia and large requirements of calcium and calcitriol were due to a combination of malabsorption, hypoparathyroidism, and renal failure. Special considerations should be given to bariatric surgery patients undergoing neck exploration.
doi:10.1155/2011/370583
PMCID: PMC3420727  PMID: 22937282

Results 1-5 (5)