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1.  Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the evaluation of heart failure 
Heart  2007;93(8):985-992.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.025304
PMCID: PMC1994410  PMID: 17639116
12.  In vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging shows evidence of abnormal myocardial laminar orientations and mobility in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 
Background
Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (cDTI) measures the magnitudes and directions of intramyocardial water diffusion. Assuming the cross-myocyte components to be constrained by the laminar microstructures of myocardium, we hypothesized that cDTI at two cardiac phases might identify any abnormalities of laminar orientation and mobility in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Methods
We performed cDTI in vivo at 3 Tesla at end-systole and late diastole in 11 healthy controls and 11 patients with HCM, as well as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for detection of regional fibrosis.
Results
Voxel-wise analysis of diffusion tensors relative to left ventricular coordinates showed expected transmural changes of myocardial helix-angle, with no significant differences between phases or between HCM and control groups. In controls, the angle of the second eigenvector of diffusion (E2A) relative to the local wall tangent plane was larger in systole than diastole, in accord with previously reported changes of laminar orientation. HCM hearts showed higher than normal global E2A in systole (63.9° vs 56.4° controls, p = 0.026) and markedly raised E2A in diastole (46.8° vs 24.0° controls, p < 0.001). In hypertrophic regions, E2A retained a high, systole-like angulation even in diastole, independent of LGE, while regions of normal wall thickness did not (LGE present 57.8°, p = 0.0028, LGE absent 54.8°, p = 0.0022 vs normal thickness 38.1°).
Conclusions
In healthy controls, the angles of cross-myocyte components of diffusion were consistent with previously reported transmural orientations of laminar microstructures and their changes with contraction. In HCM, especially in hypertrophic regions, they were consistent with hypercontraction in systole and failure of relaxation in diastole. Further investigation of this finding is required as previously postulated effects of strain might be a confounding factor.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12968-014-0087-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12968-014-0087-8
PMCID: PMC4229618  PMID: 25388867
Diffusion tensor imaging; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Myocardial architecture; Laminar structure; Sheet and shear layers; Diastolic dysfunction
13.  Coronary microvascular ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a pixel-wise quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion study 
Background
Microvascular dysfunction in HCM has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Advances in quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging now allow myocardial blood flow to be quantified at the pixel level. We applied these techniques to investigate the spectrum of microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and to explore its relationship with fibrosis and wall thickness.
Methods
CMR perfusion imaging was undertaken during adenosine-induced hyperemia and again at rest in 35 patients together with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified on a pixel-by-pixel basis from CMR perfusion images using a Fermi-constrained deconvolution algorithm. Regions-of-interest (ROI) in hypoperfused and hyperemic myocardium were identified from the MBF pixel maps. The myocardium was also divided into 16 AHA segments.
Results
Resting MBF was significantly higher in the endocardium than in the epicardium (mean ± SD: 1.25 ± 0.35 ml/g/min versus 1.20 ± 0.35 ml/g/min, P < 0.001), a pattern that reversed with stress (2.00 ± 0.76 ml/g/min versus 2.36 ± 0.83 ml/g/min, P < 0.001). ROI analysis revealed 11 (31%) patients with stress MBF lower than resting values (1.05 ± 0.39 ml/g/min versus 1.22 ± 0.36 ml/g/min, P = 0.021). There was a significant negative association between hyperemic MBF and wall thickness (β = −0.047 ml/g/min per mm, 95% CI: −0.057 to −0.038, P < 0.001) and a significantly lower probability of fibrosis in a segment with increasing hyperemic MBF (odds ratio per ml/g/min: 0.086, 95% CI: 0.078 to 0.095, P = 0.003).
Conclusions
Pixel-wise quantitative CMR perfusion imaging identifies a subgroup of patients with HCM that have localised severe microvascular dysfunction which may give rise to myocardial ischemia.
doi:10.1186/s12968-014-0049-1
PMCID: PMC4145339  PMID: 25160568
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Perfusion; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Microvascular dysfunction; Sudden cardiac death
14.  Myocardial fibrosis in Eisenmenger syndrome: a descriptive cohort study exploring associations of late gadolinium enhancement with clinical status and survival 
Background
A relationship between myocardial fibrosis and ventricular dysfunction has been demonstrated using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in the pressure-loaded right ventricle from congenital heart defects. In patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (ES), the presence of LGE has not been investigated. The aims of this study were to detect any myocardial fibrosis in ES and describe major clinical variables associated with the finding.
Methods
From 45 subjects screened, 30 subjects (age 43 ± 13 years, 20 female) underwent prospective cardiovascular magnetic resonance with LGE to quantify biventricular volume and function as well as maximal and submaximal exercise during a single visit. Standard cine acquisitions were obtained for ventricular volume and function. Further imaging was performed after administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium contrast. Regions of LGE were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by manual contouring of identified areas, with total area expressed as a percentage of mass. Patients were followed prospectively (mean follow up 7.4 ± 0.4 years) and any deaths recorded. Patients with LGE findings were compared to those without.
Results
LGE was present in 22/30 (73%) patients, specifically in RV myocardium (70%), RV trabeculae (60%), LV myocardium (33%) or LV papillary muscles (30%), though in small amounts (mean 1.4% of total ventricular mass, range 0.16 – 6.0%). Those with any LGE were not different in age, history of arrhythmia, desaturation, nor hemoglobin, nor ventricular size, mass, or function. Exercise capacity was low, but also not different between those with and without LGE. Similarly no significant associations were found with amount of fibrosis. There were five deaths among patients with LGE, versus two in patients without, but no difference in survival (log rank =0.03, P = 0.85).
Conclusions
Myocardial fibrosis by LGE is common in ES, though not extensive. The presence and quantity of LGE did not correlate with ventricular size, function, degree of cyanosis, exercise capacity, or survival in this pilot study. More data are clearly required before recommendations for routine use of LGE in these patients can be made.
doi:10.1186/1532-429X-16-32
PMCID: PMC4051886  PMID: 24886403
Eisenmenger; Cyanosis; Pulmonary artery hypertension; Myocardial fibrosis; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance
21.  Review of Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 2012 
There were 90 articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (JCMR) in 2012, which is an 8% increase in the number of articles since 2011. The quality of the submissions continues to increase. The editors are delighted to report that the 2011 JCMR Impact Factor (which is published in June 2012) has risen to 4.44, up from 3.72 for 2010 (as published in June 2011), a 20% increase. The 2011 impact factor means that the JCMR papers that were published in 2009 and 2010 were cited on average 4.44 times in 2011. The impact factor undergoes natural variation according to citation rates of papers in the 2 years following publication, and is significantly influenced by highly cited papers such as official reports. However, the progress of the journal's impact over the last 5 years has been impressive. Our acceptance rate is approximately 25%, and has been falling as the number of articles being submitted has been increasing. In accordance with Open-Access publishing, the JCMR articles go on-line as they are accepted with no collating of the articles into sections or special thematic issues. For this reason, the Editors have felt that it is useful once per calendar year to summarize the papers for the readership into broad areas of interest or theme, so that areas of interest can be reviewed in a single article in relation to each other and other recent JCMR articles. The papers are presented in broad themes and set in context with related literature and previously published JCMR papers to guide continuity of thought in the journal. We hope that you find the open-access system increases wider reading and citation of your papers, and that you will continue to send your quality manuscripts to JCMR for publication.
doi:10.1186/1532-429X-15-76
PMCID: PMC3847143  PMID: 24006874
22.  Late gadolinium enhancement as a potential marker of increased perioperative risk in aortic valve replacement† 
OBJECTIVES
Risk assessment of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) is challenging. We set out to determine the impact of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), as detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), on postoperative outcomes following AVR.
METHODS
A prospective observational study was conducted on patients undergoing CMR using the LGE technique within 1 year of subsequent AVR. Patients were categorized into absent, mid-wall or infarct patterns of LGE by independent observers blinded to all clinical data, and data were collected with regard to 30-day mortality, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and postoperative complications.
RESULTS
A total of 63 patients were studied. Twenty-five patients had no LGE; 20 had mid-wall LGE and 18 had an infarct pattern. The incidence of MACCE, cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and heart block were significantly higher in the mid-wall group compared with the other two groups (MACCE: 25 vs. 0 vs. 5%, P = 0.014; CVA: 20 vs. 0 vs. 0%, P = 0.013; heart block: 30 vs. 4 vs. 12%, P = 0.050). Patients with no LGE had no 30-day MACCE events and no deaths up to 2 years of follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS
The myocardial LGE holds promise as a means of predicting risk prior to AVR for AS.
doi:10.1093/icvts/ivs098
PMCID: PMC3380978  PMID: 22514254
Aortic valve stenosis; Myocardial fibrosis; Magnetic resonance; Risk assessment
23.  Reference right atrial dimensions and volume estimation by steady state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance 
Background
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) steady state free precession (SSFP) cine sequences with high temporal resolution and improved post-processing can accurately measure RA dimensions. We used this technique to define ranges for normal RA volumes and dimensions normalized, when necessary, to the influence of gender, body surface area (BSA) and age, and also to define the best 2D images-derived predictors of RA enlargement.
Methods
For definition of normal ranges of RA volume we studied 120 healthy subjects (60 men, 60 women; 20 subjects per age decile from 20 to 80 years), after careful exclusion of cardiovascular abnormality. We also studied 120 patients (60 men, 60 women; age range 20 to 80 years) with a clinical indication for CMR in order to define the best 1D and 2D predictors of RA enlargement. Data were generated from SSFP cine CMR, with 3-dimensional modeling, including tracking of the atrioventricular ring motion and time-volume curves analysis.
Results
In the group of healthy individuals, age influenced RA 2-chamber area and transverse diameter. Gender influenced most absolute RA dimensions and volume. Interestingly, right atrial volumes did not change with age and gender when indexed to body surface area. New CMR normal ranges for RA dimensions were modeled and displayed for clinical use with normalization for BSA and gender and display of parameter variation with age. Finally, the best 2D images-derived independent predictors of RA enlargement were indexed area and indexed longitudinal diameter in the 2-chamber view.
Conclusion
Reference RA dimensions and predictors of RA enlargement are provided using state-of-the-art CMR techniques.
doi:10.1186/1532-429X-15-29
PMCID: PMC3627628  PMID: 23566426
Magnetic resonance; Heart; Right atrial volume; Dimensions; Reference values

Results 1-25 (54)