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author:("iraqi, Ismail")
1.  Redox-sensitive YFP sensors monitor dynamic nuclear and cytosolic glutathione redox changes 
Free radical biology & medicine  2012;52(0):2254-2265.
Intracellular redox homeostasis is crucial for many cellular functions but accurate measurements of cellular compartment-specific redox states remain technically challenging. To better characterize redox control in the nucleus, we targeted a yellow fluorescent protein-based redox sensor (rxYFP) to the nucleus of the yeast S. cerevisiae. Parallel analyses of the redox state of nucleus-rxYFP and cytosol-rxYFP allow us to monitor distinctively dynamic glutathione (GSH) redox changes within these two compartments in a given condition. We observed that the nuclear GSH redox environment is highly reducing and similar to the cytosol under steady state conditions. Furthermore, these sensors are able to detect redox variations specific for their respective compartments in glutathione reductase (Glr1) and thioredoxin pathway (Trr1, Trx1, Trx2) mutants that have altered subcellular redox environments. Our mutant redox data provide in vivo evidence that glutathione and the thioredoxin redox system play distinct but overlapping functions in controlling subcellular redox environments. We also monitored the dynamic response of nucleus-rxYFP and cytosol-rxYFP to GSH depletion and to exogenous low and high doses of H2O2 bursts. These observations indicate a rapid and almost simultaneous oxidation of both nucleus-rxYFP and cytosol-rxYFP, highlighting the robustness of the rxYFP sensors in measuring real-time compartmental redox changes. Taken together, our data suggest that the highly reduced yeast nuclear and cytosolic redox states are maintained independently to some extent and under distinct but subtle redox regulation. Nucleus- and cytosol- rxYFP register compartment-specific localized redox fluctuations that may involve exchange of reduced and/or oxidized glutathione between these two compartments. Finally, we confirmed that GSH depletion has profound effects on mitochondrial genome stability but little effect on nuclear genome stability, thereby emphasizing that the critical requirement for GSH during growth is linked to a mitochondria-dependent process.
PMCID: PMC3382975  PMID: 22561702
redox-sensitive sensor; redox; glutathione; yeast
2.  Recovery of Arrested Replication Forks by Homologous Recombination Is Error-Prone 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(10):e1002976.
Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows repair of DNA and provides support for DNA replication. Homologous recombination is therefore a major pathway that suppresses non-homology-mediated genome instability. Here, we report that recovery of impeded replication forks by homologous recombination is error-prone. Using a fork-arrest-based assay in fission yeast, we demonstrate that a single collapsed fork can cause mutations and large-scale genomic changes, including deletions and translocations. Fork-arrest-induced gross chromosomal rearrangements are mediated by inappropriate ectopic recombination events at the site of collapsed forks. Inverted repeats near the site of fork collapse stimulate large-scale genomic changes up to 1,500 times over spontaneous events. We also show that the high accuracy of DNA replication during S-phase is impaired by impediments to fork progression, since fork-arrest-induced mutation is due to erroneous DNA synthesis during recovery of replication forks. The mutations caused are small insertions/duplications between short tandem repeats (micro-homology) indicative of replication slippage. Our data establish that collapsed forks, but not stalled forks, recovered by homologous recombination are prone to replication slippage. The inaccuracy of DNA synthesis does not rely on PCNA ubiquitination or trans-lesion-synthesis DNA polymerases, and it is not counteracted by mismatch repair. We propose that deletions/insertions, mediated by micro-homology, leading to copy number variations during replication stress may arise by progression of error-prone replication forks restarted by homologous recombination.
Author Summary
The appropriate transmission of genetic material during successive cell divisions requires the accurate duplication and segregation of parental DNA. The semi-conservative replication of chromosomes during S-phase is highly accurate and prevents accumulation of deleterious mutations. However, during each round of duplication, there are many impediments to the replication fork machinery that may hinder faithful chromosome duplication. Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism involved in the rescue of replication forks by rebuilding a replication apparatus at the fork (by mechanisms that are not yet understood). However, recombination can jeopardize genome stability because it allows genetic exchanges between homologous repeated sequences dispersed through the genome. In this study, we employ a fission yeast-based arrest of a single replication fork to investigate the consequences of replication fork arrest for genome stability. We report that a single blocked fork favours genomic deletions, translocations, and mutations; and this instability occurs during fork recovery by recombination. We also report that a single arrested fork that resumes its progression by recombination is prone to causing replication slippage mediated by micro-homology. We propose that deletions/duplications observed in human cancer cells suffering from replication stress can be viewed as scars left by error-prone replication forks restarted by recombination.
PMCID: PMC3475662  PMID: 23093942
3.  Human peroxiredoxin PrxI is an ortholog of yeast Tsa1, capable of suppressing genome instability and protecting against cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Cancer research  2008;68(4):1055-1063.
The peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are conserved antioxidant proteins that utilize cysteine as the primary site of oxidation during the reduction of peroxides. Many organisms have more than one isoform of Prx. Deletion of TSA1, one of five Prxs in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, results in accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations including gross chromosomal rearrangements. Deletion of TSA1 is synthetically lethal with mutations in RAD6 and several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. Here we have examined the function of human peroxiredoxins PrxI and PrxII, which share a high degree of sequence identity with Tsa1, by expressing them in S. cerevisiae cells under control of the native TSA1 promoter. We found that expression of PrxI, but not PrxII, was capable of complementing a tsa1Δ mutant for a variety of defects including genome instability, the synthetic lethality observed in rad6Δ tsa1Δ and rad51Δ tsa1Δ double mutants and mutagen sensitivity. Moreover, expression of either Tsa1 or PrxI prevented Bax-induced cell death. These data indicate that PrxI is an ortholog of Tsa1. PrxI and Tsa1 appear to act on the same substrates in vivo and share similar mechanisms of function. The observation that PrxI is involved in suppressing genome instability and protecting against cell death potentially provides a better understanding of the consequences of PrxI dysfunction in human cells. The S. cerevisiae system described here could provide a sensitive tool to uncover the mechanisms that underlie the function of human Prxs.
PMCID: PMC2761232  PMID: 18281480
peroxiredoxin; oxidative stress; genome instability; S. cerevisiae
4.  Peroxiredoxin Tsa1 Is the Key Peroxidase Suppressing Genome Instability and Protecting against Cell Death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(6):e1000524.
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) constitute a family of thiol-specific peroxidases that utilize cysteine (Cys) as the primary site of oxidation during the reduction of peroxides. To gain more insight into the physiological role of the five Prxs in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a comparative study and found that Tsa1 was distinguished from the other Prxs in that by itself it played a key role in maintaining genome stability and in sustaining aerobic viability of rad51 mutants that are deficient in recombinational repair. Tsa2 and Dot5 played minor but distinct roles in suppressing the accumulation of mutations in cooperation with Tsa1. Tsa2 was capable of largely complementing the absence of Tsa1 when expressed under the control of the Tsa1 promoter. The presence of peroxidatic cysteine (Cys47) was essential for Tsa1 activity, while Tsa1C170S lacking the resolving Cys was partially functional. In the absence of Tsa1 activity (tsa1 or tsa1CCS lacking the peroxidatic and resolving Cys) and recombinational repair (rad51), dying cells displayed irregular cell size/shape, abnormal cell cycle progression, and significant increase of phosphatidylserine externalization, an early marker of apoptosis-like cell death. The tsa1CCS rad51– or tsa1 rad51–induced cell death did not depend on the caspase Yca1 and Ste20 kinase, while the absence of the checkpoint protein Rad9 accelerated the cell death processes. These results indicate that the peroxiredoxin Tsa1, in cooperation with appropriate DNA repair and checkpoint mechanisms, acts to protect S. cerevisiae cells against toxic levels of DNA damage that occur during aerobic growth.
Author Summary
Aerobically growing cells are continuously challenged by potent oxidants produced during normal cellular metabolism. These oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides, are important components mediating various cell functions. However, they can also cause cell damage when present at toxic levels. Aerobic organisms possess extensive antioxidant systems to regulate oxidant levels. Among these, peroxiredoxins have received considerable attention in recent years as an expanding protein family involved in the enzymatic degradation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. To better understand the physiological role of the five peroxiredoxins in budding yeast S. cerevisiae, we performed a comparative study and found that one, Tsa1, played a key role in preventing DNA damage and assuring genome stability. Tsa1 also cooperated with other peroxiredoxins in antioxidant defense. These functions of Tsa1 required the presence of a cysteine at the catalytic site of this enzyme. Additional studies revealed that Tsa1 activity, in cooperation with appropriate DNA repair and checkpoint mechanisms, acts to protect cells against toxic levels of DNA damage that occur during aerobic growth.
PMCID: PMC2688748  PMID: 19543365

Results 1-4 (4)