Several transitions in the friction coefficient with increasing load are found on Au(111) in sulfuric acid electrolyte containing Cu ions when a monolayer (or submonolayer) of Cu is adsorbed. At the corresponding normal loads, a transition to double or multiple slips in stick–slip friction is observed. The stick length in this case corresponds to multiples of the lattice distance of the adsorbed sulfate, which is adsorbed in a √3 × √7 superstructure on the copper monolayer. Stick–slip behaviour for the copper monolayer as well as for 2/3 coverage can be observed at F
N ≥ 15 nN. At this normal load, a change from a small to a large friction coefficient occurs. This leads to the interpretation that the tip penetrates the electrochemical double layer at this point. At the potential (or point) of zero charge (pzc), stick–slip resolution persists at all normal forces investigated.
AFM; friction; friction force microscopy; nanotribology; underpotential deposition
The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential effect of CGP 35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist) on the learning, memory formation, and neuromuscular coordination in albino mouse. Mice were intrapertoneally injected with 1 mg CGP 35348/mL of distilled water/Kg body weight, while the control animals were injected with equal volume of saline solution. A battery of neurological tests was applied following the intrapertoneal injections. Results of rota rod indicated that CGP 35348 had no effect on neuromuscular coordination in both male (P = 0.528) and female (P = 0.125) albino mice. CGP 35348 treated females demonstrated poor exploratory behavior during open filed for several parameters (time mobile (P = 0.04), time immobile (P = 0.04), rotations (P = 0.04), and anticlockwise rotations (P = 0.038)). The results for Morris water maze (MWM) retention phase indicated that CGP 35348 treated male mice took shorter latency to reach the hidden platform (P = 0.04) than control indicating improved memory. This observation was complemented by the swim strategies used by mice during training days in MWM as CGP 35348 treated males used more direct and focal approach to reach the platform as the training proceeded.
Congenital hairy polyps are exceedingly rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of congenital hairy polyp arising from posterior tonsillar pillar which was excised with bipolar cautry.
congenial hairy poly; posterior tonsillar pillar; neonate
Background. Present study was designed to report the effect of 2% creatine monohydrate supplementation for 8, 12 and 15 weeks on hematology and serum biochemical profile of male albino mouse following hypoxic ischemic insult on postnatal day 10. Methods. 66 Blood samples (2% creatine monohydrate supplemented (N = 34) and unsupplemented (N = 32)) were analyzed for various hematological (blood glucose, packed cell volume, total WBC count, total RBC count) and serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, total protein, triglycerides). Results. ALT had higher concentrations in mice feeding on normal diet for 8 (P > 0.01) and 12 weeks (P > 0.01) following asphyxia and in 12 weeks treatment without asphyxia (P = 0.006) when compared with the creatine supplemented mice. LDL (P = 0.011) and cholesterol (P > 0.01) had higher concentrations in mice on normal diet for 12 weeks following hypoxia ischemia. Cholesterol (P > 0.01) in 12 and glucose (P = 0.006) in 15 week treatment group had significantly lower concentrations in creatine supplemented male albino mice when compared with untreated group following hxpoic-ischemic insult. Conclusion. We concluded that creatine supplementation following hypoxic ischemic insult helps in maintain the normal blood chemistry.
The title compound, C13H10N2O4, crystallized as the zwitterionic tautomer. As a result, the phenolate C—O− bond [1.296 (2) Å] is shorter than a normal Csp
2—O(H) bond, and the azomethine C=N bond [1.314 (2) Å] is longer than a normal C=N double bond. The molecule is nearly planar, the mean plane of the nitro-substituted benzene ring forming dihedral angles of 9.83 (7) and 8.45 (9)° with the other benzene ring and with the nitro group, respectively. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into double-stranded chains along the b-axis direction. Within the chains there are π–π interactions involving the benzene rings of adjacent molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.669 (1) Å]. The chains are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming R
1(7) and R
2(10) ring motifs.
In the title compound, C19H25NO2, the 3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde group is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.029 Å). An intramolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. There are no intermolecular hydrogen bonds.
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H17NO2, contains two molecules in which the dihedral angles between the 3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and toluidine moieties are 16.87 (8) and 19.93 (6)°. S(6) rings are present in both molecules due to intramolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, one of the molecules is dimerized with an inversion-generated partner, due to two C—H⋯O interactions. This generates an R
Fetus in fetu is a rare developmental aberration, characterized by encasement of partially developed monozygotic, diamniotic, and monochorionic fetus into the normally developing host. A 4-month-old boy presented with abdominal mass. Radiological investigations gave the suspicion of fetus in fetu. At surgery a fetus enclosed in an amnion like membrane at upper retroperitoneal location was found and excised. The patient is doing well after the operation.
Fetus in fetu; Teratoma; Abdominal mass
To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals.
Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals.
27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle.
: This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output.
Babesia bovis; PCR amplification; Cattle; Hematology; Serum biochemistry; Ruminant; Babesiosis; Serological profile; Cattle
Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection to gastrointestinal pH conditions (p < 0.05). Also elevated significantly were the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of SPF (p < 0.05). In summary, the antioxidant properties of SPF were enhanced under gastrointestinal pH conditions, suggesting that SPF might possess a considerable amount of bound phenolic and other antioxidative compounds. The antioxidant properties of SPF are largely influenced by pH and thus might be enhanced during the in vivo digestive process.
sweet potato flour; antioxidant activity; phenolic content; flavonoid content; simulated gastrointestinal pH
The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.
germinated brown rice; γ-aminobutyric acid; hydrogen peroxide; neuroprotective; SH-SY5Y cell death
Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) have successfully been developed for naturally occurring phenolic compounds in a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) system. A total of 1519 descriptors were calculated from the optimized structures of the molecules using MOPAC2009 and DRAGON softwares. The data set of 39 molecules was divided into training and external validation sets. For feature selection and mapping we used step-wise multiple linear regression (SMLR), unsupervised forward selection followed by step-wise multiple linear regression (UFS-SMLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Stable and robust models with significant predictive abilities in terms of validation statistics were obtained with negation of any chance correlation. ANN models were found better than remaining two approaches. HNar, IDM, Mp, GATS2v, DISP and 3D-MoRSE (signals 22, 28 and 32) descriptors based on van der Waals volume, electronegativity, mass and polarizability, at atomic level, were found to have significant effects on the retention times. The possible implications of these descriptors in RPLC have been discussed. All the models are proven to be quite able to predict the retention times of phenolic compounds and have shown remarkable validation, robustness, stability and predictive performance.
QSRR (quantitative structure-retention relationship); naturally occurring phenolic compounds; artificial neural networks; unsupervised forward selection; reversed phase liquid chromatography
Background: Colonic atresia and stenosis are rare entities. On average 1 case per year of colonic atresia is being seen in most of pediatric surgical centers and to date less than 10 cases of colonic stenosis have been reported.
Material and Methods: The medical record of patients of colonic atresia and stenosis managed during March 2006 to March 2010 was reviewed.
Results: A total of 15 patients of colonic atresia (11) and stenosis (4) were the study population. Four were ascending colon atresia, 2 at hepatic flexure and transverse colon each, and 1 at sigmoid colon. Two patients had multiple colonic atresias. One patient of ascending colon atresia also had pyloric atresia. In colonic stenosis population (two congenital and two secondary to necrotizing enterocolitis), two were transverse colon stenosis and two were sigmoid colon stenosis. The preoperative diagnosis was distal small bowel atresia in 11 patients. Colonic atresias were managed by colocolic anastomosis with covering ileostomy in 8 patients. The remaining 3 patients were managed by exteriorizing both ends of atresia. Colonic stenosis cases were managed by primary colocolic anastomosis in 1 patient and colocolic anastomosis under covering ileostomy in 3 patients. Three patients of colonic atresia succumbed postoperatively.
Conclusion: Colonic atresia and stenosis are rare entities. Associated alimentary tract malformations may result poor prognosis. Colonic atresia can safely be managed by colocolic anastomosis with covering ileostomy.
Colonic stenosis; Colonic atresia; Intestinal obstruction
In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia.
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven sections was used to gather the data. A systematic sampling was applied to recruit the students. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using SPSS® version 18.
Overall, the students tend to disagree that complementary therapies (CM) are a threat to public health (mean score = 3.6) and agreed that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit (mean score = 4.7). More than half (57.8%) of the participants were currently using CAM while 77.6% had used it previously. Among the current CAM modalities used by the students, CM (21.9%) was found to be the most frequently used CAM followed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (21%). Most of the students (74.8%) believed that lack of scientific evidence is one of the most important barriers obstructing them to use CAM. More than half of the students perceived TCM (62.8%) and music therapy (53.8%) to be effective. Majority of them (69.3%) asserted that CAM knowledge is necessary to be a well-rounded professional.
This study reveals a high-percentage of pharmacy students who were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Students of higher professional years tend to agree that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit.
Inguinal hernia is a frequent surgical condition encountered of pediatric age group. It may get incarcerated and at times strangulated requiring prompt intervention. However if lesion is not treated timely a host of complications may occur. Enteroscrotal fistula is one such rare complication that may follow such discourse. We report a case of 25-days old male neonate who presented with enteroscrotal fistula due to incarcerated right inguinal hernia. Patient was explored through abdomen and the involved part of ileum was resected and ileo-ileal anastomosis performed.
Strangulated inguinal hernia; Enteroscrotal fistula; Neonate
Gastric teratomas are very rare tumours in children. They usually present with a palpable mass in the upper abdomen. We report a case of gastric teratoma in one and half month old male infant who presented with a palpable mass in abdomen, extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components. CT scan delineated calcifications in the mass. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. The mass was excised completely with seromuscular layer of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be grade-3 immature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the origin of teratoma in addition to its immature variety prompted us to report the case.
Gastric teratoma; Immature teratoma; Infant
Complete or partial avulsion of common bile duct is a very rare injury following blunt abdominal trauma in children. A 7-year old boy presented to ER following blunt abdominal trauma by a moving motorcycle. X ray abdomen revealed free air under diaphragm and CT scan showed pancreatic contusion injury. At operation anterior wall of common bile duct (CBD) along with a 2mm rim of duodenal tissue on either side of anterior wall of CBD were found avulsed from the duodenum. The avulsed portion of CBD and duodenum were reanastomosed and a tube cholecystostomy performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery.
Common bile duct; Avulsion; Blunt abdominal truama; Duodenal perforation
In the title hydrated molecular salt, 2C7H8NO2
2−·H2O, each cation in the asymmetric unit is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The O atoms of the sulfate ion are disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.541 (13):0.459 (13), which possibly optimizes the acceptance of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds from the cations. The crystal structure also features aromatic π–π stacking [centroid–centroid separation = 3.842 (2) Å] and a C—H⋯π interaction.