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1.  Efficacy of Royal Jelly on Methotrexate-Induced Systemic Oxidative Stress and Damage to Small Intestine in Rats 
The aim of this present study is to investigate the mucositis caused by methotrexate (MTX), as well as whether the application of royal jelly (RJ) has a protective effect on oxidative stress. This present study included six groups each consisted of 12 Wistar rats. Distilled water (po: peroral) was given to the 1st group as placebo for 10 days and MTX (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal: ip) on the 7th day. The 2nd group received RJ (50mg/kg, po) for 10 days and normal saline (NS) instead of MTX. RJ (50mg/kg) was given to the 3rd group for 10 days and MTX on the 7th day. The 4th group received RJ (100 mg/kg, po) for 10 days and NS was given intraperitoneally. RJ (100mg/kg) was given to the 5th group for 10 days and a single dose of MTX. Distilled water was given to the 6th (control) group for 10 days and intraperitoneal NS on the 7th day. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were analyzed in blood samples on the 11th day. Morphological and histopathological changes were examined in the intestinal tissue samples. Villus length and mucosal thickness, as well as the villus length/crypt ratio, were significantly decreased with MTX administration, and the semi-quantitative histological evaluation (SQHE) score was measured high (p<0.001). In addition, a decrease in the antioxidant parameters and an increase in the MDA levels were identified. The villus length and SQHE were significantly different in the groups receiving RJ (p<0.001) as compared to the MTX group. Although RJ addition had no effect on the decreased mucosal thickness and villus/crypt ratio in MTX groups, it caused an improvement in the antioxidant levels and a remarkable decrease in MDA levels. Adding RJ has a decreasing effect on the MTX-induced intestinal damage and it has a suppressive effect on MTX-induced oxidative stress by means of increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and decreasing lipid peroxidation.
PMCID: PMC3746676  PMID: 23983375
Rat; methotrexate; mucositis; royal jelly; oxidative stress
2.  Rhabdomyolysis in a Healthy Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Donor following Mobilization with Filgrastim 
Summary
Background
Although granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization is generally well tolerated by healthy donors, there is also a wide spectrum of adverse events associated with it. Among these events, rhabdomyolysis in peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors is very rare. In this paper, we present a first case of rhabdomyolysis after administration of filgrastim for PBSC mobilization.
Case Report
A 6-year-old donor received 10 μg/kg/day filgrastim subcutaneously for 5 days. On the 3rd day of filgrastim, the donor complained of bone pain; a single dose of paracetamol (250 mg) was given to relieve pain. On the 4th day, she complained of bone pain, myalgia, and vomiting. On laboratory analysis, serum creatine phosphokinase was 1,095 U/l (40–226 U/l), LDH 312 U/l (100–190 U/l), aspartate aminotransferase 85 U/l (0–40 U/l), potassium 3.3 mmol/l (3.6–5.1 mmol/l). Urine myoglobin was 110 ng/ml (<5 ng/ml). Rhabdomyolysis was suspected on clinical and laboratory findings. Clinical manifestations regressed and the laboratory results returned to normal within three days after intravenously forced diuresis and potassium replacement. Stem cells were successfully harvested from peripheral blood on the 5th day of G-CSF therapy.
Conclusion
Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but important adverse effect of G-CSF. Allogeneic PBSC donors should be closely monitored with regard to rhabdomyolysis after G-CSF administration in the mobilization setting.
doi:10.1159/000206822
PMCID: PMC2928827  PMID: 20823994
Rhabdomyolysis; Filgrastim; Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization
3.  Comparison of Plateletpheresis on the Fenwal Amicus and Fresenius Com.Tec Cell Separators 
Summary
Background
A variety of apheresis devices are now available on the market for plateletapheresis. We compared two apheresis instruments (Fenwal Amicus and Fresenius COM.TEC) with regard to processing time, platelet (PLT) yield and efficiency, and white blood cell (WBC) content.
Material and Methods
Donors undergoing plateletpheresis were randomly separated into two groups (either the Amicus or the COM.TEC cell separator).
Results
In the pre-apheresis setting, 32 plateletpheresis procedures performed with each instrument revealed no significant differences in donors’ sex, age, weight, height and total blood volume between the two groups. However, the pre-apheresis PLT count was higher with the COM.TEC than with the Amicus (198 × 103/μl vs. 223 × 103/μl; p = 0.035). The blood volume processed to reach a target PLT yield of ≥3.3 × 1011 was higher in the COM.TEC compared to the Amicus (3,481 vs. 2,850 ml; p < 0.001). The median separation time was also significantly longer in the COM.TEC than in the Amicus (61 vs. 44 min; p < 0.001). 91 and 88% of the PLT products collected with the Amicus and the COM.TEC, respectively, had a PLT count of >3.3 × 1011 (p = 0.325). All products obtained with both instruments had WBC counts lower than 5 ↔ 106, as required. There was no statistical difference with regard to collection efficiency between the devices (55 ± 15 vs. 57 ± 15%; p = 0.477). However, the collection rate was significantly higher with the Amicus compared to the COM.TEC instrument (0.077 ± 0.012 × 1011 vs. 0.057 ± 0.008 × 1011 PLT/min; p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Both instruments collected platelets efficiently. Additionally, consistent leukoreduction was obtained with both instruments; however, compared with the COM.TEC instrument, the Amicus reached the PLT target yield more quickly.
doi:10.1159/000151351
PMCID: PMC3076329  PMID: 21512626
Plateletpheresis; Apheresis; Amicus; COM.TEC; Cell separator

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