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1.  Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Is Effective In Treating Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: A Meta-analysis of RCTs 
Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. It may remain symptomatic despite conservative treatment with orthoses and analgesia. There is conflicting evidence concerning the role of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the management of this condition.
We investigated whether there was a significant difference in the change of (1) VAS scores and (2) Roles and Maudsley scores from baseline when treated with ESWT and placebo. Specifically we compared overall improvement from baseline composite VAS, reduction in overall VAS pain, success rate of improving overall VAS pain by 60%, success rate of improving VAS pain by 60% when taking first steps, doing daily activities, and during application of a pain pressure meter.
MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched from January 1980 to January 2013 and a double extraction technique was used to obtain relevant studies. Studies had to be prospective randomized controlled trials on adults and must not have used local anesthesia as part of their treatment protocol. Studies must have specifically recruited patients who continued to be symptomatic despite a minimum of 3 months of conservative treatments. All papers were assessed regarding their methodologic quality and a meta-analysis performed. Seven prospective randomized controlled trials were included in this study. There were 369 patients included in the placebo group and 294 in the ESWT group.
After ESWT, patients had better composite VAS scores (random effects model, standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.05, 0.72; z = 2.27). They also had a greater reduction in their absolute VAS scores compared with placebo (random effects model, SMD = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.34, 0.85; z = 4.64). Greater success of improving heel pain by 60% was observed after ESWT when taking first steps (random effects model, risk ratio [RR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.62; z = 2.29) and during daily activities (random effects model, RR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.13, 1.84; z = 2.96). Subjective measurement of pain using a pressure meter similarly favored ESWT (random effects model, RR = 1.37, 95% CI, 1.06, 1.78; z = 2.41). There was a significant difference in the change to “excellent - good” Roles and Maudsley scores in favor of the ESWT group.
ESWT is a safe and effective treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis refractory to nonoperative treatments. Improved pain scores with the use of ESWT were evident 12 weeks after treatment. The evidence suggests this improvement is maintained for up to 12 months. We recommend the use of ESWT for patients with substantial heel pain despite a minimum of 3 months of nonoperative treatment.
PMCID: PMC3792262  PMID: 23813184
2.  Balance and gait adaptations in patients with early knee osteoarthritis☆ 
Gait & Posture  2014;39(4):1057-1061.
•High knee adduction moments do not occur in early osteoarthritis.•People with early knee-joint osteoarthritis show impairments in balance.•Altered muscle activation is associated with early osteoarthritis during balance tasks.
Gait adaptations in people with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA) have been well documented, with increased knee adduction moments (KAM) the most commonly reported parameter. Neuromuscular adaptations have also been reported, including reduced postural control. However these adaptations may be the result of morphological changes in the joint, rather than the cause. This study aimed to determine if people with early OA have altered gait parameters and neuromuscular adaptations. Gait and postural tasks were performed by 18 people with early medial knee OA and 18 age and gender-matched control subjects. Parameters measured were kinematics and kinetics during gait and postural tasks, and centre of pressure and electromyographic activity during postural tasks. OA subjects showed no differences in the gait parameters measured, however they demonstrated postural deficits during one-leg standing on both their affected and unaffected sides and altered hip adduction moments compared with controls. Increased activity of the gluteus medius of both sides (p < 0.05), and quadriceps and hamstrings of the affected side (p < 0.05) during one-leg standing compared with controls were also noted. This study has demonstrated that gait adaptations commonly associated with OA do not occur in the early stages, while neuromuscular adaptations are evident. These results may be relevant for early interventions to delay or prevent osteoarthritis in its early stages.
PMCID: PMC3989045  PMID: 24582072
Gait; Knee; Muscle; Osteoarthritis; Posture
3.  Developmental dysplasia of the hip in the newborn: A systematic review 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2013;4(2):32-41.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) denotes a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from subtle acetabular dysplasia to irreducible hip dislocations. Clinical diagnostic tests complement ultrasound imaging in allowing diagnosis, classification and monitoring of this condition. Classification systems relate to the alpha and beta angles in addition to the dynamic coverage index (DCI). Screening programmes for DDH show considerable geographic variation; certain risk factors have been identified which necessitate ultrasound assessment of the newborn. The treatment of DDH has undergone significant evolution, but the current gold standard is still the Pavlik harness. Duration of Pavlik harness treatment has been reported to range from 3 to 9.3 mo. The beta angle, DCI and the superior/lateral femoral head displacement can be assessed via ultrasound to estimate the likelihood of success. Success rates of between 7% and 99% have been reported when using the harness to treat DDH. Avascular necrosis remains the most devastating complication of harness usage with a reported rate of between 0% and 28%. Alternative non-surgical treatment methods used for DDH include devices proposed by LeDamany, Frejka, Lorenz and Ortolani. The Rosen splint and Wagner stocking have also been used for DDH treatment. Surgical treatment for DDH comprises open reduction alongside a combination of femoral or pelvic osteotomies. Femoral osteotomies are carried out in cases of excessive anteversion or valgus deformity of the femoral neck. The two principal pelvic osteotomies most commonly performed are the Salter osteotomy and Pemberton acetabuloplasty. Serious surgical complications include epiphyseal damage, sciatic nerve damage and femoral neck fracture.
PMCID: PMC3631949  PMID: 23610749
Developmental dysplasia of the hip; Congenital; Pavlik harness; Ultrasound screening; Pelvic osteotomy
5.  A Rare Presentation of Concurrent Scedosporium apiospermum and Madurella grisea Eumycetoma in an Immunocompetent Host 
Case Reports in Pathology  2012;2012:154201.
Mycetoma is a disfiguring, chronic granulomatous infection which affects the skin and the underlying subcutaneous tissue. We present an atypical case of recurrent mycetoma without ulceration, in a 35-year-old immunocompetent male caused by Scedosporium apiospermum sensu stricto and Madurella grisea, occurring at two separate anatomical sites.
PMCID: PMC3485492  PMID: 23133772
6.  Acral post-traumatic tumoral calcinosis in pregnancy: a case report 
Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the development of calcified masses within the peri-articular soft tissues of large joints, but rarely occurs within the hand.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 31-year-old pregnant Indian woman with a three-month history of painful swelling within the tip of her right middle finger following a superficial laceration. She was otherwise well and had normal serum calcium and phosphate levels. Plain radiography demonstrated a dense, lobulated cluster of calcified nodules within the soft tissues of the volar pulp space, consistent with a diagnosis of tumoral calcinosis. This diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of the histopathological examination following surgical excision.
To the best of our knowledge, we present the only reported case of acral tumoral calcinosis within the finger, and the first description of its occurrence during pregnancy. We review the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of tumoral calcinosis.
PMCID: PMC3056806  PMID: 21366915
7.  Large Intra-Articular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst, Presenting with Inability to Flex the Knee 
Case Reports in Medicine  2011;2010:705919.
A 41-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of gradually worsening anterior knee pain, swelling and inability to flex the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large intra-articular cystic swelling anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), extending into the Hoffa's infrapatellar fat pad. Following manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst, the patient's symptoms were relieved with restoration of normal knee motion. ACL ganglion cysts are uncommon intra-articular pathological entities, which are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally by MRI. This is the first reported case of an ACL cyst being so large as to cause a mechanical block to knee flexion.
PMCID: PMC3025369  PMID: 21274442
9.  A rare case of a swollen knee due to disseminated synovial chondromatosis: a case report 
A synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign neoplasm on the synovium. Although described as a benign disease, it can be very destructive and can cause severe osteoarthritis and pain. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first known case of an extensive presentation of this intra-articular and extra-articular disease of the knee joint.
Case presentation
A 49-year-old Caucasian man presented with right knee pain and stiffness caused by diffuse intra-articular and extra-articular synovial chondromatosis. He underwent careful preoperative imaging and planning followed by a two-stage arthroscopic and open procedure in order to completely eradicate the disease. He has regained full range of movement, but continues to experience residual pain due to severe osteoarthritis.
Although synovial chondromatosis is described as a benign disease, it can be very destructive and debilitating. A challenging management dilemma arises when confronted with both synovial chondromatosis and osteoarthritis.
PMCID: PMC2873448  PMID: 20416049

Results 1-9 (9)