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1.  Induction of Protective Immune Responses by a Multiantigenic DNA Vaccine Encoding GRA7 and ROP1 of Toxoplasma gondii 
Toxoplasma gondii is distributed worldwide and infects most species of warm-blooded animals, including humans. The heavy incidence and severe or lethal damage caused by T. gondii infection clearly indicates the need for the development of a vaccine. To evaluate the protective efficacy of a multiantigenic DNA vaccine expressing GRA7 and ROP1 of T. gondii with or without a plasmid encoding murine interleukin-12 (pIL12), we constructed DNA vaccines using the eukaryotic plasmids pGRA7, pROP1, and pGRA7-ROP1. Mice immunized with pGRA7, pROP1, or pGRA7-ROP1 showed significantly increased serum IgG2a titers; production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α); in vitro T cell proliferation; and survival, as well as decreased cyst burdens in the brain, compared to mice immunized with either the empty plasmid, pIL12, or vector with pIL12 (vector+pIL12). Moreover, mice immunized with the multiantigenic DNA vaccine pGRA7-ROP1 had higher IgG2a titers, production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, survival time, and cyst reduction rate compared to those of mice vaccinated with either pGRA7 or pROP1 alone. Furthermore, mice immunized with either a pGRA7-ROP1+pIL12 or a single-gene vaccine combined with pIL12 showed greater Th1 immune response and protective efficacy than the single-gene-vaccinated groups. Our data suggest that the multiantigenic DNA antigen pGRA7-ROP1 was more effective in stimulating host protective immune responses than separately injected single antigens, and that IL-12 serves as a good DNA adjuvant.
doi:10.1128/CVI.05385-11
PMCID: PMC3346315  PMID: 22419676
2.  Antigenic properties and virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus rescued from full-length cDNA clone of serotype O, typical vaccine strain 
We cloned the full-length cDNA of O Manisa, the virus for vaccinating against foot-and-mouth disease. The antigenic properties of the virus recovered from the cDNA were similar to those of the parental virus. Pathogenesis did not appear in the pigs, dairy goats or suckling mice, but neutralizing antibodies were raised 5-6 days after the virus challenge. The utilization of O Manisa as a safe vaccine strain will increase if recombinant viruses can be manipulated by inserting or removing a marker gene for differential serology or replacing the protective gene from another serotype.
doi:10.7774/cevr.2015.4.1.114
PMCID: PMC4313104  PMID: 25648340
Foot-and-mouth disease; Vaccine; Molecular cloning

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