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1.  p16 expression correlates with basal-like triple-negative breast carcinoma 
ecancermedicalscience  2013;7:317.
Background:
Basal-like breast carcinoma (BLBC) has attracted considerable attention over the past few years. It has been suggested that tumours expressing basal markers have a more aggressive clinical behaviour. However, a molecular basis for this disease remains unclear, and it lacks currently used therapeutic targets. Therefore developing a novel treatment strategy is crucial for improving the prognosis. The aim of this study was to characterise the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p16 in patients with BLBC compared with non-BLBC.
Materials and methods:
Eighty-five cases of grade-3 invasive ductal carcinomas not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) were analyzed. Immunohistochemical stains for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p16 were performed. BLBC was defined as ER-, PR-, Her2- and CK5/6+, and/or EGFR+.
Results:
Twenty cases were categorised as BLBC versus 65 as non-basal. High mitotic count and presence of necrosis were associated with basal-like phenotype. Distant metastasis developed in 40% of cases of BLBC with frequent spread to brain and lung. p16 had significantly higher expression in the basal subgroup (80% versus 50.8%, P = 0.04). Patients with BLBCs were found to have a lower disease-free survival (DFS) rate (60% versus 70.8%, P = 0.03).
Conclusion:
BLBC typically demonstrates a unique profile. p16 is frequently expressed in breast cancers with basal-like phenotype; this suggests that p16 may play a role in the poor prognosis of this tumour, and it may be used in the development of a targeted therapy that will result in improved patient prognostication and outcome.
doi:10.3332/ecancer.2013.317
PMCID: PMC3660155  PMID: 23717338
Basal-like; breast cancer; p16
2.  Ulcerative Granular Cell Tumor: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study 
Journal of Skin Cancer  2011;2011:497648.
Granular cell tumor (GCT) is uncommonly presented with cutaneous ulcer. We examined the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of this ulcerative form in fourteen cases that may raise the awareness of this variant. The study included 11 males and 3 females with a mean age 31.5 ┬▒ 7.42 years. All cases were presented with large solitary ulcer with indurated base, elevated border, skin colored margin, and necrotic floor. Twelve lesions were located on the extremities and two lesions on the genital region. Histologically, the lesions showed dermal infiltrate composed of large polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm and characteristic infiltration of the dermal muscles in all cases. Immunostaining showed positive reaction for S100 (14/14), NSE (14/14), CD68 (5/14), and Vimentin (7/14) while HMB45, CK, EMA, and Desmin were negative. We hope that this paper increases the awareness of ulcerative GCT and consider it in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions.
doi:10.1155/2011/497648
PMCID: PMC3206371  PMID: 22132340
3.  Adenomatous Colorectal Polyps in Patients Referred for Colonoscopy in a Regional Hospital in Kuwait 
Background/Aim:
Adenomatous colorectal polyps (ACPs) are known to be the precursor lesions for colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, endoscopic and pathological features of ACPs in patients referred for colonoscopy.
Patients and Methods:
The endoscopic and histological reports of adult patients who underwent complete colonoscopy in the gastroenterology unit of a regional Kuwaiti hospital between January 2008 and December 2008 were retrospectively studied. The specimens of polyps were reviewed by an experienced pathologist who was blinded to the clinical or endoscopic information. Non-neoplastic polyps were not included in the analysis.
Results:
Of 530 eligible patients (mean age, 45 years; male-female ratio, 2:1), 54 (10%) had 103 ACPs. Of the patients with ACPs (mean age, 57 years), 43 (80%) were males and 36 (67%) were Kuwaitis. Histopathological examination of the most significant polyp in each patient revealed that 40 (74%) polyps were tubular adenomas (TAs); 11 (20%), tubulovillous (TV) adenomas; and 3 (6%), villous adenomas. High-grade dysplasia was noticed in 4 (10%) adenomas. Fifteen (2.8%) of the 530 patients had advanced ACPs. Logistic regression analysis of some variables and their association with ACPs found that age (P<0.001; OR, 1.9; CI, 1.5-2.3), history of adenoma (P=0.001; OR, 6.4; CI, .2.1-19.4) and being Kuwaitis (P=0.029; OR, 2.1; CI, 1.1-4.1) to be independently associated with ACPs.
Conclusion:
The most common histological type of ACPs was tubular adenoma. Advancing age, being Kuwaiti nationals and prior removal of ACPs were significantly associated with the occurrence of ACPs.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.65194
PMCID: PMC3003207  PMID: 20616414
Colonoscopy; colorectal polyps; Kuwait

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