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1.  A Cross-Sectional Study of Soft Tissue Facial Morphometry in Children and Adolescents 
The aim of this study was to determine mean values for selected linear measurements on the face of children and adolescents to demonstrate gender differences in the measurements. Cross-sectional data from 262 school children (158 male, 104 female) aged between 6 and 15 years were taken by measuring certain identified facial landmarks using a sliding caliper. The landmarks were first located by careful inspection and/or palpation of the face and a mark created on the cutaneous surface, with the subject sitting in habitual occlusion in an upright position. A sliding caliper was used to measure the distances between the points. The data was analysed using SPSS version 10.0 to determine mean values, standard deviation and gender differences in the measurements. Upper facial heights, total facial height, inter-canthal distance and eye length measurements were significantly higher in male than in female for 15-year-old group (p<0.0001). The measurement between the highest and the lowest point of attachment of external ear to the head was significantly larger in male than in female for 11 year old age group.
PMCID: PMC3347899  PMID: 22589587
facial growth; soft tissue facial morphometry
2.  The Maxillary Arch and its Relationship to Cephalometric Landmarks of Selected Malay Ethnic Group 
The objectives of this study were to estimate the maxillary arch measurements, to assess the validity of Pont’s & Korkhaus’ Indices; to determine the relationship between maxillary arch form with head form; and to estimate the cephalic index (CI) of the study population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 85 mature Malay students, 28 male students (32.98%), 57 females (67.02%) attending Teachers’ Training College. Their mean age was 23.9 yr, and Cephalic Index (CI) 86.4 (95% Confidence Interval 85.5–87.3). Arch and head dimensions were significantly larger in males than in females. CI was not significantly different between males and females. Means of anterior arch width (AAW), posterior-arch-width (PAW) and arch-length (Lu) were 35.57mm, 47.3mm and 18.01mm respectively. They were significantly different from their corresponding Indices. Correlation Coefficient between bizygomatic width and anterior-arch-width was 0.18 and was not significant in both sexes of the present population.
PMCID: PMC3349411  PMID: 22605945
Dental arch form; Pont’s Index; Korkhaus’ Index; Malay; Cephalic Index
3.  Dental Anomalies and Facial Profile Abnormality of the Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate Children in Kelantan 
This study was done to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies and facial profile abnormality and its association with the non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (CLP) as compared to the non-cleft children. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted where the case group consist of 98 non-syndromic CLP children-unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) who attended the Combined Clinic at Kota Bharu Dental Clinic (KBDC) while the comparison group comprised of 109 non-cleft children who attended the outpatient clinic at KBDC. Their ages were between 3 to 12 years old. Clinical oral and facial profile examinations were carried out to look for dental anomalies (morphology, number and alignment of teeth) and facial profile abnormality. The prevalence of anomalies in morphology of teeth in CLP (24.5%) and non-cleft (10.1%), number of teeth in CLP (44.9%) and non-cleft (7.3%), mal-alignment in CLP (79.6%) and non-cleft (27.5%) and facial profile abnormality in CLP (26.5%) and non-cleft (9.1 %). There was a significant association between CLP and anomalies in morphology, number, mal-alignment and abnormality in facial profile; (p < 0.05). Therefore, there was a high prevalence and risk of dental anomalies and facial profile abnormality in the CLP children compared to the non-cleft children.
PMCID: PMC3433975  PMID: 22973126
cleft lip and palate; dental anomalies; hypodontia; supernumerary; facial profile

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