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2.  A Cost Effectiveness and Capacity Analysis for the Introduction of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination in Kenya: Comparison between Rotarix and RotaTeq Vaccines 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47511.
Background
Diarrhoea is an important cause of death in the developing world, and rotavirus is the single most important cause of diarrhoea associated mortality. Two vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) are available to prevent rotavirus disease. This analysis was undertaken to aid the decision in Kenya as to which vaccine to choose when introducing rotavirus vaccination.
Methods
Cost-effectiveness modelling, using national and sentinel surveillance data, and an impact assessment on the cold chain.
Results
The median estimated incidence of rotavirus disease in Kenya was 3015 outpatient visits, 279 hospitalisations and 65 deaths per 100,000 children under five years of age per year. Cumulated over the first five years of life vaccination was predicted to prevent 34% of the outpatient visits, 31% of the hospitalizations and 42% of the deaths. The estimated prevented costs accumulated over five years totalled US$1,782,761 (direct and indirect costs) with an associated 48,585 DALYs. From a societal perspective Rotarix had a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$142 per DALY (US$5 for the full course of two doses) and RotaTeq US$288 per DALY ($10.5 for the full course of three doses). RotaTeq will have a bigger impact on the cold chain compared to Rotarix.
Conclusion
Vaccination against rotavirus disease is cost-effective for Kenya irrespective of the vaccine. Of the two vaccines Rotarix was the preferred choice due to a better cost-effectiveness ratio, the presence of a vaccine vial monitor, the requirement of fewer doses and less storage space, and proven thermo-stability.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047511
PMCID: PMC3480384  PMID: 23115650
3.  Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine introduction into routine childhood immunization in Kenya 
Context
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is not perceived as a public health priority in Africa because data on Hib disease burden and vaccine effectiveness are scarce. Hib immunization was introduced in Kenyan infants in 2001.
Objective
to define invasive Hib disease incidence and Hib vaccine program effectiveness.
Design, Setting, Patients
culture-based surveillance for invasive Hib disease at Kilifi District Hospital from 2000 to 2005 was linked to demographic surveillance of 38,000 children aged <5 years in Kilifi District, Kenya. HIV infection and Hib vaccination status were determined for children with Hib disease admitted 2002–2005.
Interventions
Conjugate Hib vaccine within the routine childhood immunization program at ages 6, 10 and 14 weeks from November 2001
Main outcome measures
Incidence of culture-proven Hib invasive disease before and after vaccine introduction and vaccine program effectiveness (1-incidence rate ratio)
Results
Prior to vaccine introduction the median age of Hib cases was 8 months; case fatality was 23%. Among children aged <5 years the annual incidence of invasive Hib disease 1 year before and 1 and 3 years after vaccine introduction was 66, 47 and 7.6 per 100,000, respectively. For children <2 years, incidence was 119, 82 and 16, respectively. In 2004–2005 vaccine effectiveness was 88% (95% CI 73–96%) among children <5 years and 87% (95% CI 66–96%) among children <2 years. Of 53 Hib cases admitted during 2002–2005, 29 (55%) were age-ineligible to have received vaccine, 12 (23%) had not been vaccinated despite being eligible, and 12 (23%) had received ≥2 doses of vaccine (2 were HIV-positive).
Conclusions
In Kenya, introduction of Hib vaccine into the routine childhood immunization program reduced Hib disease incidence among children aged <5 years to 12% of its baseline level. This impact was not observed until the third year after vaccine introduction.
doi:10.1001/jama.296.6.671
PMCID: PMC1592684  PMID: 16896110
4.  Immunization coverage and risk factors for failure to immunize within the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Kenya after introduction of new Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis b virus antigens 
BMC Public Health  2006;6:132.
Background
Kenya introduced a pentavalent vaccine including the DTP, Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis b virus antigens in Nov 2001 and strengthened immunization services. We estimated immunization coverage before and after introduction, timeliness of vaccination and risk factors for failure to immunize in Kilifi district, Kenya.
Methods
In Nov 2002 we performed WHO cluster-sample surveys of >200 children scheduled for vaccination before or after introduction of pentavalent vaccine. In Mar 2004 we conducted a simple random sample (SRS) survey of 204 children aged 9–23 months. Coverage was estimated by inverse Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of vaccine-card and mothers' recall data and corroborated by reviewing administrative records from national and provincial vaccine stores. The contribution to timely immunization of distance from clinic, seasonal rainfall, mother's age, and family size was estimated by a proportional hazards model.
Results
Immunization coverage for three DTP and pentavalent doses was 100% before and 91% after pentavalent vaccine introduction, respectively. By SRS survey, coverage was 88% for three pentavalent doses. The median age at first, second and third vaccine dose was 8, 13 and 18 weeks. Vials dispatched to Kilifi District during 2001–2003 would provide three immunizations for 92% of the birth cohort. Immunization rate ratios were reduced with every kilometre of distance from home to vaccine clinic (HR 0.95, CI 0.91–1.00), rainy seasons (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61–0.89) and family size, increasing progressively up to 4 children (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41–0.73).
Conclusion
Vaccine coverage was high before and after introduction of pentavalent vaccine, but most doses were given late. Coverage is limited by seasonal factors and family size.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-132
PMCID: PMC1475578  PMID: 16707013

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