Recently, evidence from several studies has revealed that air pollution is associated with the increased morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. However, to date, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Considering the high prevalence of air pollution and breast cancer in China, it is necessary to understand how air pollution may affect breast cancer.
We analyzed 1,832 female patients who had resided in the same cities for at least 10 years prior to their diagnosis. Variables including demographic data as well as clinical and tumor characteristics, including the patient’s age at menarche, family history of breast cancer, tumor histopathological type, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, histological grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) status at the time of diagnosis were analyzed.
Compared to patients residing in low-pollution areas, patients living in high-pollution areas demonstrated a younger age at menarche (p<0.001), a greater family history of breast cancer (p = 0.034) and more invasive cancers (p = 0.028) with higher tumor grades (p = 0.028) and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive status (p = 0.022). Differences in tumor grade were only found in ER-positive cases.
Our findings and clinical data indicate that long-term air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of breast cancer by playing the role of a xenoestrogen, and also provides new insight into the association between air pollution and the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. Furthermore, it is urgently necessary to study the association between air pollution and breast cancer to improve the living quality and health of females, and applicable public health strategies may need to be established or modified as soon as possible.
A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after modified radical mastectomy operation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered using TAC regimen. Severe neutropenia occurred after chemotherapy. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was given to treat neutropenia. On the second day of G-CSF use, the patient complained of swelling of her neck on the left side, which subsided spontaneously after discontinuation of G-CSF medication. However, the same symptom recurred following G-CSF use on the second cycle of chemotherapy. B-mode ultrasound showed swollen lymph nodes and biopsy revealed no evidence of metastasis. Therefore, the unilateral lymphadenopathy is considered to be the side effect of G-CSF, which is very rare.
A 46-year-old male was diagnosed of lung adenocarcinoma with right adrenal gland metastasis in January 2009, and underwent chemotherapy (DC (docetaxel and cisplatin) regimen) and stereotactic radiotherapy. In December 2009, whole brain radiotherapy was given to the patient due to brain metastasis. In January 2010, he complained of redness, swelling and tenderness of the fifth terminal phalange of his right hand. Open surgery and biopsy confirmed bone metastasis to the finger. The patient then received local injection of OK-432 combined with radiotherapy. The symptoms were greatly relieved after treatment and the patient has survived for 28 months at the time of this report.
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and to assess corresponding health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hospitalized cirrhotic patients in China.
METHODS: This multi-center cross-sectional study included 16 teaching hospitals, which were members of “Hepatobiliary Cooperation Group, Society of Gastroenterology, Chinese Medical Association”, from different areas of China carried out between June and October in 2011. All the eligible hospitalized cirrhotic patients (n = 538) were required to complete triplicate number connection tests combined with one digit symbol test for diagnosing MHE. Patients’ clinical examination data were complemented by a modified questionnaire assessing HRQoL. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient.
RESULTS: Male was predominant (68.6%) in 519 patients who met the criteria of the study, with a mean age of 49.17 ± 11.02 years. The most common cause of liver cirrhosis was chronic hepatitis B (55.9%). The prevalence of MHE was 39.9% and varied by Child-Pugh-Classification score (CPC-A: 24.8%, CPC-B: 39.4% and CPC-C: 56.1%, P < 0.01). MHE (P < 0.01) and higher CPC scores (P < 0.01) were associated with a high HRQoL scores (reflecting poorer quality of life). The prevalence of MHE was proportionate to CPC (P = 0.01) and high quality of life scores (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Hospitalized cirrhotic patients have a high prevalence of MHE that is proportionate to the degree of liver function and HRQoL impairment.
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy; Health-related quality of life; China; Child-Pugh Classification; Liver cirrhosis
The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.
Differences in the levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in ventral and dorsal spinal roots can be used to differentiate the spinal nerves. Although many methods are available to assay AChE, a rapid and sensitive method has not been previously developed. Here, we describe an antibody-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assay and its application for the quantification of AChE in the solutions of ventral and dorsal spinal roots. The frequency variation of the QCM device corresponds to the level of AChE over a wide dynamic range (0.5–10 µg/ml), which is comparable to the response range of the ELISA method. The frequency shift caused by the ventral roots is 3-fold greater than that caused by the dorsal roots. The antibody-based QCM sensor was stable across many successive replicate samples, and the method required less than 10 min, including the AChE extraction and analysis steps. This method is a rapid and convenient means for the quantification of AChE in biological samples and may be applicable for distinguishing the ventral and dorsal roots during surgical operations.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have organ dysfunction and resulting poor quality of life; however, in China little information is available regarding factors that affect their health. Here, the relationship between risk factors, activities and psychological disorders and health of patients with COPD in rural areas of Xuzhou, China was assessed.
A cross-sectional study of 7597 COPD patients randomly selected by place of residence from 24,641 COPD patients who had been identified by screening of the 1.10 million health records of all residents of the target area was carried out to evaluate the relationships between risk factors, activities, psychological disorders and the ADO index (age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction). The participants were assessed by spirometry and by administering a newly designed face-to-face questionnaire, which included items on general factors, risk factors, activities and psychological disorders. Correlations between the ADO index and the items addressed by the questionnaire were calculated.
The mean score of the ADO index was 3.7 ± 1.6. The ADO indices of current smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers were 3.9 ± 2.1, 3.7 ± 1.9, and 3.2 ± 1.5, respectively (P < 0.001). The ADO indices of cooks and non-cooks were 4.0 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 1.7, respectively (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between self-assessment of health status and ADO index was 0.976 (P < 0.001). Only 5.7% of patients reported no limitation of their daily living activities. The correlation coefficient between daily living activities and ADO index was 0.981 (P < 0.001). Only 5.5% of patients reported no limitation of social activities. The correlation coefficient between social activities and ADO index was 0.989 (P < 0.001), between the assessed anxiety score and ADO index 0.972 (P < 0.001), and between the assessed depression score and ADO index 0.989 (P < 0.001).
COPD severity was significantly correlated with behavior (especially regarding smoking and cooking with biofuel in confined spaces), physical strength, daily living activities, social activities, anxiety and depression. Comprehensive approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of COPD.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Health status; Survey
Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But a fewer smoking cessation measures were conducted in communities for smokers with COPD in China. The aim of our study was to assess the preventive effects of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation and potential impact factors in smokers with COPD in China.
In a randomised controlled smoking cessation trial 3562 patients with COPD who were current smoker were allocated to intervention group received behavioral intervention and control group received the usual care for two years. The primary efficacy endpoint was the complete and continuous abstinence from smoking from the beginning of month 24 to the end of month 30. Participants were followed up at month 48.
Continuous smoking abstinence rates from month 24 to 30 were significantly higher in participants receiving behavioral intervention than in those receiving usual care (46.4% vs 3.4%, p < 0.001). Continuous abstinence rates from months 24 to 36 (45.8% vs 4.0%) and months 24 to 48 (44.3% vs 5.1%) were also higher in participants receiving behavioral intervention than in those control group. Family members or family physicians/nurses smoking were first identified to influence smoking cessation.
Behavioral intervention doubled the smoking cessation rate in patients with COPD and was complied well by the general practitioners. The family members and family physicians/nurses smoking were the main risk factors for smoking cessation.
Chinese Clinical Trials Registration (ChiCTR-TRC-12001958).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Smoker; Behavioral intervention; Smoking cessation; Risk factors
The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of side population (SP) cells from kidney and bone marrow for reconstitution of kidney SP pools after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The SP and non-SP cells in kidneys following IRI were isolated and serially assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The apoptosis, proliferation, phenotype, and paracrine actions of SP cells were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that the SP cells from ischemic kidney were acutely depleted within one day following renal IRI and were progressively restored to baseline within 7 days after IRI, through both proliferation of remaining kidney SP cells and homing of bone marrow-derived cells to ischemic kidney. Either hypoxia or serum deprivation alone increased apoptosis of SP cells, and a combination of both further aggravated it. Furthermore, hypoxia in vivo and in vitro induced the increase in the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, hepatocyte growth factor, and stromal cell-derived factor-1α in kidney SP but not non-SP cells. In summary, these results suggest that following renal IRI, kidney SP cells are acutely depleted and then progressively restored to baseline levels by both self-proliferation and extrarenal source, that is, bone marrow-derived cell homing.
Most of pyruvoyl-dependent proteins observed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are critical regulatory enzymes, which are primary targets of inhibitors for anti-cancer and anti-parasitic therapy. These proteins undergo an autocatalytic, intramolecular self-cleavage reaction in which a covalently bound pyruvoyl group is generated on a conserved serine residue. Traditional detections of the modified serine sites are performed by experimental approaches, which are often labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, we initiated in an attempt for the computational predictions of such serine sites with Feature Selection based on a Random Forest. Since only a small number of experimentally verified pyruvoyl-modified proteins are collected in the protein database at its current version, we only used a small dataset in this study. After removing proteins with sequence identities >60%, a non-redundant dataset was generated and was used, which contained only 46 proteins, with one pyruvoyl serine site for each protein. Several types of features were considered in our method including PSSM conservation scores, disorders, secondary structures, solvent accessibilities, amino acid factors and amino acid occurrence frequencies. As a result, a pretty good performance was achieved in our dataset. The best 100.00% accuracy and 1.0000 MCC value were obtained from the training dataset, and 93.75% accuracy and 0.8441 MCC value from the testing dataset. The optimal feature set contained 9 features. Analysis of the optimal feature set indicated the important roles of some specific features in determining the pyruvoyl-group-serine sites, which were consistent with several results of earlier experimental studies. These selected features may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the post-translational self-maturation process, providing guidelines for experimental validation. Future work should be made as more pyruvoyl-modified proteins are found and the method should be evaluated on larger datasets. At last, the predicting software can be downloaded from http://www.nkbiox.com/sub/pyrupred/index.html.
To investigate the relationship between higher-order aberration (HOA) and myopic progression in school children.
Between April 23, 2011 and August 29, 2011 in the children's myopia outpatient clinic of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 148 eyes of 74 schoolchildren were reviewed. HOAs for a 6-mm pupil were measured with an aberrometer. Myopic progression rate was defined according to the change in spherical equivalent refraction (SER) divided by the time span (years). Subjects with myopic progression rate of ≥0.50 diopters (D) were classified as the ‘fast’ group and the subjects with myopic progression rate of <0.50D were classified as the ‘slow’ group. A retrospective study was conducted to compare HOA between the two groups, using root mean square (RMS) values and Zernike coefficients.
The RMS values of HOA (t=2.316, P=0.02), HOA without Z40 (t=2.224, P=0.03), third-order aberrations (t'=2.62, P=0.01), and coma (t'=2.49, P=0.01) were significantly higher in the fast group than those in the slow group. The individual Zernike coefficients of Z3−1 (t=-2.072, P=0.04) and Z51 (Z =-2.627, P=0.01) displayed statistically significant differences between the two groups. Significant correlations were found between the RMS values of HOA (r=0.193, P=0.019), RMS values of HOA without Z40 (r=0.23, P =0.005), RMS values of coma (r=0.235, P=0.004), RMS values of third-order aberrations (r=0.243, P =0.003), and the progression rate.
Our results provide evidence of a relationship between HOA and myopic progression. In a future prospective longitudinal study, we aim to verify whether HOA is a risk factor for myopic progression.
aberration; myopia; children; disease progression; refractive errors/etiology
Multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infections, which is attributable mainly to the production of diverse β-lactamases by S. maltophilia. The L2 β-lactamase mediated by the AmpR-L2 module is the most represented lactamase. Here, we announce the genome sequence of S028, an isolate harboring the AmpR-L2 module.
BEP clade of the grass family (Poaceae) is composed of three subfamilies, i.e. Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae. Controversies on the phylogenetic relationships among three subfamilies still persist in spite of great efforts. However, previous evidence was mainly provided from plastid genes with only a few nuclear genes utilized. Given different evolutionary histories recorded by plastid and nuclear genes, it is indispensable to uncover their relationships based on nuclear genes. Here, eleven species with whole-sequenced genome and six species with transcriptomic data were included in this study. A total of 121 one-to-one orthologous groups (OGs) were identified and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by different tree-building methods. Genes which might have undergone positive selection and played important roles in adaptive evolution were also investigated from 314 and 173 one-to-one OGs in two bamboo species and 14 grass species, respectively. Our results support the ((B, P) E) topology with high supporting values. Besides, our findings also indicate that 24 and nine orthologs with statistically significant evidence of positive selection are mainly involved in abiotic and biotic stress response, reproduction and development, plant metabolism and enzyme etc. from two bamboo species and 14 grass species, respectively. In summary, this study demonstrates the power of phylogenomic approach to shed lights on the evolutionary relationships within the BEP clade, and offers valuable insights into adaptive evolution of the grass family.
To evaluate the prognostic value of maximum primary tumor diameter (MPTD) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive, newly-diagnosed NPC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of MPTD.
Median follow-up was 66 months (range, 2–82 months). Median MPTD in stage T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 27.9, 37.5, 45.0 and 61.3 mm, respectively. The proportion of T1 patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm was 62.3%; 72% and 62.9% of T2 and T3 patients had a MPTD > 30–50 mm, and 83.5% of T4 patients had a MPTD > 50 mm. For patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, > 30–50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS, DMFS and LRFS rates were 85.2%, 74.2% and 56.3% (P < 0.001); 87%, 80.7% and 62.8% (P < 0.001); 88.7%, 86.4% and 72.5% (P = 0.003); and 98.2%, 93.2% and 86.3% (P = 0.012), respectively. In multivariate analysis, MPTD was a prognostic factor for OS, FFS and DMFS, and the only independent prognostic factor for LRFS. For T3-T4 patients with a MPTD ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS and DMFS rates were 70.4% vs. 58.4% (P = 0.010), 77.5% vs. 65.2% (P = 0.013) and 83.6% vs. 73.6% (P = 0.047), respectively. In patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, 5-year LRFS in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 100%, 100%, 88.9% and 100% (P = 0.172).
Our data suggest that MPTD is an independent prognostic factor in NPC, and incorporation of MPTD might lead to a further refinement of T staging.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Maximum primary tumor diameter; TNM stage; Survival
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this work, a computational method was proposed for identifying lung-cancer-related genes with a shortest path approach in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Based on the PPI data from STRING, a weighted PPI network was constructed. 54 NSCLC- and 84 SCLC-related genes were retrieved from associated KEGG pathways. Then the shortest paths between each pair of these 54 NSCLC genes and 84 SCLC genes were obtained with Dijkstra's algorithm. Finally, all the genes on the shortest paths were extracted, and 25 and 38 shortest genes with a permutation P value less than 0.05 for NSCLC and SCLC were selected for further analysis. Some of the shortest path genes have been reported to be related to lung cancer. Intriguingly, the candidate genes we identified from the PPI network contained more cancer genes than those identified from the gene expression profiles. Furthermore, these genes possessed more functional similarity with the known cancer genes than those identified from the gene expression profiles. This study proved the efficiency of the proposed method and showed promising results.
To identify the compounds absorbed in rat serum after the oral administration of Wu-Jia Sheng-Hua (WJSH) capsule, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound prescription, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS) method, was established. The chromatographic separation of the absorbed compounds and metabolites was achieved with an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) under a gradient elution. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and water buffered with ammonium acetate (10 mM) and formic acid (0.1%, V/V). Twelve absorbed compounds and four metabolites were found. Seven of the absorbed compounds were identified by ESI-MS. The identification of absorbed compounds might be helpful for the better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of WJSH capsule.
The activation of caspase-3 is an important hallmark in Parkinson’s disease. It could induce neuron death by apoptosis and microglia activation by inflammation. As a result, inhibition the activation of caspase-3 would exert synergistic dual effect in brain in order to prevent the progress of Parkinson’s disease. Silencing caspase-3 genes by RNA interference could inhibit the activation of caspase-3. We developed a brain-targeted gene delivery system based on non-viral gene vector, dendrigraft poly-L-lysines. A rabies virus glycoprotein peptide with 29 amino-acid linked to dendrigraft poly-L-lysines could render gene vectors the ability to get across the blood brain barrier by specific receptor mediated transcytosis. The resultant brain-targeted vector was complexed with caspase-3 short hairpin RNA coding plasmid DNA, yielding nanoparticles. In vivo imaging analysis indicated the targeted nanoparticles could accumulate in brain more efficiently than non-targeted ones. A multiple dosing regimen by weekly intravenous administration of the nanoparticles could reduce activated casapse-3 levels, significantly improve locomotor activity and rescue dopaminergic neuronal loss and in Parkinson’s disease rats’ brain. These results indicated the rabies virus glycoprotein peptide modified brain-targeted nanoparticles were promising gene delivery system for RNA interference to achieve anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation synergistic therapeutic effects by down-regulation the expression and activation of caspase-3.
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugation (i.e. PEGylation) is a commonly used strategy to increase the circulatory half-life of therapeutic proteins and colloids, however, few viable alternatives exist to replicate its functions. Herein, we report a method for the rapid site-selective glycosylation of proteins with various sized carbohydrates, up to a molecular weight (MW) of 10,000 Da, thus, serving as a potential alternative for PEGylation. More importantly, the method developed has two unique features. First, traditional protecting group strategies that typically accompany the modification of the carbohydrate fragments are circumvented, allowing for the facile site-selective glycosylation of a desired protein with various sized glycans. Second, the methodology employed is not limited by oligosaccharide size; consequently, glycans of a similar MW to that of PEG, used in the PEGylation of therapeutic proteins, can be employed. To demonstrate the usefulness of this technology, hemoglobin (Hb) was site-selectively glycosylated with a series of carbohydrates of increasing MW (504 to ~10,000 Da). Hb was selected based on the vast wealth of biochemical and biophysical knowledge present in the literature and because of its use as a precursor in the synthesis/formulation of artificial red blood cell substitutes. Following the successful site-selective glycosylation of Hb, the impact of increasing the glycan MW on Hb’s biophysical properties was investigated in vitro.
Glycosylation; glycoprotein synthesis; hemoglobin cysteine 93; PEGylation; carbohydrate; saccharide
The increase of Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to carbapenems is of great concern. OXA23 is one of the most prevalent carbapenemases of A. baumannii that causes outbreaks. Here, we announce the genome sequence of an OXA23-producing A. baumannii strain assigned ST75, a newly emerged sequence type harboring carbapenemase.
With a large number of disordered proteins and their important functions discovered, it is highly desired to develop effective methods to computationally predict protein disordered regions. In this study, based on Random Forest (RF), Maximum Relevancy Minimum Redundancy (mRMR), and Incremental Feature Selection (IFS), we developed a new method to predict disordered regions in proteins. The mRMR criterion was used to rank the importance of all candidate features. Finally, top 128 features were selected from the ranked feature list to build the optimal model, including 92 Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) conservation score features and 36 secondary structure features. As a result, Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.3895 was achieved on the training set by 10-fold cross-validation. On the basis of predicting results for each query sequence by using the method, we used the scanning and modification strategy to improve the performance. The accuracy (ACC) and MCC were increased by 4% and almost 0.2%, respectively, compared with other three popular predictors: DISOPRED, DISOclust, and OnD-CRF. The selected features may shed some light on the understanding of the formation mechanism of disordered structures, providing guidelines for experimental validation.
The Setaria genus is increasingly of interest to researchers, as its two species, S. viridis and S. italica, are being developed as models for understanding C4 photosynthesis and plant functional genomics. The genome constitution of Setaria species has been studied in the diploid species S. viridis, S. adhaerans and S. grisebachii, where three genomes A, B and C were identified respectively. Two allotetraploid species, S. verticillata and S. faberi, were found to have AABB genomes, and one autotetraploid species, S. queenslandica, with an AAAA genome, has also been identified. The genomes and genome constitutions of most other species remain unknown, even though it was thought there are approximately 125 species in the genus distributed world-wide.
GISH was performed to detect the genome constitutions of Eurasia species of S. glauca, S. plicata, and S. arenaria, with the known A, B and C genomes as probes. No or very poor hybridization signal was detected indicating that their genomes are different from those already described. GISH was also performed reciprocally between S. glauca, S. plicata, and S. arenaria genomes, but no hybridization signals between each other were found. The two sets of chromosomes of S. lachnea both hybridized strong signals with only the known C genome of S. grisebachii. Chromosomes of Qing 9, an accession formerly considered as S. viridis, hybridized strong signal only to B genome of S. adherans. Phylogenetic trees constructed with 5S rDNA and knotted1 markers, clearly classify the samples in this study into six clusters, matching the GISH results, and suggesting that the F genome of S. arenaria is basal in the genus.
Three novel genomes in the Setaria genus were identified and designated as genome D (S. glauca), E (S. plicata) and F (S. arenaria) respectively. The genome constitution of tetraploid S. lachnea is putatively CCC’C’. Qing 9 is a B genome species indigenous to China and is hypothesized to be a newly identified species. The difference in genome constitution and origin of S. verticillata and S. faberi is also discussed. The new genomes and the genome constitutions of Setaria species identified in this report provide useful information for Setaria germplasm management, foxtail millet breeding, grass evolution and the development of S. viridis and S. italica as a new model for functional genomics.
Setaria; GISH; Genome constitution; Phylogenetic relationships
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is a recently developed technique that uses a concentrated portion of autologous blood to try to improve and accelerate the healing of various tissues. There is a considerable interest in using these PRP products for the treatment used in bone deficiency healing. Because PRP products are safe and easy to prepare and administer, there has been increased attention toward using PRP in numerous clinical settings. The benefits of PRP therapy appear to be promising, and many investigators are exploring the ways in which this therapy can be used in the clinical setting. At present, the molecular mechanisms of bone defect repair studies have focused on three aspects of the inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and angiogenic factors. The role of PRP works mainly through these three aspects of bone repair. The purpose of this paper is to review the current evidence on the mechanism of the effect of PRP in bone deficiency healing.