Apolipoprotein E (apoE), an anti-atherogenic apolipoprotein, plays a significant role in the metabolism of lipoproteins. It lowers plasma lipid levels by acting as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) family of proteins, in addition to playing a role in promoting macrophage cholesterol efflux in atherosclerotic lesions. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of acrolein modification on the structure and function of rat apoE and to determine sites and nature of modification by mass spectrometry. Acrolein is a highly reactive aldehyde, which is generated endogenously as one of the products of lipid peroxidation and is present in the environment in pollutants such as tobacco smoke and heated oils. In initial studies, acrolein-modified apoE was identified by immunoprecipitation using an acrolein-lysine specific antibody, in the plasma of ten-week old male rats that were exposed to filtered air (FA) or low doses of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). While both groups displayed acrolein-modified apoE in the lipoprotein fraction, the ETS group had higher levels in lipid-free fraction compared to the FA group. This observation provided the rationale to further investigate the effect of acrolein modification on rat apoE at a molecular level. Treatment of recombinant rat apoE with a 10-fold molar excess of acrolein resulted in: (i) a significant decrease in lipid-binding and cholesterol efflux abilities, (ii) impairment in the LDLr- and heparin-binding capabilities, and (iii) significant alterations in the overall stability of the protein. The disruption in the functional abilities is attributed directly or indirectly to acrolein modification yielding: an aldimine adduct at K149 and K155 (+38); a propanal adduct at K135 and K138 (+56); an Nε-(3-methylpyridinium)lysine (MP-lysine) at K64, K67 and K254 (+76), and Nε-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine (FDP-lysine) derivative at position K68 (+94), as determined by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The loss of function may also be attributed to alterations in the overall fold of the protein as noted by changes in the guanidine HCl-induced unfolding pattern and to protein cross-linking. Overall, disruption of the structural and functional integrity of apoE by oxidative modification of essential lysine residues by acrolein is expected to affect its role in maintaining plasma cholesterol homeostasis and lead to lipid dysregulation.
Mass spectrometry; Cardiovascular disease; rat apolipoprotein E; acrolein; lipid binding; LDL receptor binding; cholesterol efflux; environmental tobacco smoke
Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is rapidly expressed by various stimuli and plays a key role in conversion of free arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. We have previously identified 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation-derived electrophile, as the potent Cox-2 inducer in rat epithelial RL34 cells and revealed that the HNE-induced Cox-2 expression resulted from the stabilization of Cox-2 mRNA that is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In the present study, we investigated an alternative regulatory mechanism of Cox-2 expression mediated by a transcription factor p53. In addition, to characterize the causal role for Cox-2, we examined the effects of Cox-2 overexpression in RL34 cells. To examine whether the HNE-induced Cox-2 expression was mechanistically linked to the p53 expression, we analyzed changes in Cox-2 and p53 expression levels in response to HNE and observed that the Cox-2 levels were inversely correlated with the p53 levels. Down-regulation of p53 followed by the activation of a transcription factor Sp1 was suggested to be involved in the HNE-induced Cox-2 gene expression. To characterize the effect of Cox-2 expression in the cells, we established the Cox-2-overexpressing derivatives of RL34 cells by stable transfection with Cox-2 cDNA. An oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed a dramatic down-regulation of the proteasome subunit RC1 in the Cox-2 overexpressed cells compared to the empty-vector transfected control cells. Consistent with the Cox-2-mediated down-regulation of proteasome, a moderate reduction of the proteasome activities was observed. This proteasome dysfunction mediated by the Cox-2 overproduction was associated with the enhanced accumulation of p53 and ubiquitinated proteins, leading to the enhanced sensitivity toward electrophiles. These results suggest the existence of a causal link between Cox-2 and p53, which may represent a toxic mechanism of electrophilic lipid peroxidation products.
Cox, cyclooxygenase; EMSAs, electrophoretic movility shift assays; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HNE, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; RIPA, radioimmunoprecipitation assay; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; TTBS, tween 20/tris buffered saline; 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal; Cyclooxygenase; p53; Lipid peroxidation; Proteasome; Sp1
Thermal plasmas and lasers are used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, little research has been done into the use of this technique for conventional free radical biology. Recently, we developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping revealed •OH as a major product. To obtain evidence of NEAPP-induced oxidative modifications in biomolecules and standardize them, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and α-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also observed after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in saline produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment.
non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma; electron spin resonance spin-trapping; 8-OHdG; HNE-modified protein; UV
An emerging aspect of redox signaling is the pathway mediated by electrophilic byproducts, such as nitrated cyclic nucleotide (for example, 8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP)) and nitro or keto derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids, generated via reactions of inflammation-related enzymes, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and secondary products. Here we report that enzymatically generated hydrogen sulfide anion (HS−) regulates the metabolism and signaling actions of various electrophiles. HS− reacts with electrophiles, best represented by 8-nitro-cGMP, via direct sulfhydration and modulates cellular redox signaling. The relevance of this reaction is reinforced by the significant 8-nitro-cGMP formation in mouse cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction that is modulated by alterations in HS− biosynthesis. Cardiac HS−, in turn, suppresses electrophile-mediated H-Ras activation and cardiac cell senescence, contributing to the beneficial effects of HS− on myocardial infarction–associated heart failure. Thus, this study reveals HS−-induced electrophile sulfhydration as a unique mechanism for regulating electrophile-mediated redox signaling.
Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer development and progression. Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolysis by-product, is generated through a non-enzymatic reaction from triose-phosphate intermediates. This dicarbonyl compound is highly reactive and contributes to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. In this study, we analyzed the accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine, a MG-arginine adduct, in human breast adenocarcinoma and we observed a consistent increase of Arg-pyrimidine in cancer cells when compared with the non-tumoral counterpart. Further immunohistochemical comparative analysis of breast cancer subtypes revealed that triple negative lesions exhibited low accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine compared with other subtypes. Interestingly, the activity of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1), an enzyme that detoxifies MG, was significantly higher in triple negative than in other subtype lesions, suggesting that these aggressive tumors are able to develop an efficient response against dicarbonyl stress. Using breast cancer cell lines, we substantiated these clinical observations by showing that, in contrast to triple positive, triple negative cells induced Glo-1 expression and activity in response to MG treatment. This is the first report that Arg-pyrimidine adduct accumulation is a consistent event in human breast cancer with a differential detection between triple negative and other breast cancer subtypes.
methylglyoxal; breast cancer; advanced glycation end-products; Arg-pyrimidine adducts; glyoxalase 1
Covalent modification of proteins exerts significant effects on their chemical properties and has important functional and regulatory consequences. We now report the identification and verification of an electrically-active form of modified proteins recognized by a group of small molecules commonly used to interact with DNA. This previously unreported property of proteins was initially discovered when the γ-ketoaldehydes were identified as a source of the proteins stained by the DNA intercalators. Using 1,4-butanedial, the simplest γ-ketoaldehyde, we characterized the structural and chemical criteria governing the recognition of the modified proteins by the DNA intercalators and identified Nε-pyrrolelysine as a key adduct. Unexpectedly, the pyrrolation conferred an electronegativity and electronic properties on the proteins that potentially constitute an electrical mimic to the DNA. In addition, we found that the pyrrolated proteins indeed triggered an autoimmune response and that the production of specific antibodies against the pyrrolated proteins was accelerated in human systemic lupus erythematosus. These findings and the apparent high abundance of Nε-pyrrolelysine in vivo suggest that protein pyrrolation could be an endogenous source of DNA mimic proteins, providing a possible link connecting protein turnover and immune disorders.
Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine and enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Many apoptotic cells are left unengulfed in the germinal centers of the spleen in the MFG-E8-deficient (MFG-E8−/−) mice, and these mice develop an autoimmune disease resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus. We found that the MFG-E8 deficiency was accompanied by the increased production of immunoglobulins. Further Western blot and ELISA analyses validated the increase in the IgM levels in the MFG-E8−/− mice. It was also revealed that the sera from the MFG-E8−/− mice cross-reacted with oxidation-specific epitopes generated upon incubation of serum albumin with the peroxidized lipids. Among the modified proteins with several unsaturated aldehydes of chain lengths varying from three to nine carbons, the MFG-E8−/− mice sera exclusively cross-reacted with the protein-bound 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), a highly reactive aldehyde originating from the peroxidation of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the IgM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that selectively cross-reacted with the ONE-modified proteins were generated from the MFG-E8−/− mice. A subset of the ONE-specific IgM mAbs significantly recognized the late apoptotic and necrotic cells and enhanced the phagocytosis by macrophages. These data demonstrate that the impairment of the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells through MFG-E8 can lead to the generation of natural antibodies, which may play a critical role in removing multiple damage-associated molecules, including oxidation-specific epitopes and late apoptotic/necrotic cells.
Endogenous electrophiles, such as α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones generated during lipid peroxidation, exhibit a facile reactivity with proteins, generating a variety of intra and intermolecular covalent adducts. It has been postulated that these host-derived, modified proteins with electrophiles, which constitute the products of diverse classes of oxidative reactions, represent damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The DAMPs, that occur in vivo, can be a ligand of multiple proteins, which in turn, may lead to the profound innate and adaptive immune responses and mediate homeostatic functions consequent to inflammation and cell death.
► Endogenous electrophiles generate covalent adducts with proteins. ► The protein-bound electrophiles represent damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). ► DAMPs can be a ligand of multiple proteins, leading to the innate and adaptive immune responses. ► DAMPs mediate homeostatic functions consequent to inflammation and cell death.
Electrophiles; Lipid peroxidation; Covalent modification of proteins; Damage-associated molecular patterns; Innate immunity; Pattern recognition receptors
Light-driven electron and energy transfer involving non-DNA skin chromophores as endogenous photosensitizers induces oxidative stress in UVA-exposed human skin, a process relevant to photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Malondialdehyde is an electrophilic dicarbonyl-species derived from membrane lipid peroxidation. Here we present experimental evidence suggesting that the malondialdehyde-derived protein epitope dihydropyridine (DHP)-lysine is a potent endogenous UVA-photosensitizer of human skin cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the abundant occurrence of malondialdehyde-derived and DHP-lysine epitopes in human skin. Using the chemically protected dihydropyridine-derivative (2S)-Boc-2-amino-6-(3,5-diformyl-4-methyl-4H-pyridin-1-yl)-hexanoic acid-t-butylester as a model of peptide-bound DHP-lysine, photodynamic inhibition of proliferation and induction of cell death were observed in human skin Hs27 fibroblasts as well as primary and HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to the combined action of UVA and DHP-lysine. DHP-lysine photosensitization induced intracellular oxidative stress, p38 MAP kinase activation, and upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression. Consistent with UVA-driven ROS formation from DHP-lysine, formation of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and singlet oxygen was detected in chemical assays, but little protection was achieved using SOD or catalase during cellular photosensitization. In contrast, inclusion of NaN3 completely abolished DHP-photosensitization. Taken together, these data demonstrate photodynamic activity of DHP-lysine and support the hypothesis that malondialdehyde-derived protein-epitopes may function as endogenous sensitizers of UVA-induced oxidative stress in human skin.
photosensitization; UVA; lipid peroxidation; skin photooxidative stress; DHP-lysine
Background: Methylmercury (MeHg) exhibits neurotoxicity through accumulation in the brain. The transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) plays an important role in reducing the cellular accumulation of MeHg.
Objectives: We investigated the protective effect of isothiocyanates, which are known to activate Nrf2, on the accumulation of mercury after exposure to MeHg in vitro and in vivo.
Methods: We used primary mouse hepatocytes in in vitro experiments and mice as an in vivo model. We used Western blotting, luciferase assays, atomic absorption spectrometry assays, and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assays, and we identified toxicity in mice based on hind-limb flaccidity and mortality.
Results: The isothiocyanates 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC) and sulforaphane (SFN) activated Nrf2 and up-regulated downstream proteins associated with MeHg excretion, such as glutamate-cysteine ligase, glutathione S-transferase, and multidrug resistance–associated protein, in primary mouse hepatocytes. Under these conditions, intracellular glutathione levels increased in wild-type but not Nrf2-deficient primary mouse hepatocytes. Pretreatment with 6-HITC and SFN before MeHg exposure suppressed cellular accumulation of mercury and cytotoxicity in wild-type but not Nrf2-deficient primary mouse hepatocytes. In comparison, in vivo administration of MeHg to Nrf2-deficient mice resulted in increased sensitivity to mercury concomitant with an increase in mercury accumulation in the brain and liver. Injection of SFN before administration of MeHg resulted in a decrease in mercury accumulation in the brain and liver of wild-type, but not Nrf2-deficient, mice.
Conclusions: Through activation of Nrf2, 6-HITC and SFN can suppress mercury accumulation and intoxication caused by MeHg intake.
chemoprevention; glutathione; methylmercury; Nrf2; 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate; sulforaphane
Glyoxalase I [lactoylglutathione lyase (EC 18.104.22.168) encoded by GLO1] is a ubiquitous cellular defense enzyme involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. Accumulative evidence suggests an important role of GLO1 expression in protection against methylglyoxal-dependent protein adduction and cellular damage associated with diabetes, cancer, and chronological aging. Based on the hypothesis that GLO1 upregulation may play a functional role in glycolytic adaptations of cancer cells, we examined GLO1 expression status in human melanoma tissue. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a cDNA tissue array containing 40 human melanoma tissues (stages III and IV) and 13 healthy controls revealed pronounced upregulation of GLO1 expression at the mRNA level. Immunohistochemical analysis of a melanoma tissue microarray confirmed upregulation of glyoxalase 1 protein levels in malignant melanoma tissue versus healthy human skin. Consistent with an essential role of GLO1 in melanoma cell defense against methylglyoxal cytotoxicity, siRNA interference targeting GLO1-expression (siGLO1) sensitized A375 and G361 human metastatic melanoma cells towards the antiproliferative, apoptogenic, and oxidative stress-inducing activity of exogenous methylglyoxal. Protein adduction by methylglyoxal was increased in siGLO1-transfected cells as revealed by immunodetection using a monoclonal antibody directed against the major methylglyoxal-derived epitope argpyrimidine that detected a single band of methylglyoxal-adducted protein in human LOX, G361, and A375 total cell lysates. Using 2D-proteomics followed by mass spectrometry the methylglyoxal-adducted protein was identified as heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27; HSPB1). Taken together, our data suggest a function of GLO1 in the regulation of detoxification and target-adduction by the glycolytic byproduct methylglyoxal in malignant melanoma.
Malignant melanoma; glyoxalase 1; methylglyoxal; heat shock protein 27; protein adduction
The anti-tumor effects of calorie restriction (CR) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated using ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced glioma in rats. ENU was given transplacentally at gestational day 15, and male offspring were used in this experiment. The brain from 4-, 6-, and 8-month-old rats fed either ad libitum (AL) or calorie-restricted diets (40% restriction of total calories compared to AL rats) was studied. Tumor burden was assessed by comparing the number and size of gliomas present in sections of the brain. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to document lipid peroxidation [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA)], protein oxidation (nitrotyrosine), glycation and AGE formation [methylglyoxal (MG) and carboxymethyllysine (CML)], cell proliferation activity [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)], cell death [single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)], presence of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and presence of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) associated with the development of gliomas. The results showed that the number of gliomas did not change with age in the AL groups; however, the average size of the gliomas was significantly larger in the 8-month-old group compared to that of the younger groups. Immunopositivity was observed mainly in tumor cells and reactive astrocytes in all histological types of ENU-induced glioma. Immunopositive areas for HNE, MDA, nitrotyrosine, MG, CML, HO-1, and Trx1 increased with the growth of gliomas. The CR group showed both reduced number and size of gliomas, and tumors exhibited less accumulation of oxidative damage, decreased formation of glycated end products, and a decreased presence of HO-1 and Trx1 compared to the AL group. Furthermore, gliomas of the CR group showed less PCNA positive and more ssDNA positive cells, which are correlated to the retarded growth of tumors. Interestingly, we also discovered that the anti-tumor effects of CR were associated with decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels in normal brain tissue. Our results are very exciting because they not only demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of CR in gliomas, but also indicate the possible underlying mechanisms, i.e. anti-tumor effects of CR observed in this investigation are associated with reduced accumulation of oxidative damage, decreased formation of glycated end products, decreased presence of HO-1 and Trx1, reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, and decreased levels of HIF-1α.
calorie restriction; ethylnitrosourea; glioma; oxidative stress; HIF-1α
Recent evidence suggests that neuroglial dysfunction and degeneration contributes to the etiology and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) have been implicated in the pathology of various diseases, including diabetes and several neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible link between the accumulation of ALEs and neuroretinal changes in diabetic retinopathy.
Retinal sections obtained from diabetic rats and age-matched controls were processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies against several well defined ALEs. In vitro experiments were also performed using a human Müller (Moorfields/Institute of Ophthalmology-Müller 1 [MIO-M1]) glia cell line. Western blot analysis was used to measure the accumulation of the acrolein-derived ALE adduct Nε-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine (FDP-lysine) in Müller cells preincubated with FDP-lysine-modified human serum albumin (FDP-lysine-HSA). Responses of Müller cells to FDP-lysine accumulation were investigated by analyzing changes in the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT–PCR). Apoptotic cell death was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis after staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide.
No significant differences in the levels of malondialdehyde-, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-, and 4-hydroxyhexenal-derived ALEs were evident between control and diabetic retinas after 4 months of diabetes. By contrast, FDP-lysine immunoreactivity was markedly increased in the Müller glia of diabetic rats. Time-course studies revealed that FDP-lysine initially accumulated within Müller glial end feet after only a few months of diabetes and thereafter spread distally throughout their inner radial processes. Exposure of human Müller glia to FDP-lysine-HSA led to a concentration-dependent accumulation of FDP-lysine-modified proteins across a broad molecular mass range. FDP-lysine accumulation was associated with the induction of HO-1, no change in GFAP, a decrease in protein levels of the potassium channel subunit Kir4.1, and upregulation of transcripts for VEGF, IL-6, and TNF-α. Incubation of Müller glia with FDP-lysine-HSA also caused apoptosis at high concentrations.
Collectively, these data strongly suggest that FDP-lysine accumulation could be a major factor contributing to the Müller glial abnormalities occurring in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy.
13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) is a major component of oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), which has been shown to have a crucial role in atherogenesis. Of the 13-HODE stereoisomers, 13(S)-HODE and 13(R)-HODE, little is known about the latter in contrast to the former. To detect 13(R)-HODE in atherosclerotic lesions, we prepared a mouse monoclonal antibody against 13(R)-HODE. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay clarified the selective reaction of a clone mAb 13H1 with both free and bovine serum albumin-conjugated forms of 13(R)-HODE but not other oxidized lipids including 13(S)-HODE. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the colocalization of 13(R)-HODE immunoreactivity with the OxLDL marker oxidized phophatidylcholine immunoreactivity in vascular endothelial cells, macrophages and migrating vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques of human carotid arteries. The present results provide in vivo evidence for the formation of 13(R)-HODE in atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries.
carotid atherosclerosis; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; 13(R)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid; immunohistochemistry; monoclonal antibody
Oxidative damage to proteins such as apolipoprotein B100 increases the atherogenicity of low density lipoproteins (LDL). However, little is known about the potential oxidative damage to apolipoprotein E (apoE), an exchangeable anti-atherogenic apolipoprotein. ApoE plays an integral role in lipoprotein metabolism by regulating the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Hepatic uptake of lipoproteins is facilitated by apoE's ability to bind with cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans and to lipoprotein receptors via basic residues in its 22 kDa N-terminal domain (NT). We investigated the effect of acrolein, an aldehydic product of endogenous lipid peroxidation and a tobacco smoke component, on the conformation and function of recombinant human apoE3-NT. Acrolein caused oxidative modification of apoE3-NT as detected by Western blot with acrolein-lysine-specific antibodies, and tertiary conformational alterations. Acrolein-modification impairs the ability of apoE3-NT to interact with heparin and the LDL receptor. Furthermore, acrolein-modified apoE3-NT displayed a 5-fold decrease in its ability to interact with lipid surfaces. Our data indicate that acrolein disrupts the functional integrity of apoE3, which likely interferes with its role in regulating plasma cholesterol homeostasis. These observations have implications regarding the role of apoE in the pathogenesis of smoking- and oxidative stress-mediated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
Cardiovascular disease; apolipoprotein E; acrolein; tobacco smoke; oxidative stress; aging; LDL receptor; heparan sulfate proteoglycan; lysine modification
Antigen-free Fab fragment of mAbR310, which recognizes (R)-HNE modified protein, has been crystallized. Initial phases have been obtained by molecular replacement.
4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major racemic product of lipid peroxidation, reacts with histidine to form a stable HNE–histidine Michael addition-type adduct possessing three chiral centres in the cyclic hemiacetal structure. Monoclonal antibodies against HNE-modified protein have been widely used for assessing oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a Fab fragment of novel monoclonal antibody R310 (mAbR310), which recognizes (R)-HNE-modified protein, are reported. The Fab fragment of mAbR310 was obtained by digestion with papain, purified and crystallized. Using hanging-drop vapour-diffusion crystallization techniques, crystals of mAbR310 Fab were obtained. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group C2 (unit-cell parameters a = 127.04, b = 65.31, c = 64.29 Å, β = 118.88°) and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.84 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of mAbR310, with a corresponding crystal volume per protein weight of 2.51 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 51.0%.
mAbR310; monoclonal antibodies; Fab fragments
The Keap1-Nrf2 system is the major regulatory pathway of cytoprotective gene expression against oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses. Keap1 acts as a stress sensor protein in this system. While Keap1 constitutively suppresses Nrf2 activity under unstressed conditions, oxidants or electrophiles provoke the repression of Keap1 activity, inducing the Nrf2 activation. However, the precise molecular mechanisms behind the liberation of Nrf2 from Keap1 repression in the presence of stress remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that oxidative and electrophilic stresses induce the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by affecting the Keap1-mediated rapid turnover of Nrf2, since such accumulation was diminished by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. While both the Cys273 and Cys288 residues of Keap1 are required for suppressing Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, treatment of cells with electrophiles or mutation of these cysteine residues to alanine did not affect the association of Keap1 with Nrf2 either in vivo or in vitro. Rather, these treatments impaired the Keap1-mediated proteasomal degradation of Nrf2. These results support the contention that Nrf2 protein synthesized de novo after exposure to stress accumulates in the nucleus by bypassing the Keap1 gate and that the sensory mechanism of oxidative and electrophilic stresses is closely linked to the degradation mechanism of Nrf2.
Activated macrophages express high levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor that positively regulates the gene expression of antioxidant and detoxication enzymes. In this study, we examined how Nrf2 contributes to the anti-inflammatory process. As a model system of acute inflammation, we administered carrageenan to induce pleurisy and found that in Nrf2-deficient mice, tissue invasion by neutrophils persisted during inflammation and the recruitment of macrophages was delayed. Using an antibody against 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), it was observed that macrophages from pleural lavage accumulate 15d-PGJ2. We show that in mouse peritoneal macrophages 15d-PGJ2 can activate Nrf2 by forming adducts with Keap1, resulting in an Nrf2-dependent induction of heme oxygenase 1 and peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) gene expression. Administration of the cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor NS-398 to mice with carrageenan-induced pleurisy caused persistence of neutrophil recruitment and, in macrophages, attenuated the 15d-PGJ2 accumulation and PrxI expression. Administration of 15d-PGJ2 into the pleural space of NS-398-treated wild-type mice largely counteracted both the decrease in PrxI and persistence of neutrophil recruitment. In contrast, these changes did not occur in the Nrf2-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that Nrf2 regulates the inflammation process downstream of 15d-PGJ2 by orchestrating the recruitment of inflammatory cells and regulating the gene expression within those cells.