Chlorophyll is a major component of chloroplasts and a better understanding of the genetic basis of chlorophyll in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] might contribute to improving photosynthetic capacity and yield in regions with adverse environmental conditions. A collection of 332 diverse soybean genotypes were grown in 2 years (2009 and 2010) and chlorophyll a (eChl_A), chlorophyll b (eChl_B), and total chlorophyll (eChl_T) content as well as chlorophyll a/b ratio (eChl_R) in leaf tissues were determined by extraction and spectrometric determination. Total chlorophyll was also derived from canopy spectral reflectance measurements using a model of wavelet transformed spectra (tChl_T) as well as with a spectral reflectance index (iChl_T).
A genome-wide associating mapping approach was employed using 31,253 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify loci associated with the extract based eChl_A, eChl_B, eChl_R and eChl_T measurements and the two canopy spectral reflectance-based methods (tChl_T and iChl_T). A total of 23 (14 loci), 15 (7 loci) and 14 SNPs (10 loci) showed significant association with eChl_A, eChl_B and eChl_R respectively. A total of 52 unique SNPs were significantly associated with total chlorophyll content based on at least one of the three approaches (eChl_T, tChl_T and iChl_T) and likely tagged 27 putative loci for total chlorophyll content, four of which were indicated by all three approaches.
Results presented here show that markers for chlorophyll traits can be identified in soybean using both extract-based and canopy spectral reflectance-based phenotypes, and confirm that high-throughput phenotyping-amenable canopy spectral reflectance measurements can be used for association mapping.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-016-0861-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Abiotic stress tolerance; Chlorophyll a; Chlorophyll b; Chlorophyll a/b ratio; Total chlorophyll; Genome-wide association mapping; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; High-throughput phenotyping
Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems.
Biodiversity; Contaminated sites; Ecology; Economics; Ecosystem functions and services; Restoration
Tetrahydropyrans are common motifs in natural products and have now been constructed with high stereocontrol through a three‐component allylboration‐Prins reaction sequence. This methodology has been applied to a concise (13 steps) and efficient (14 % overall yield) synthesis of the macrolide (−)‐clavosolide A. The synthesis also features an early stage glycosidation reaction to introduce the xylose moiety and a lithiation‐borylation reaction to attach the cyclopropyl‐containing side chain.
allylboration; lithiation–borylation; natural products; Prins reaction; total synthesis
CD15, which is overexpressed on various cancers, has been reported as a cell adhesion molecule that plays a key role in non-CNS metastasis. However, the role of CD15 in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. This study provides a better understanding of CD15/CD62E interaction, enhanced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and its correlation with brain metastasis in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
CD15 and E-selectin (CD62E) expression was demonstrated in both human primary and metastatic NSCLC cells using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. The role of CD15 was investigated using an adhesion assay under static and physiological flow live-cell conditions. Human tissue sections were examined using immunohistochemistry.
CD15, which was weakly expressed on hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cells, was expressed at high levels on metastatic NSCLC cells (NCI-H1299, SEBTA-001, and SEBTA-005) and at lower levels on primary NSCLC (COR-L105 and A549) cells (P < .001). The highest expression of CD62E was observed on hCMEC/D3 cells activated with TNF-α, with lower levels on metastatic NSCLC cells followed by primary NSCLC cells. Metastatic NSCLC cells adhered most strongly to hCMEC/D3 compared with primary NSCLC cells. CD15 immunoblocking decreased cancer cell adhesion to brain endothelium under static and shear stress conditions (P < .0001), confirming a correlation between CD15 and cerebral metastasis. Both CD15 and CD62E expression were detected in lung metastatic brain biopsies.
This study enhances the understanding of cancer cell-brain endothelial adhesion and confirms that CD15 plays a crucial role in adhesion in concert with TNF-α activation of its binding partner, CD62E.
adhesion; brain metastasis; CD15; CD62E
INTRODUCTION: CD44 is important in cellular adhesion and invasion, and is upregulated in glioma cells. Here, we extend our previous CD44-antibody blocking and gene silencing experiments to examine, the downstream effects of CD44 knockdown (kd) on the expression of cytoskeletal proteins involved in cellular migration. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the stiffness (Young's Modulus, E) of wild type (wt) and CD44-kd glioma cells. METHOD: SNB-19 cells were transfected with either CD44 siRNA, scrambled siRNA, or a non-related gene siRNA. Human non-neoplastic astrocytes were used as a control. Western Blotting (WB), immunocytochemistry (ICC) and flow cytometric analysis were used to analyse changes in cytoskeletal proteins. AFM (CellHesion 200, JPK Instruments) was used to measure E values obtained from force vs. distance plots, using Hertzian mechanics models, by indenting a microsphere (R = 5.6 µm), attached to a AFM cantilever, into cells (10% of cell thickness, nuclear and cytoplasm regions) maintained at 37°C in culture media. RESULTS: Vimentin, GFAP, and microtubule protein expression was associated with lower CD44 protein levels in CD44-kd cells compared to cells with scrambled siRNA. Functionally, CD44-kd cells were less migratory compared to controls. AFM E-values were found to be log-normally distributed, with no differences observed between nuclear and cytoplasm regions. Knockdown CD44 SNB-19 cells (E = 359 ± 180 Pa) were less stiff than wt cells (E = 1099 ± 991 Pa; p = 0.023). The stiffness of wt SNB-19 cells was also greater than control astrocytes (E = 444 ± 311 Pa; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The combined results suggest gene silencing of CD44 may be an important therapeutic strategy for reducing adhesion, migration and invasion of glioma cells.
Carotenoids are organic pigments that are produced predominantly by photosynthetic organisms and provide antioxidant activity to a wide variety of plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is highly conserved in plants and occurs mostly in chromoplasts and chloroplasts. Leaf carotenoids play important photoprotective roles and targeted selection for leaf carotenoids may offer avenues to improve abiotic stress tolerance. A collection of 332 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes was grown in two years and total leaf carotenoid content was determined using three different methods. The first method was based on extraction and spectrophotometric determination of carotenoid content (eCaro) in leaf tissue, whereas the other two methods were derived from high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance measurements using wavelet transformed reflectance spectra (tCaro) and a spectral reflectance index (iCaro). An association mapping approach was employed using 31,253 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify SNPs associated with total carotenoid content using a mixed linear model based on data from two growing seasons. A total of 28 SNPs showed a significant association with total carotenoid content in at least one of the three approaches. These 28 SNPs likely tagged 14 putative loci for carotenoid content. Six putative loci were identified using eCaro, five loci with tCaro, and nine loci with iCaro. Three of these putative loci were detected by all three carotenoid determination methods. All but four putative loci were located near a known carotenoid-related gene. These results showed that carotenoid markers can be identified in soybean using extract-based as well as by high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance-based approaches, demonstrating the utility of field-based canopy spectral reflectance phenotypes for association mapping.
Ureides are the N-rich products of N-fixation that are transported from soybean nodules to the shoot. Ureides are known to accumulate in leaves in response to water-deficit stress, and this has been used to identify genotypes with reduced N-fixation sensitivity to drought. Our objectives in this research were to determine shoot ureide concentrations in 374 Maturity Group IV soybean accessions and to identify genomic regions associated with shoot ureide concentration. The accessions were grown at two locations (Columbia, MO, and Stuttgart, AR) in 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and characterized for ureide concentration at beginning flowering to full bloom. Average shoot ureide concentrations across all four environments (two locations and two years) and 374 accessions ranged from 12.4 to 33.1 µmol g−1 and were comparable to previously reported values. SNP–ureide associations within and across the four environments were assessed using 33,957 SNPs with a MAF ≥0.03. In total, 53 putative loci on 18 chromosomes were identified as associated with ureide concentration. Two of the putative loci were located near previously reported QTL associated with ureide concentration and 30 loci were located near genes associated with ureide metabolism. The remaining putative loci were not near chromosomal regions previously associated with shoot ureide concentration and may mark new genes involved in ureide metabolism. Ultimately, confirmation of these putative loci will provide new sources of variation for use in soybean breeding programs.
ureide; drought tolerance; soybean; GWAS
Seed dispersal governs the distribution of plant propagules in the landscape and hence forms the template on which density-dependent processes act. Dispersal is therefore a vital component of many species coexistence and forest dynamics models and is of applied value in understanding forest regeneration. Research on the processes that facilitate forest regeneration and restoration is given further weight in the context of widespread loss and degradation of tropical forests, and provides impetus to improve estimates of seed dispersal for tropical forest trees. South-East Asian lowland rainforests, which have been subject to severe degradation, are dominated by trees of the Dipterocarpaceae family which constitute over 40% of forest biomass. Dipterocarp dispersal is generally considered to be poor given their large, gyration-dispersed fruits. However, there is wide variability in fruit size and morphology which we hypothesize mechanistically underpins dispersal potential through the lift provided to seeds mediated by the wings. We explored experimentally how the ratio of fruit wing area to mass (“inverse wing loading,” IWL) explains variation in seed dispersal kernels among 13 dipterocarp species by releasing fruit from a canopy tower. Horizontal seed dispersal distances increased with IWL, especially at high wind speeds. Seed dispersal of all species was predominantly local, with 90% of seed dispersing <10 m, although maximum dispersal distances varied widely among species. We present a generic seed dispersal model for dipterocarps based on attributes of seed morphology and provide modeled seed dispersal kernels for all dipterocarp species with IWLs of 1–50, representing 75% of species in Borneo.
Auto-gyrating fruit; Borneo; Dipterocarpaceae; inverse wing loading (IWL); seed dispersal; tropical forest
Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the mid-South region of the United States. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen. Sixty-one wild and domestic soybean lines were evaluated in replicated growth chamber tests. Six previously untested soybean lines with useful levels of resistance to reniform nematode were identified in both initial screening and subsequent confirmation tests: released germplasm lines DS4-SCN05 (PI 656647) and DS-880 (PI 659348); accession PI 567516 C; and breeding lines DS97-84-1, 02011-126-1-1-2-1 and 02011-126-1-1-5-1. Eleven previously untested moderately susceptible or susceptible lines were also identified: released germplasm lines D68-0099 (PI 573285) and LG01-5087-5; accessions PI 200538, PI 416937, PI 423941, PI 437697, PI 467312, PI 468916, PI 594692, and PI 603751 A; and cultivar Stafford (PI 508269). Results of previously tested lines evaluated in the current study agreed with published reports 69.6% of the time for resistant lines and 87.5% of the time for susceptible lines. Soybean breeders may benefit from incorporating the newly identified resistant lines into their breeding programs.
Glycine; reniform nematode; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean
Freshwater cyanophages are poorly characterised in comparison to their marine counterparts, however, the level of genetic diversity that exists in freshwater cyanophage communities is likely to exceed that found in marine environments, due to the habitat heterogeneity within freshwater systems. Many cyanophages are specialists, infecting a single host species or strain; however, some are less fastidious and infect a number of different host genotypes within the same species or even hosts from different genera. Few instances of host growth characterisation after infection by broad host-range phages have been described. Here we provide an initial characterisation of interactions between a cyanophage isolated from a freshwater fishing lake in the south of England and its hosts. Designated ΦMHI42, the phage is able to infect isolates from two genera of freshwater cyanobacteria, Planktothrix and Microcystis. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy indicate that ΦMHI42 is a member of the Podoviridae, albeit with a larger than expected capsid. The kinetics of host growth after infection with ΦMHI42 differed across host genera, species and strains in a way that was not related to the growth rate of the uninfected host. To our knowledge, this is the first characterisation of the growth of cyanobacteria in the presence of a broad host-range freshwater cyanophage.
Tensin3 is an intracellular cytoskeleton-regulating protein, the loss of which is associated with increased cell motility, as has been observed in some human cancers. A novel chromosomal translocation, t(2;7)(p13;p12), present in a patient with a complex syndromic phenotype, directly involves Tensin3 (TNS3) and EXOC6B genes. This translocation could impair the expression of Tensin3 and ExoC6B proteins, and potentially produce two novel fusion transcripts. In the present study, we have investigated the expression and phenotypic features of these potential products in cultured cells from the proband.
Skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband as well as an age-matched control were grown in cell culture. Cells were used for quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, which determined Tensin3 gene and protein expression. Phase-contrast and confocal microscopy additionally revealed cellular phenotype differences. A scratch wound assay monitored by live cell imaging measured cellular migration rates.
The levels of Tensin3 at both mRNA and protein levels were lower in proband cells versus control fibroblasts. Proband cells displayed broader and shorter morphologies versus control fibroblasts, and immunofluorescent staining revealed additional Tensin3 expression along cytoskeletal filaments and the cell periphery only in control fibroblasts. In addition, proband fibroblasts showed a significantly higher migration rate than control cells over 24 h.
The phenotypic changes observed in proband cells may arise from TNS3 haploinsufficiency, causing partial loss of full-length Tensin3 protein. These results further expose a role for Tensin3 in cytoskeletal organisation and cell motility and may also help to explain the syndromic features observed in the patient.
Tensin; Exocyst; Translocation; Chimera; Haploinsufficiency; Cell migration
Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait) under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting), Boggs (intermediate in wilting); and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW) genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF), nitrogen assimilation (NA), and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (−2.00 MPa) than in the SLW genotypes (−1.68 MPa). Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose, and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance.
soybean; seed nutrition; seed composition; slow-wilting; drought tolerance
CD44 has long been associated with glioma invasion while, more recently, CD155 has been implicated in playing a similar role. Notably, these two receptors have been shown closely positioned on monocytes.
Methods and Findings
In this study, an up-regulation of CD44 and CD155 was demonstrated in established and early-passage cultures of glioblastoma. Total internal reflected fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed close proximity of CD44 and CD155. CD44 antibody blocking and gene silencing (via siRNA) resulted in greater inhibition of invasion than that for CD155. Combined interference resulted in 86% inhibition of invasion, although in these investigations no obvious evidence of synergy between CD44 and CD155 in curbing invasion was shown. Both siRNA-CD44 and siRNA-CD155 treated cells lacked processes and were rounder, while live cell imaging showed reduced motility rate compared to wild type cells. Adhesion assay demonstrated that wild type cells adhered most efficiently to laminin, whereas siRNA-treated cells (p<0.0001 for both CD44 and CD155 expression) showed decreased adhesion on several ECMs investigated. BrdU assay showed a higher proliferation of siRNA-CD44 and siRNA-CD155 cells, inversely correlated with reduced invasion. Confocal microscopy revealed overlapping of CD155 and integrins (β1, αvβ1 and αvβ3) on glioblastoma cell processes whereas siRNA-transfected cells showed consequent reduction in integrin expression with no specific staining patterns. Reduced expression of Rho GTPases, Cdc42, Rac1/2/3, RhoA and RhoB, was seen in siRNA-CD44 and siRNA-CD155 cells. In contrast to CD44-knockdown and ‘double’-knockdown cells, no obvious decrease in RhoC expression was observed in CD155-knockdown cells.
This investigation has enhanced our understanding of cell invasion and confirmed CD44 to play a more significant role in this biological process than CD155. Joint CD44/CD155 approaches may, however, merit further study in therapeutic targeting of infiltrating glioma cells.
Avian influenza A viruses continue to cause disease outbreaks in humans, and extrapulmonary infection is characteristic. In vitro studies demonstrate the activity of oseltamivir against avian viruses of the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. In animal models of lethal infection, oseltamivir treatment and prophylaxis limit viral replication and improve survival. Outcomes are influenced by the virulence of the viral strain, dosage regimen and treatment delay; it is also critical for the compound to act systemically. Observational data on oseltamivir treatment in the early stages of disease suggest it is useful for improving survival in patients infected with H5 viruses, and drug-selected resistance has only rarely been reported. The WHO strongly recommends oseltamivir for the treatment of confirmed or suspected cases of human H5 infection and prophylaxis of those at high risk of infection. In addition to oral dosing, nasogastric administration appears to be a viable option for the management of severely ill patients, as is the use of higher doses and prolonged schedules. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, the manufacturer of oseltamivir, is developing a mathematical model to allow rapid prediction of appropriate dosage regimens for any future pandemic. Roche is also funding the Avian Influenza Registry, an online database that aims to collect information from clinicians worldwide on the course of avian influenza in humans.
H5N1; treatment; prophylaxis; clinical; pre-clinical
The threat of potential pandemic influenza requires a reevaluation of licensed therapies for the prophylaxis or treatment of avian H5N1 infection that may adapt to man. Among the therapies considered for use in pandemic influenza is the co-administration of ion channel and neuraminidase inhibitors, both to potentially increase efficacy as well as to decrease the emergence of resistant isolates. To better understand the potential for drug interactions, a cross-over, randomized, open-label trial was conducted with amantadine, 100 mg po bid, and oseltamivir, 75 mg po bid, given alone or in combination for 5 days. Each subject (N = 17) served as their own control and was administered each drug alone or in combination, with appropriate wash-out. Co-administration with oseltamivir had no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of amantadine [mean ratios (90% CI) for AUC0-12 0.93 (0.89, 0.98) and Cmax 0.96 (0.90, 1.02)]. Similarly, amantadine co-administration did not affect oseltamivir PK [AUC0-12 0.92 (0.86, 0.99) and Cmax 0.85 (0.73, 0.99)] or the PK of the metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate [AUC0-12 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) and Cmax 0.95 (0.89, 1.01)]. In this small trial there was no evidence of an increase in adverse events. Although many more subjects would need to be studied to rule out a synergistic increase in adverse events, the combination in this small human drug-drug interaction trial appears safe and without pharmacokinetic consequences.
MRG15 is a highly conserved protein, and orthologs exist in organisms from yeast to humans. MRG15 associates with at least two nucleoprotein complexes that include histone acetyltransferases and/or histone deacetylases, suggesting it is involved in chromatin remodeling. To study the role of MRG15 in vivo, we generated knockout mice and determined that the phenotype is embryonic lethal, with embryos and the few stillborn pups exhibiting developmental delay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicates that apoptosis in Mrg15−/− embryos is not increased compared with wild-type littermates. However, the number of proliferating cells is significantly reduced in various tissues of the smaller null embryos compared with control littermates. Cell proliferation defects are also observed in Mrg15−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The hearts of the Mrg15−/− embryos exhibit some features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The increase in size of the cardiomyocytes is most likely a response to decreased growth of the cells. Mrg15−/− embryos appeared pale, and microarray analysis revealed that α-globin gene expression was decreased in null versus wild-type embryos. We determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation that MRG15 was recruited to the α-globin promoter during dimethyl sulfoxide-induced mouse erythroleukemia cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that MRG15 has an essential role in embryonic development via chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation.
The host suitability of diverse races and gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for multiple isolates of Heterodera glycines was studied. Twenty P. vulgaris genotypes, representing three of the six races within the two major germplasm pools, were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability to five H. glycines isolates. Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes differed in their host suitability to different H. glycines isolates. While some common bean lines were excellent hosts for some H. glycines isolates, no common bean line was a good host for all isolates. Some bean lines from races Durango and Mesoamerica, representing the Middle America gene pool, were resistant to all five nematode isolates. Other lines, from both the Andean and Middle America gene pools, had differential responses for host suitability to the different isolates of H. glycines.
common bean; Heterodera glycines; host suitability; Phaseolus vulgaris; race; resistance; soybean cyst nematode
Differentiation of skeletal muscle is affected in myotonic dystrophy (DM) patients. Analysis of cultured myoblasts from DM patients shows that DM myoblasts lose the capability to withdraw from the cell cycle during differentiation. Our data demonstrate that the expression and activity of the proteins responsible for cell cycle withdrawal are altered in DM muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells from DM patients fail to induce cytoplasmic levels of a CUG RNA binding protein, CUGBP1, while normal differentiated cells accumulate CUGBP1 in the cytoplasm. In cells from normal patients, CUGBP1 up-regulates p21 protein during differentiation. Several lines of evidence show that CUGBP1 induces the translation of p21 via binding to a GC-rich sequence located within the 5′ region of p21 mRNA. Failure of DM cells to accumulate CUGBP1 in the cytoplasm leads to a significant reduction of p21 and to alterations of other proteins responsible for the cell cycle withdrawal. The activity of cdk4 declines during differentiation of cells from control patients, while in DM cells cdk4 is highly active during all stages of differentiation. In addition, DM cells do not form Rb/E2F repressor complexes that are abundant in differentiated cells from normal patients. Our data provide evidence for an impaired cell cycle withdrawal in DM muscle cells and suggest that alterations in the activity of CUGBP1 causes disruption of p21-dependent control of cell cycle arrest.