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1.  Obesity-induced oxidative stress, accelerated functional decline with age and increased mortality in mice 
Obesity is a serious chronic disease that increases the risk of numerous co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as increases risk of mortality leading some to suggest this represents accelerated aging. Obesity is associated with significant increases in oxidative stress in vivo and, despite the well-explored relationship between oxidative stress and aging, the role this plays in the increased mortality of obese subjects remains an unanswered question. Here, we addressed this by undertaking a comprehensive, longitudinal study of a group of high fat-fed obese mice and assessed both their changes in oxidative stress and in their performance in physiological assays known to decline with aging. In female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet starting in adulthood, mortality was significantly increased in high fat-fed mice as was oxidative damage in vivo. High fat-feeding significantly accelerated the decline in performance in several assays, including activity, gait, and rotarod. However, we also found that obesity had little effect on other markers and actually improved performance in grip strength, a marker of muscular function. Together, this first comprehensive assessment of longitudinal functional changes in high fat-fed mice suggests that obesity may induce segmental acceleration of some of the aging process.
doi:10.1016/j.abb.2014.12.018
PMCID: PMC4456198  PMID: 25558793
obesity; rotarod; longevity; oxidation; grip strength; respirometry; gait
2.  Health Effects of Long-Term Rapamycin Treatment: The Impact on Mouse Health of Enteric Rapamycin Treatment from Four Months of Age throughout Life 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0126644.
Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, has been shown to extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. It has been reported to extend lifespan in multiple strains of mice, administered chronically or acutely early or late in life. The ability of rapamycin to extend health (healthspan) as opposed to life is less well documented. To assess the effects chronic rapamycin treatment on healthspan, enteric rapamycin was given to male and female C57BL/6J mice starting at 4 months of age and continued throughout life. Repeated, longitudinal assessments of health in individual animals were made starting at 16 months of age (=12 months of treatment) until death. A number of health parameters were improved (female grip strength, female body mass and reduced sleep fragmentation in both sexes), others showed no significant difference, while at least one (male rotarod performance) was negatively affected. Rapamycin treatment affected many measures of health in a highly sex-specific manner. While sex-specific phenotypic effects of rapamycin treatment have been widely reported, in this study we document sex differences in the direction of phenotypic change. Rapamycin-fed males and females were both significantly different from controls; however the differences were in the opposite direction in measures of body mass, percent fat and resting metabolic rate, a pattern not previously reported.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126644
PMCID: PMC4433347  PMID: 25978367
3.  Reduction of mitochondrial H2O2 by overexpressing peroxiredoxin 3 improves glucose tolerance in mice 
Aging cell  2008;7(6):866-878.
Summary
H2O2 is a major reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondria that is implicated to be important in aging and pathogenesis of diseases such as diabetes; however, the cellular and physiological roles of mitochondrial H2O2 remain poorly understood. Peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3/Prx3) is a thioredoxin peroxidase localized in mitochondria. To understand the cellular and physiological roles of mitochondrial H2O2 in aging and pathogenesis of age-associated diseases, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Prdx3 (Tg(PRDX3) mice). Tg(PRDX3) mice overexpress Prdx3 in a broad range of tissues, and the Prdx3 expression is localized exclusively in the mitochondria. As a result of increased Prdx3 expression, mitochondria from Tg(PRDX3) mice produce significantly reduced amount of H2O2, and cells from Tg(PRDX3) mice have increased resistance to stress-induced cell death and apoptosis. Interestingly, Tg(PRDX3) mice show improved glucose homeostasis, as evidenced by their reduced levels of blood glucose and increased glucose clearance. Tg(PRDX3) mice are also protected against hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance induced by high-fat diet feeding. Our results further show that the inhibition of GSK3 may play a role in mediating the improved glucose tolerance phenotype in Tg(PRDX3) mice. Thus, our results indicate that reduction of mitochondrial H2O2 by overexpressing Prdx3 improves glucose tolerance.
doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2008.00432.x
PMCID: PMC4431549  PMID: 18778410
mitochondria; reactive oxygen species; aging; diabetes; oxidative stress; peroxiredoxin 3
4.  Combined treatment of rapamycin and dietary restriction have a larger effect on the transcriptome and metabolome of liver 
Aging cell  2013;13(2):311-319.
Summary
Rapamycin (Rapa) and dietary restriction (DR) have consistently been shown to increase lifespan. To investigate whether Rapa and DR affect similar pathways in mice, we compared the effects of feeding mice ad libitum (AL), Rapa, DR, or a combination of Rapa and DR (Rapa+DR) on the transcriptome and metabolome of the liver. The principal component analysis shows that Rapa and DR are distinct groups. Over 2500 genes are significantly changed with either Rapa or DR compared to mice fed AL; more than 80% are unique to DR or Rapa. A similar observation was made when genes were grouped into pathways; two-thirds of the pathways are uniquely changed by DR or Rapa. The metabolome shows an even greater difference between Rapa and DR; no metabolites in Rapa-treated mice were changed significantly from AL mice, while 173 metabolites were changed in the DR mice. Interestingly, the number of genes significantly changed by Rapa+DR compared to AL is twice as large as the number of genes significantly altered by either DR or Rapa alone. In summary, the global effects of DR or Rapa on the liver are quite different and a combination of Rapa and DR results in alterations in a large number of genes and metabolites that are not significantly changed by either manipulation alone, suggesting that a combination of DR and Rapa would be more effective in extending longevity than either treatment alone.
doi:10.1111/acel.12175
PMCID: PMC3989927  PMID: 24304444
Rapamycin; dietary restriction; metabolome; transcriptome
5.  Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice 
Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders.
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.116
PMCID: PMC3790931  PMID: 23838831
glucose metabolism; memory; mitochondrial complex IV; mitochondrial dysfunction; Surf1
6.  Chronic rapamycin restores brain vascular integrity and function through NO synthase activation and improves memory in symptomatic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease 
Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here we demonstrate that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin treatment started after disease onset restored cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density, reduced cerebral amyloid angiopathy and microhemorrhages, decreased amyloid burden, and improved cognitive function in symptomatic hAPP (AD) mice. Like acetylcholine (ACh), a potent vasodilator, acute rapamycin treatment induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and NO release in brain endothelium. Administration of the NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester reversed vasodilation as well as the protective effects of rapamycin on CBF and vasculature integrity, indicating that rapamycin preserves vascular density and CBF in AD mouse brains through NOS activation. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic reduction of TOR activity by rapamycin blocked the progression of AD-like cognitive and histopathological deficits by preserving brain vascular integrity and function. Drugs that inhibit the TOR pathway may have promise as a therapy for AD and possibly for vascular dementias.
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.82
PMCID: PMC3764385  PMID: 23801246
age-associated; Alzheimer's disease; cerebral amyloid angiopathy; nitric oxide synthase; rapamycin; target-of-rapamycin (TOR); vascular dysfunction
7.  Rapamycin-induced metabolic defects are reversible in both lean and obese mice 
Aging (Albany NY)  2014;6(9):742-754.
The inhibition of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) by the macrolide rapamycin has many beneficial effects in mice, including extension of lifespan and reduction or prevention of several age-related diseases. At the same time, chronic rapamycin treatment causes impairments in glucose metabolism including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. It is unknown whether these metabolic effects of rapamycin are permanent or whether they can be alleviated. Here, we confirmed that rapamycin causes glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in both inbred and genetically heterogeneous mice fed either low fat or high fat diets, suggesting that these effects of rapamycin are independent of genetic background. Importantly, we also found that these effects were almost completely lost within a few weeks of cessation of treatment, showing that chronic rapamycin treatment does not induce permanent impairment of glucose metabolism. Somewhat surprisingly, chronic rapamycin also promoted increased accumulation of adipose tissue in high fat fed mice. However, this effect too was lost when rapamycin treatment was ended suggesting that this effect of rapamycin is also not permanent. The reversible nature of rapamycin's alterations of metabolic function suggests that these potentially detrimental side-effects might be managed through alternative dosing strategies or concurrent treatment options.
PMCID: PMC4221917  PMID: 25324470
rapamycin; glucose; insulin; obesity; mTOR
8.  Oxidative damage associated with obesity is prevented by overexpression of CuZn- or Mn-superoxide dismutase 
The development of insulin resistance is the primary step in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are several risk factors associated with insulin resistance, yet the basic biological mechanisms that promote its development are still unclear. There is growing literature that suggests mitochondrial dysfunction and/or oxidative stress play prominent roles in defects in glucose metabolism. Here, we tested whether increased expression of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) or Mn-superoxide dismutase (Sod2) prevented obesity-induced changes in oxidative stress and metabolism. Both Sod1 and Sod2 overexpressing mice were protected from high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Lipid oxidation (F2-isoprostanes) was significantly increased in muscle and adipose with high fat feeding. Mice with increased expression of either Sod1 or Sod2 showed a significant reduction in this oxidative damage. Surprisingly, mitochondria from the muscle of high fat diet-fed mice showed no significant alteration in function. Together, our data suggest that targeting reduced oxidative damage in general may be a more applicable therapeutic target to prevent insulin resistance than by improving mitochondrial function.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.07.029
PMCID: PMC3768142  PMID: 23872067
diabetes; mitochondria; F2-isoprostane; oxidative stress
9.  Dietary restriction attenuates the accelerated aging phenotype of Sod1−/− mice 
Dietary restriction is a powerful aging intervention that extends the life span of diverse biological species ranging from yeast to invertebrates to mammals, and it has been argued that the anti-aging action of dietary restriction occurs through reduced oxidative stress/damage. Using Sod1−/− mice, which have previously been shown to have increased levels of oxidative stress associated with a shorter life span and a high incidence of neoplasia, we were able to test directly the ability of dietary restriction to reverse an aging phenotype due to increased oxidative stress/damage. We found that dietary restriction increased the life span of Sod1−/− mice 30%, returning it to that of wild type, control mice fed ad libitum. Oxidative damage in Sod1−/− mice was markedly reduced by dietary restriction, as indicated by a reduction in liver and brain F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Analysis of end of life pathology showed that dietary restriction significantly reduced the overall incidence of pathological lesions in the Sod1−/− mice fed the dietary restricted-diet compared to Sod1−/− mice fed ad libitum, including the incidence of lymphoma (27 vs 5%) and overall liver pathology. In addition to reduced incidence of overall and liver specific pathology, the burden and severity of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions was also significantly reduced in the Sod1−/− mice fed the dietary restricted-diet. These data demonstrate that dietary restriction can significantly attenuate the accelerated aging phenotype observed in Sod1−/− mice that arises from increased oxidative stress/damage.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.02.026
PMCID: PMC3696984  PMID: 23459073
dietary restriction; aging oxidative stress; CuZnSOD
10.  Calorie Restriction Alleviates Age-Related Decrease in Neural Progenitor Cell Division in the Aging Brain 
The European journal of neuroscience  2013;37(12):1987-1993.
Production of new neurons from stem cells is important for cognitive function, and the reduction of neurogenesis in the aging brain may contribute to the accumulation of age-related cognitive deficits. Restriction of calorie intake and prolonged treatment with rapamycin have been shown to extend the lifespan of animals and delay the onset of age-related decline in tissue and organ function. Using a reporter line in which neural stem and progenitor cells are marked by the expression of GFP, we examined the effect of prolonged exposure to calorie restriction (CR) or rapamycin on hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation in aging mice. We show that CR increases the number of dividing cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of female mice. The majority of these cells corresponded to Nestin-GFP-expressing neural stem or progenitor cells; however, this increased proliferative activity of stem and progenitor cells did not result in a significant increase in the number of doublecortin-positive newborn neurons. Our results suggest that restricted calorie intake may increase the number of divisions that neural stem and progenitor cells undergo in the aging brain of females.
doi:10.1111/ejn.12249
PMCID: PMC3717568  PMID: 23773068
adult neurogenesis; stem cells; aging; calorie restriction; rapamycin
11.  Combined treatment of rapamycin and dietary restriction has a larger effect on the transcriptome and metabolome of liver 
Aging Cell  2013;13(2):311-319.
Rapamycin (Rapa) and dietary restriction (DR) have consistently been shown to increase lifespan. To investigate whether Rapa and DR affect similar pathways in mice, we compared the effects of feeding mice ad libitum (AL), Rapa, DR, or a combination of Rapa and DR (Rapa + DR) on the transcriptome and metabolome of the liver. The principal component analysis shows that Rapa and DR are distinct groups. Over 2500 genes are significantly changed with either Rapa or DR when compared with mice fed AL; more than 80% are unique to DR or Rapa. A similar observation was made when genes were grouped into pathways; two-thirds of the pathways were uniquely changed by DR or Rapa. The metabolome shows an even greater difference between Rapa and DR; no metabolites in Rapa-treated mice were changed significantly from AL mice, whereas 173 metabolites were changed in the DR mice. Interestingly, the number of genes significantly changed by Rapa + DR when compared with AL is twice as large as the number of genes significantly altered by either DR or Rapa alone. In summary, the global effects of DR or Rapa on the liver are quite different and a combination of Rapa and DR results in alterations in a large number of genes and metabolites that are not significantly changed by either manipulation alone, suggesting that a combination of DR and Rapa would be more effective in extending longevity than either treatment alone.
doi:10.1111/acel.12175
PMCID: PMC3989927  PMID: 24304444
dietary restriction; metabolome; rapamycin; transcriptome
12.  Methionine sulfoxide reductase A affects insulin resistance by protecting insulin receptor function 
Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of insulin resistance; however, the cellular targets of oxidation that cause insulin resistance have yet to be fully elucidated. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) reduce oxidized methionine residues, thereby repairing and protecting proteins from oxidation. Recently, several genome-wide analyses have found human obesity to be strongly correlated with polymorphisms near the methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) locus. In this study, we tested whether modulation of MsrA expression significantly alters the development of obesity and/or insulin resistance in mice. We show that mice lacking MsrA (MsrA−/−) are prone to the development of high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and a reduced physiological insulin response compared to high fat-fed wild type mice. We also show that oxidative stress in C2C12 cell cultures reduces both insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Tissues from high fat-fed mice show similar reduction in insulin receptor function and the lack of MsrA further diminishes these functions. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that MsrA plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In addition, these data support a novel hypothesis that obesity-induced insulin resistance is caused in part by reduced function of insulin signaling proteins arising from protein oxidation.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.544
PMCID: PMC3578155  PMID: 23089224
oxidative stress; methionine sulfoxide; diabetes; obesity; glucose homeostasis
13.  Mice Fed Rapamycin Have an Increase in Lifespan Associated with Major Changes in the Liver Transcriptome 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e83988.
Rapamycin was found to increase (11% to 16%) the lifespan of male and female C57BL/6J mice most likely by reducing the increase in the hazard for mortality (i.e., the rate of aging) term in the Gompertz mortality analysis. To identify the pathways that could be responsible for rapamycin's longevity effect, we analyzed the transcriptome of liver from 25-month-old male and female mice fed rapamycin starting at 4 months of age. Few changes (<300 transcripts) were observed in transcriptome of rapamycin-fed males; however, a large number of transcripts (>4,500) changed significantly in females. Using multidimensional scaling and heatmap analyses, the male mice fed rapamycin were found to segregate into two groups: one group that is almost identical to control males (Rapa-1) and a second group (Rapa-2) that shows a change in gene expression (>4,000 transcripts) with more than 60% of the genes shared with female mice fed Rapa. Using ingenuity pathway analysis, 13 pathways were significantly altered in both Rapa-2 males and rapamycin-fed females with mitochondrial function as the most significantly changed pathway. Our findings show that rapamycin has a major effect on the transcriptome and point to several pathways that would likely impact the longevity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083988
PMCID: PMC3883653  PMID: 24409289
14.  Rapamycin, anti-aging, and avoiding the fate of Tithonus 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(8):3204-3206.
The discovery that rapamycin increased the lifespan of mice was recognized by Science as one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs of 2009. In addition to increasing lifespan, Neff and colleagues show that while rapamycin improves several functions/pathologies that change with age, it has little effect on the majority of the physiological and structural parameters they evaluated. What do these data tell us about the ability of rapamycin to delay aging and improve quality of life, i.e., prevent the fate of Tithonus?
doi:10.1172/JCI70800
PMCID: PMC3726178  PMID: 24063054
15.  Chronic inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin modulates cognitive and non-cognitive components of behavior throughout lifespan in mice 
Neuroscience  2012;223:102-113.
Aging is, by far, the greatest risk factor for most neurodegenerative diseases. In non-diseased conditions, normal aging can also be associated with declines in cognitive function that significantly affect quality of life in the elderly. It was recently shown that inhibition of mTOR activity in mice by chronic rapamycin treatment extends lifespan, possibly by delaying aging {Harrison, 2009 #4}{Miller, 2011 #168}. To explore the effect of chronic rapamycin treatment on normal brain aging we determined cognitive and non-cognitive components of behavior throughout lifespan in male and female C57BL/6 mice that were fed control- or rapamycin-supplemented chow. Our studies show that rapamycin enhances cognitive function in young adult mice and blocks age-associated cognitive decline in older animals. In addition, mice fed with rapamycin-supplemented chow showed decreased anxiety and depressive-like behavior at all ages tested. Levels of three major monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) and their metabolites (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid) were significantly augmented in midbrain of rapamycin-treated mice compared to controls. Our results suggest that chronic, partial inhibition of mTOR by oral rapamycin enhances learning and memory in young adults, maintains memory in old C57BL/6J mice, and has concomitant anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, possibly by stimulating major monoamine pathways in brain.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.06.054
PMCID: PMC3454865  PMID: 22750207
mammalian target of rapamycin; memory; depression; anxiety; brain aging; monoamines
16.  Dietary restriction attenuates age-associated muscle atrophy by lowering oxidative stress in mice even in complete absence of CuZnSOD 
Aging cell  2012;11(5):770-782.
Age-related loss of muscle mass and function, sarcopenia, has a major impact on the quality of life in the elderly. Among the proposed causes of sarcopenia are mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulated oxidative damage during aging. Dietary restriction (DR), a robust dietary intervention that extends lifespan and modulates age-related pathology in a variety of species has been shown to protect from sarcopenia in rodents. Although the mechanism(s) by which DR modulates aging are still not defined, one potential mechanism is through modulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. To directly test the protective effect of DR against oxidative stress induced muscle atrophy in vivo, we subjected mice lacking a key antioxidant enzyme, CuZnSOD (Sod1) to DR (40% of ad libitum fed diet). We have previously shown that the Sod1−/− mice exhibit an acceleration of sarcopenia associated with high oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and severe neuromuscular innervation defects. Despite the dramatic atrophy phenotype in the Sod1−/− mice, DR led to a reversal or attenuation of reduced muscle function, loss of innervation and muscle atrophy in these mice. DR improves mitochondrial function as evidenced by enhanced Ca2+ regulation and reduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, we show upregulation of SIRT3 and MnSOD in DR animals, consistent with reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and reduced oxidative damage in muscle tissue measured as F2- isoprostanes. Collectively, our results demonstrate that DR is a powerful mediator of mitochondrial function, mitochondrial ROS production, and oxidative damage, providing a solid protection against oxidative stress induced neuromuscular defects and muscle atrophy in vivo even under conditions of high oxidative stress.
doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012.00843.x
PMCID: PMC3444532  PMID: 22672615
17.  Attenuation of Liver Insoluble Protein Carbonyls: Indicator of A Longevity Determinant? 
Aging cell  2011;10(4):720-723.
Summary
Oxidative damage affects protein structure and function. Progressive accumulation of oxidized proteins is considered a putative mechanism of aging; however, empirical evidence supporting their role in aging is inconsistent. This inconsistency may reflect a failure to distinguish damage to particular cellular compartments. We found significant reduction of protein carbonyl in the insoluble, but not the soluble, fraction of liver tissues of long-lived compared to short-lived animals. Of cellular components analyzed, only nuclear protein carbonyl level was uniformly reduced in long-lived compared with short-lived animals. This observation suggests that attenuated accumulation of protein carbonyls in the nucleus, where they can affect multiple aspects of gene expression and DNA repair, might contribute to the longevity in mammalian species.
doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00712.x
PMCID: PMC3766365  PMID: 21463461
naked-mole rat; marmoset; bats; protein carbonylation; dietary restriction; oxidative stress
18.  Proteomic Screening of Glycoproteins in Human Plasma for Frailty Biomarkers 
The application of proteomics methodology for analyzing human blood samples is of increasing importance as a noninvasive method for understanding, detecting, and monitoring disease. In particular, glycoproteomic analysis may be useful in the study of age-related diseases and syndromes, such as frailty. This study demonstrates the use of methodology for isolating plasma glycoproteins using lectins, comparing the glycoproteome by frailty status using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identifying glycoproteins using mass spectrometry. In a pilot study, we found seven glycoproteins to differ by at least twofold in prefrail compared with nonfrail older adults, including haptoglobin, transferrin, and fibrinogen, consistent with known inflammatory and hematologic changes associated with frailty. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis found that plasma transferrin concentration was increased in frail and prefrail older adults compared with nonfrail, confirming our proteomic findings. This work provides evidence for using a reproducible methodology for conducting clinical proteomic comparative studies of age-related diseases.
doi:10.1093/gerona/glr224
PMCID: PMC3403859  PMID: 22219522
Proteomics; Frailty
19.  IDH1 Is Downregulated during Early Skin Tumorigenesis Which Can Be Inhibited by Overexpression of MnSOD 
Cancer science  2012;103(8):1429-1433.
SUMMARY
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), a cytosolic enzyme which converts isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate, has been shown to be dysregulated during tumorigenesis. However, at what stage of cancer development IDH1 is dysregulated and how IDH1 may affect cell transformation and tumor promotion during early stages of cancer development, are unclear. We utilized a skin cell transformation model, and, mouse skin epidermal tissues to study the role of IDH1 in early skin tumorigenesis. Our studies demonstrate that both the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and UVC irradiation decreased expression and activity levels of IDH1, not IDH2, in the tumor promotable JB6 P+ cell model. Skin epidermal tissues treated with DMBA/TPA also showed decreases in IDH1 expression and activity. In non-promotable JB6 P− cells, IDH1 was upregulated upon TPA treatment, whereas IDH2 was maintained at similar levels with TPA treatment. Interestingly, IDH1 knockdown enhanced, whereas IDH1 overexpression suppressed TPA-induced cell transformation. Finally, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression suppressed tumor promoter-induced decreases in IDH1 expression and mitochondrial respiration, while intracellular alpha-ketoglutarate levels were unchanged. These results suggest that decreased IDH1 expression in early stage skin tumorigenesis is highly correlated with tumor promotion. In addition, oxidative stress may contribute to IDH1 inactivation, because MnSOD, a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, blocked decreases in IDH1 expression and activity.
doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2012.02317.x
PMCID: PMC3407305  PMID: 22533343
20.  Complex I generated, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide is released from the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels 
Mitochondrial complex I has previously been shown to release superoxide exclusively towards the mitochondrial matrix, whereas complex III releases superoxide to both the matrix and the cytosol. Superoxide produced at Complex III has been shown to exit the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC). To test whether complex I-derived, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide can be released to the cytosol, we measured superoxide generation in mitochondria isolated from wild type and from mice genetically altered to be deficient in MnSOD activity (TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl). Under experimental conditions that produce superoxide primarily by complex I (glutamate/malate plus rotenone, GM+R), MnSOD-deficient mitochondria release ~4-fold more superoxide than mitochondria isolated from wild type mice. Exogenous CuZnSOD completely abolished the EPR-derived GM+R signal in mitochondria isolated from both genotypes, evidence that confirms mitochondrial superoxide release. Addition of the VDAC inhibitor DIDS significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide release (~75%) in mitochondria from either genotype respiring on GM+R. Conversely, inhibition of potential inner membrane sites of superoxide exit, including the matrix face of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the inner membrane anion channel did not reduce mitochondrial superoxide release in the presence of GM+R in mitochondria isolated from either genotype. These data support the concept that complex I-derived mitochondrial superoxide release does indeed occur and that the majority of this release occurs through VDACs.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.05.055
PMCID: PMC3400138  PMID: 22613204
mitochondria; superoxide; voltage dependent anion channels
21.  Gpx4 ablation in adult mice results in a lethal phenotype accompanied by neuronal loss in brain 
Free radical biology & medicine  2012;52(9):1820-1827.
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is an antioxidant defense enzyme important in reducing hydroperoxides in membrane lipids and lipoproteins. Gpx4 is essential for survival of embryos and neonatal mice; however, whether Gpx4 is required for adult animals remains unclear. In this study, we generated a floxed Gpx4 mouse (Gpx4(f/f)), in which exons 2–4 of Gpx4 gene are flanked by loxP sites. We then cross-bred the Gpx4(f/f) mice with a tamoxifen (tam)-inducible Cre transgenic mouse (R26CreER mice) to obtain mice in which the Gpx4 gene could be ablated by tam administration (Gpx4(f/f)/Cre mice). After treatment with tam, adult Gpx4(f/f)/Cre mice (6–9 months of age) showed a significant reduction of Gpx4 levels (a 75–85 % decrease) in tissues such as brain, liver, lung and kidney. Tam-treated Gpx4(f/f)/Cre mice lost body weight and died within 2 weeks, indicating that Gpx4 is essential for survival of adult animals. Tam-treated Gpx4(f/f)/Cre mice exhibited increased mitochondrial damage, as evidenced by the elevated 4-hydroxylnonenal (4-HNE) level, decreased activities of electron transport chain complex I and IV, and reduced ATP production in liver. Tam treatment also significantly elevated apoptosis in Gpx4(f/f)/Cre mice. Moreover, tam-treated Gpx4(f/f)/Cre mice showed neuronal loss in hippocampus region and had increased astrogliosis. These data indicate that Gpx4 is essential for mitochondria integrity and survival of neurons in adult animals.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.02.043
PMCID: PMC3341497  PMID: 22401858
Gpx4; knockout mice; lipid peroxidation; mitochondria; neurodegeneration; apoptosis; oxidative stress
22.  Life-long rapamycin administration ameliorates age-dependent cognitive deficits by reducing IL-1β and enhancing NMDA signaling 
Aging Cell  2012;11(2):326-335.
Summary
Understanding the factors that contribute to age-related cognitive decline is imperative, particularly as age is the major risk factor for several neurodegenerative disorders. Levels of several cytokines increase in the brain during aging, including IL-1β, whose levels positively correlate with cognitive deficits. Previous reports show that reducing the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) extends lifespan in yeast, nematodes, Drosophila, and mice. It remains to be established, however, whether extending lifespan with rapamycin is accompanied by an improvement in cognitive function. In this study, we show that 18-month-old mice treated with rapamycin starting at two months of age perform significantly better on a task measuring spatial learning and memory compared to age-matched mice on the control diet. In contrast, rapamycin does not improve cognition when given to 15-month-old mice with pre-existing, age-dependent learning and memory deficits. We further show that the rapamycin-mediated improvement in learning and memory is associated with a decrease in IL-1β levels and an increase in NMDA signaling. This is the first evidence to show that a small molecule known to increase lifespan also ameliorates age-dependent learning and memory deficits.
doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00791.x
PMCID: PMC3306461  PMID: 22212527
learning and memory; mTOR; NMDA; aging; IL-1β; cytokines
23.  Oxidative stress and diabetes: what can we learn about insulin resistance from antioxidant mutant mouse models? 
The development of metabolic dysfunctions like diabetes and insulin resistance in mammals is regulated by a myriad of factors. Oxidative stress seems to play a central role in this process as recent evidence shows a general increase in oxidative damage and a decrease in oxidative defense associated with several metabolic diseases. These changes in oxidative stress can be directly correlated with increased fat accumulation, obesity and consumption of high calorie/high fat diets. Modulation of oxidant protection through either genetic mutation or treatment with antioxidants can significantly alter oxidative stress resistance and accumulation of oxidative damage in laboratory rodents. Antioxidant mutant mice have previously been utilized to examine the role of oxidative stress in other disease models, but have been relatively unexplored as models to study the regulation of glucose metabolism. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for oxidative stress as a primary mechanism linking obesity and metabolic disorders and whether alteration of antioxidant status in laboratory rodents can significantly alter the development of insulin resistance or diabetes.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.10.441
PMCID: PMC3249484  PMID: 22056908
oxidative stress; diabetes; obesity; adipose; insulin resistance
24.  Thioredoxin 1 Overexpression Extends Mainly the Earlier Part of Life Span in Mice 
We examined the effects of increased levels of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) on resistance to oxidative stress and aging in transgenic mice overexpressing Trx1 [Tg(TRX1)+/0]. The Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice showed significantly higher Trx1 protein levels in all the tissues examined compared with the wild-type littermates. Oxidative damage to proteins and levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly lower in the livers of Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice compared with wild-type littermates. The survival study demonstrated that male Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice significantly extended the earlier part of life span compared with wild-type littermates, but no significant life extension was observed in females. Neither male nor female Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice showed changes in maximum life span. Our findings suggested that the increased levels of Trx1 in the Tg(TRX1)+/0 mice were correlated to increased resistance to oxidative stress, which could be beneficial in the earlier part of life span but not the maximum life span in the C57BL/6 mice.
doi:10.1093/gerona/glr125
PMCID: PMC3210956  PMID: 21873593
Thioredoxin; Transgenic mouse; Oxidative stress; Protein carbonylation; Aging
25.  Reduction in Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Mitochondria From Elderly Subjects With Normal and Impaired Glucose Tolerance 
Diabetes  2011;60(8):2051-2060.
OBJECTIVE
Aging increases the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes. It has been proposed that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by dysfunctional mitochondria could play a role in the pathogenesis of these metabolic abnormalities. We examined whether aging per se (in subjects with normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) impairs mitochondrial function and how this relates to ROS generation, whether older subjects with IGT have a further worsening of mitochondrial function (lower ATP production and elevated ROS generation), and whether exercise reverses age-related changes in mitochondrial function.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Mitochondrial ATP and ROS production were measured in muscle from younger individuals with NGT, older individuals with NGT, and older individuals with IGT. Measurements were performed before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise.
RESULTS
ATP synthesis was lower in older subjects with NGT and older subjects with IGT versus younger subjects. Notably, mitochondria from older subjects (with NGT and IGT) displayed reduced ROS production versus the younger group. ATP and ROS production were similar between older groups. Exercise increased ATP synthesis in the three groups. Mitochondrial ROS production also increased after training. Proteomic analysis revealed downregulation of several electron transport chain proteins with aging, and this was reversed by exercise.
CONCLUSIONS
Old mitochondria from subjects with NGT and IGT display mitochondrial dysfunction as manifested by reduced ATP production but not with respect to increased ROS production. When adjusted to age, the development of IGT in elderly individuals does not involve changes in mitochondrial ATP and ROS production. Lastly, exercise reverses the mitochondrial phenotype (proteome and function) of old mitochondria.
doi:10.2337/db11-0121
PMCID: PMC3142073  PMID: 21677280

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