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author:("gelfand, Jon")
1.  Effects of diet on synaptic vesicle release in dynactin complex mutants: a mechanism for improved vitality during motor disease 
Aging Cell  2012;11(3):418-427.
Summary
Synaptic dysfunction is considered the primary substrate for the functional declines observed within the nervous system during age-related neurodegenerative disease. Dietary restriction (DR), which extends lifespan in numerous species, has been shown to have beneficial effects on many neurodegenerative disease models. Existing data sets suggest that the effects of DR during disease include the amelioration of synaptic dysfunction but evidence of the beneficial effects of diet on the synapse is lacking. Dynactin mutant flies have significant increases in mortality rates and exhibit progressive loss of motor function. Using a novel fly motor disease model, we demonstrate that mutant flies raised on a low calorie diet have enhanced motor function and improved survival compared to flies on a high calorie diet. Neurodegeneration in this model is characterized by an early impairment of neurotransmission that precedes the deterioration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology. In mutant flies, low calorie diet increases neurotransmission, but has little effect on morphology, supporting the hypothesis that enhanced neurotransmission contributes to the effects of diet on motor function. Importantly, the effects of diet on the synapse are not due to the reduction of mutant pathologies, but by the increased release of synaptic vesicles during activity. The generality of this effect is demonstrated by the observation that diet can also increase synaptic vesicle release at wild type NMJs. These studies reveal a novel presynaptic mechanism of diet that may contribute to the improved vigor observed in mutant flies raised on low calorie diet.
doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012.00799.x
PMCID: PMC3350605  PMID: 22268717
Dietary restriction; neurodegeneration; Drosophila; neuromuscular junction; neurotransmission; mortality
2.  Does Reduced IGF-1R Signaling in Igf1r+/− Mice Alter Aging? 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e26891.
Mutations in insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway have been shown to lead to increased longevity in various invertebrate models. Therefore, the effect of the haplo- insufficiency of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r+/−) on longevity/aging was evaluated in C57Bl/6 mice using rigorous criteria where lifespan and end-of-life pathology were measured under optimal husbandry conditions using large sample sizes. Igf1r+/− mice exhibited reductions in IGF-1 receptor levels and the activation of Akt by IGF-1, with no compensatory increases in serum IGF-1 or tissue IGF-1 mRNA levels, indicating that the Igf1r+/− mice show reduced IGF-1 signaling. Aged male, but not female Igf1r+/− mice were glucose intolerant, and both genders developed insulin resistance as they aged. Female, but not male Igf1r+/− mice survived longer than wild type mice after lethal paraquat and diquat exposure, and female Igf1r+/− mice also exhibited less diquat-induced liver damage. However, no significant difference between the lifespans of the male Igf1r+/− and wild type mice was observed; and the mean lifespan of the Igf1r+/− females was increased only slightly (less than 5%) compared to wild type mice. A comprehensive pathological analysis showed no significant difference in end-of-life pathological lesions between the Igf1r+/− and wild type mice. These data show that the Igf1r+/− mouse is not a model of increased longevity and delayed aging as predicted by invertebrate models with mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026891
PMCID: PMC3223158  PMID: 22132081

Results 1-2 (2)