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1.  Temporal Gene Expression Kinetics for Human Keratinocytes Exposed to Hyperthermic Stress 
Cells  2013;2(2):224-243.
The gene expression kinetics for human cells exposed to hyperthermic stress are not well characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the genes that are differentially expressed in human epidermal keratinocyte (HEK) cells exposed to hyperthermic stress. In order to obtain temporal gene expression kinetics, we exposed HEK cells to a heat stress protocol (44 °C for 40 min) and used messenger RNA (mRNA) microarrays at 0 h, 4 h and 24 h post-exposure. Bioinformatics software was employed to characterize the chief biological processes and canonical pathways associated with these heat stress genes. The data shows that the genes encoding for heat shock proteins (HSPs) that function to prevent further protein denaturation and aggregation, such as HSP40, HSP70 and HSP105, exhibit maximal expression immediately after exposure to hyperthermic stress. In contrast, the smaller HSPs, such as HSP10 and HSP27, which function in mitochondrial protein biogenesis and cellular adaptation, exhibit maximal expression during the “recovery phase”, roughly 24 h post-exposure. These data suggest that the temporal expression kinetics for each particular HSP appears to correlate with the cellular function that is required at each time point. In summary, these data provide additional insight regarding the expression kinetics of genes that are triggered in HEK cells exposed to hyperthermic stress.
doi:10.3390/cells2020224
PMCID: PMC3972685  PMID: 24709698
keratinocytes; heat shock; gene expression; cellular stress response; bioinformatics
2.  Xenobiotic- and Vitamin D-responsive Induction of the Steroid/bile acid-sulfotransferase Sult2A1 in Young and Old Mice: The role of a Gene Enhancer in the Liver Chromatin 
Gene  2006;386(1-2):218-223.
The xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors PXR (pregnane X receptor) and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) and the vitamin D3-activated nuclear receptor VDR regulate steroid and xenobiotic metabolism by inducing the phase I cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, phase II conjugating transferases, and the phase III transporters, which mediate the efflux of water-soluble lipid metabolites from cells. Metabolic stress due to the deviant expression of steroid- and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes is known to have severe health consequences including accelerated aging, and increased expression of these enzymes is associated with extended longevity (Gachon et al, 2006; McElwee et al, 2004). Information on the similarities and dissimilarities in drug metabolism between the young and old, as may be uncovered by studying aging regulation of the genes relevant to steroid and xenobiotic metabolism, is likely to have clinical significance. In this report, we examined the VDR- and PXR-mediated gene induction of the phase II sulfotransferase Sult2A1 in the livers of 4-month and 20-month old mice. Sult2A1 converts bile acids, steroids and a number of drugs to the corresponding sulfated metabolites, which are readily eliminated from the body due to increased water solubility. In RT-PCR assay, aging did not change the induction of Sult2A1 mRNAs by the hormonally active vitamin D3 and the catatoxic synthetic steroid PCN (pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) from liver nuclei showed that aging had no effect on the activity of an IR0 enhancer in the Sult2A1 chromatin to recruit VDR, RXR-α (retinoid X receptor) and PXR in mice injected with D3 or PCN. Thus, mice in late life are as competent as those in early life in responding to the hormonal and xenobiotic signaling for Sult2A1 induction. This is the first report describing the role of aging in the functional response of an enhancer in the liver chromatin to the nuclear receptor-dependent signaling.
doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.10.006
PMCID: PMC1888572  PMID: 17123747
Aging; Sulfotransferase; Gene Enhancer; Nuclear Receptor; Tissue ChIP

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