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1.  Sulodexide ameliorates early but not late kidney disease in models of radiation nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2010;25(6):1803-1810.
Background. Sulodexide is a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Although sulodexide reduced albuminuria in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, long-term effects on chronic renal injury are not established. We investigated sulodexide effects and mechanisms in a rat radiation nephropathy model and in the db/db mouse model of diabetic kidney disease.
Methods. Sprague–Dawley rats received kidney radiation and were treated as follows: 15 mg/kg/day sulodexide s.c., 6 day/week (SUL) or no treatment (CONT). Subsets of animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Blood pressure, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CrCl) and urinary protein excretion were measured every 4 weeks. Sclerosis and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression were assessed at 8 and 12 weeks, and collagen I, total collagen content and phospho-smad-2 expressions were determined at 12 weeks. Twelve-week-old db/db mice received sulodexide as above or vehicle. Albuminuria and CrCl were assessed at intervals till sacrifice at week 9 with assessment of urinary transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and glomerular lesions.
Results. Blood pressure, serum creatinine and CrCl were not different in radiation rat CONT vs SUL at any time. Proteinuria was significantly lower in SUL compared to CONT at 4 and 8 weeks but not at 12 weeks. Sclerosis and PAI-1 expression trended lower in SUL vs CONT at 8 weeks. There was no difference between the groups in sclerosis, collagen I mRNA, total collagen content or PAI-1 expression at 12 weeks. Phospho-smad 2 expression was significantly decreased in SUL compared to CONT at 12 weeks. Db/db mice with or without SUL showed no difference in urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, urine TGF-β or mesangial matrix expansion.
Conclusions. Our data show that sulodexide can reduce the early, but not late, proteinuria in radiation nephropathy in rats. In addition, sulodexide did not affect urine TGF-β established albuminuria or mesangial matrix expansion in a chronic model of diabetic kidney disease in mice. Although sulodexide may affect TGF-β activation in radiation nephropathy, this effect appeared insufficient in this model to inhibit the expressions of PAI-1 and collagen and reduce accumulation of extracellular matrix. These results may explain in part its lack of efficacy in recent clinical trials of chronic kidney disease.
PMCID: PMC2902889  PMID: 20061322
glomerulosclerosis; PAI-1; proteinuria; sulodexide; TGF-beta
2.  Resveratrol delays age-related deterioration and mimics transcriptional aspects of dietary restriction without extending lifespan 
Cell metabolism  2008;8(2):157-168.
A small molecule that safely mimics the ability of dietary restriction (DR) to delay age-related diseases in laboratory animals is greatly sought after. We and others have shown that resveratrol mimics effects of DR in lower organisms. In mice, we find that resveratrol induces gene expression patterns in multiple tissues that parallel those induced by DR and every-other-day feeding. Moreover, resveratrol-fed elderly mice show a marked reduction in signs of aging including reduced albuminuria, decreased inflammation and apoptosis in the vascular endothelium, increased aortic elasticity, greater motor coordination, reduced cataract formation, and preserved bone mineral density. However, mice fed a standard diet did not live longer when treated with resveratrol beginning at 12 months of age. Our findings indicate that resveratrol treatment has a range of beneficial effects in mice but does not increase the longevity of ad libitum-fed animals when started mid-life.
PMCID: PMC2538685  PMID: 18599363
3.  Tenofovir (TDF) has stronger antiviral effect than adefovir (ADV) against lamivudine (LAM)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) 
Hepatology International  2008;2(2):244-249.
We retrospectively compared the antiviral effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with that of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed resistance to lamivudine (LAM).
Materials and methods
One hundred nine patients (86 males), all Asian-American except 1 Caucasian male, with LAM resistance received TDF or ADV. HBV DNA levels were measured every 3 months. The HBeAg loss and ALT normalization were assessed at 12 months on therapy.
Forty-four patients (37 males) received TDF (12 with LAM) and 65 (49 males) received ADV (18 with LAM). Median ages (years) for TDF and ADV were 49 (32–68) and 45 (22–68), respectively. Median duration of therapy was 13 months (6–38) and 17 months (6–34) for the TDF and ADV groups. Baseline HBV DNA levels (log10 copies/ml) were 6.2 ± 1.7 for the TDF and 6.5 ± 1.6 for ADV groups. Baseline ALT (IU/l) levels were 77.0 ± 86.0 and 100 ± 195 for the TDF and ADV (P = 0.46) groups, respectively. At 12 months, mean levels of log10 HBV DNA were 1.5 ± 1.0 and 4.3 ± 2.2 for TDF and ADV (P = 0.01). HBeAg loss and ALT normalization at 12 months showed no differences. Using a single factor, ANOVA (2-tailed P value), 4 groups, TDF (n = 32), TDF + LAM (12), ADV (47), and ADV + LAM (18), were compared. HBV DNA reduction at 12 months was the greatest for TDF + LAM (P < 0.001).
Our results suggest that for LAM-resistant HBV, TDF, alone or combined with LAM exerts greater viral reduction than ADV. However, no difference in HBeAg loss was observed. It appears that stronger HBV DNA reduction may not necessarily accelerate HBeAg loss.
PMCID: PMC2716857  PMID: 19669311
HBV; Adefovir; Tenofovir; Lamivudine; Viral resistance
4.  Adiponectin regulates albuminuria and podocyte function in mice 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2008;118(5):1645-1656.
Increased albuminuria is associated with obesity and diabetes and is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. However, the link between early albuminuria and adiposity remains unclear. To determine whether adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is a communication signal between adipocytes and the kidney, we performed studies in a cohort of patients at high risk for diabetes and kidney disease as well as in adiponectin-knockout (Ad–/–) mice. Albuminuria had a negative correlation with plasma adiponectin in obese patients, and Ad–/– mice exhibited increased albuminuria and fusion of podocyte foot processes. In cultured podocytes, adiponectin administration was associated with increased activity of AMPK, and both adiponectin and AMPK activation reduced podocyte permeability to albumin and podocyte dysfunction, as evidenced by zona occludens–1 translocation to the membrane. These effects seemed to be caused by reduction of oxidative stress, as adiponectin and AMPK activation both reduced protein levels of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 in podocytes. Ad–/– mice treated with adiponectin exhibited normalization of albuminuria, improvement of podocyte foot process effacement, increased glomerular AMPK activation, and reduced urinary and glomerular markers of oxidant stress. These results suggest that adiponectin is a key regulator of albuminuria, likely acting through the AMPK pathway to modulate oxidant stress in podocytes.
PMCID: PMC2323186  PMID: 18431508

Results 1-4 (4)