Significant data suggest that overt hyperglycemia, either observed with or without a prior diagnosis of diabetes, contributes to an increase in mortality and morbidity in hospitalized patients. In this regard, goal-directed insulin therapy has remained as the standard of care for achieving and maintaining glycemic control in hospitalized patients with critical and noncritical illness. As such, protocols to assist in the management of hyperglycemia in the inpatient setting have become commonplace in hospital settings. Clearly, insulin is a known entity, has been in clinical use for almost a century, and is effective. However, there are limitations to its use. Based on the observed mechanisms of action and efficacy, there has been a great interest in using incretin-based therapy with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists instead of, or complementary to, an insulin-based approach to improve glycemic control in hospitalized, severely ill diabetic patients. To provide an understanding of both sides of the argument, we provide a discussion of this topic as part of this two-part point-counterpoint narrative. In this point narrative as presented below, Drs. Schwartz and DeFronzo provide an opinion that now is the time to consider GLP-1 receptor agonists as a logical consideration for inpatient glycemic control. It is important to note the recommendations they propose under “incretin-based approach” with these agents represent their opinion for use and, as they point out, well-designed prospective studies comparing these agents with insulin will be required to establish their efficacy and safety. In the counterpoint narrative following Drs. Schwartz and DeFronzo’s contribution, Drs. Umpierrez and Korytkowski provide a defense of insulin in the inpatient setting as the unquestioned gold standard for glycemic management in hospitalized settings.
—William T. Cefalu
Editor in Chief, Diabetes Care
In June 2012, 13 thought leaders convened in a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum to discuss the concept of personalized medicine in the wake of a recently published American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes position statement calling for a patient-centered approach to hyperglycemia management in type 2 diabetes. This article, an outgrowth of that forum, offers a clinical translation of the underlying issues that need to be considered for effectively personalizing diabetes care. The medical management of type 2 diabetes has become increasingly complex, and its complications remain a great burden to individual patients and the larger society. The burgeoning armamentarium of pharmacological agents for hyperglycemia management should aid clinicians in providing early treatment to delay or prevent these complications. However, trial evidence is limited for the optimal use of these agents, especially in dual or triple combinations. In the distant future, genotyping and testing for metabolomic markers may help us to better phenotype patients and predict their responses to antihyperglycemic drugs. For now, a personalized (“n of 1”) approach in which drugs are tested in a trial-and-error manner in each patient may be the most practical strategy for achieving therapeutic targets. Patient-centered care and standardized algorithmic management are conflicting approaches, but they can be made more compatible by recognizing instances in which personalized A1C targets are warranted and clinical circumstances that may call for comanagement by primary care and specialty clinicians.
Obesity is associated to high insulin and glucagon plasma levels. Enhanced β–cell function and β–cell expansion are responsible for insulin hypersecretion. It is unknown whether hyperglucagonemia is due to α-cell hypersecretion or to an increase in α-cell mass. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the β-cell and α-cell function and mass in pancreas of obese normoglycemic baboons.
Pancreatic β- and α-cell volumes were measured in 51 normoglycemic baboons divided into 6 groups according to overweight severity or duration. Islets morphometric parameters were correlated to overweight and to diverse metabolic and laboratory parameters.
Relative α-cell volume (RαV) and relative islet α-cell volume (RIαV) increased significantly with both overweight duration and severity. Conversely, in spite of the induction of insulin resistance, overweight produced only modest effects on relative β-cell volume (RβV) and relative islet β-cell volume (RIβV). Of note, RIβV did not increase neither with overweight duration nor with overweight severity, supposedly because of the concomitant, greater, increase in RIαV. Baboons' body weights correlated with serum levels of Interleukin-6 and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α soluble Receptors (IL-6sR and sTNF-R1), demonstrating that overweight induces abnormal activation of the signaling of two cytokines known to impact differently β- and α-cell viability and replication.
In conclusion, overweight and insulin resistance induce in baboons a significant increase in α-cell volumes (RαV, RIαV) while have minimal effects on the β-cells. This study suggests that an increase in the α-cell mass may precede the loss of β-cells and the transition to overt hyperglycemia and diabetes.
Obesity duration; obesity severity; α-cell volume; β-cells volume; pancreatic islet remodelling; insulin resistance
To determine whether changes in standard and novel risk factors during the ACT NOW trial explained the slower rate of CIMT progression with pioglitazone treatment in persons with prediabetes.
Methods and Results
CIMT was measured in 382 participants at the beginning and up to three additional times during follow-up of the ACT NOW trial. During an average follow-up of 2.3 years, the mean unadjusted annual rate of CIMT progression was significantly (P=0.01) lower with pioglitazone treatment (4.76 × 10−3 mm/year, 95% CI, 2.39 × 10−3 – 7.14 × 10−3 mm/year) compared with placebo (9.69 × 10−3 mm/year, 95% CI, 7.24 × 10−3 – 12.15 × 10−3 mm/year). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting and 2-hour glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, Matsuda insulin sensitivity index, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels improved significantly with pioglitazone treatment compared with placebo (P < 0.001). However, the effect of pioglitazone on CIMT progression was not attenuated by multiple methods of adjustment for traditional, metabolic and inflammatory risk factors and concomitant medications, and was independent of changes in risk factors during pioglitazone treatment.
Pioglitazone slowed progression of CIMT, independent of improvement in hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation in prediabetes. These results suggest a possible direct vascular benefit of pioglitazone.
Carotid atherosclerosis progression; Impaired glucose tolerance; Insulin resistance; Inflammation; Pioglitazone
Chronic hyperglycemia impairs insulin action, resulting in glucotoxicity, which can be ameliorated in animal models by inducing glucosuria with renal glucose transport inhibitors. Here, we examined whether reduction of plasma glucose with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor could improve insulin-mediated tissue glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighteen diabetic men were randomized to receive either dapagliflozin (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6) for 2 weeks. We measured insulin-mediated whole body glucose uptake and endogenous glucose production (EGP) at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Dapagliflozin treatment induced glucosuria and markedly lowered fasting plasma glucose. Insulin-mediated tissue glucose disposal increased by approximately 18% after 2 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment, while placebo-treated subjects had no change in insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, following dapagliflozin treatment, EGP increased substantially and was accompanied by an increase in fasting plasma glucagon concentration. Together, our data indicate that reduction of plasma glucose with an agent that works specifically on the kidney to induce glucosuria improves muscle insulin sensitivity. However, glucosuria induction following SGLT2 inhibition is associated with a paradoxical increase in EGP. These results provide support for the glucotoxicity hypothesis, which suggests that chronic hyperglycemia impairs insulin action in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Defects in insulin secretion and reduction in β-cell mass are associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, and understanding the basis for these dysfunctions may reveal strategies for diabetes therapy. In this study, we show that pancreas-specific knockout of growth factor receptor–binding protein 10 (Grb10), which is highly expressed in pancreas and islets, leads to elevated insulin/IGF-1 signaling in islets, enhanced β-cell mass and insulin content, and increased insulin secretion in mice. Pancreas-specific disruption of Grb10 expression also improved glucose tolerance in mice fed with a high-fat diet and protected mice from streptozotocin-induced β-cell apoptosis and body weight loss. Our study has identified Grb10 as an important regulator of β-cell proliferation and demonstrated that reducing the expression level of Grb10 could provide a novel means to increase β-cell mass and reduce β-cell apoptosis. This is critical for effective therapeutic treatment of both type 1 and 2 diabetes.
The antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects of adiponectin make it a desirable drug target for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, the adiponectin-based drug development approach turns out to be difficult due to extremely high serum levels of this adipokine. On the other hand, a significant correlation between adiponectin multimerization and its insulin-sensitizing effects has been demonstrated, suggesting a promising alternative therapeutic strategy. Here we show that transgenic mice overexpressing disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein in fat (fDsbA-L) exhibited increased levels of total and the high-molecular-weight form of adiponectin compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. The fDsbA-L mice also displayed resistance to diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis compared with WT control mice. The protective effects of DsbA-L overexpression on diet-induced insulin resistance, but not increased body weight and fat cell size, were significantly decreased in adiponectin-deficient fDsbA-L mice (fDsbA-L/Ad−/−). In addition, the fDsbA-L/Ad−/− mice displayed greater activity and energy expenditure compared with adiponectin knockout mice under a high-fat diet. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DsbA-L protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance through adiponectin-dependent and independent mechanisms. In addition, upregulation of DsbA-L could be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition is a novel and promising treatment for diabetes under late-stage clinical development. It generally is accepted that SGLT2 mediates 90% of renal glucose reabsorption. However, SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical development inhibit only 30–50% of the filtered glucose load. Why are they unable to inhibit 90% of glucose reabsorption in humans? We will try to provide an explanation to this puzzle in this perspective analysis of the unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical trials and examine possible mechanisms and molecular properties that may be responsible.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is marked by hepatic fat accumulation not due to alcohol abuse. Several studies have demonstrated that NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance leading to a resistance in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in the adipose tissue with an increase of free fatty acids (FFAs). The increase of FFAs induces mitochondrial dysfunction and development of lipotoxicity. Moreover, in subjects with NAFLD, ectopic fat also accumulates as cardiac and pancreatic fat. In this review we analyzed the mechanisms that relate NAFLD with metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia and its association with the development and progression of cardiovascular disease.
non-alcoholic fatty liver(NAFLD); steatosis; visceral fat; lipotoxicity; insulin resistance; free fatty acids; dyslipidemia; cardiometabolic risk
AIM: To determine the parental transmission of diabetes mellitus (DM) and evaluate its influence on the clinical characteristics.
METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The survey was carried out in urban and semi-urban primary health care centers. Of the 2400 registered with diagnosed diabetes, 1980 agreed and gave their consent to take part in this study, thus giving a response rate of 82.5%. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire followed by laboratory tests. DM was defined according to the World Health Organization expert group. A trained nurse performed physical examinations and measurements.
RESULTS: Of the study population, 72.9% reported a family history of DM. Family history of DM was significantly higher in females (54.2%; P = 0.04) and in the age group below 30 years (24%; P < 0.001). The prevalence of diabetes was higher among patients with a diabetic mother (25.4% vs 22.1%) and maternal aunts/uncles (31.2% vs 22.2%) compared to patients with a diabetic father and paternal aunts/uncles. Family history of DM was higher in patients of consanguineous parents (38.5%) than those of non-consanguineous parents (30.2%). The development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complications was higher in patients with either a paternal or maternal history of DM than in those without. No significant difference was observed in the metabolic characteristics of patients with/without family history of DM except for hypertension. Complications were higher in diabetic patients with a family history of DM.
CONCLUSION: The present study found a significant maternal effect in transmission of T2DM. Family history is associated with the increased incidence of diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus; Family history; Parental transmission; Genetic disorders; Consanguinity; Maternal transmission
Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that short-term exposure (4 h) to physiological hyperinsulinemia in normal, healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes would induce a low grade inflammatory response independently of glycemic status. Twelve normal glucose tolerant subjects received a 4-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. Microarray analysis identified 121 probe sets that were significantly altered in response to physiological hyperinsulinemia while maintaining euglycemia. In normal, healthy human subjects insulin increased the mRNAs of a number of inflammatory genes (CCL2, CXCL2 and THBD) and transcription factors (ATF3, BHLHB2, HES1, KLF10, JUNB, FOS, and FOSB). A number of other genes were upregulated in response to insulin, including RRAD, MT, and SGK. CITED2, a known coactivator of PPARα, was significantly downregulated. SGK and CITED2 are located at chromosome 6q23, where we previously detected strong linkage to fasting plasma insulin concentrations. We independently validated the mRNA expression changes in an additional five subjects and closely paralleled the results observed in the original 12 subjects. A saline infusion in healthy, normal glucose-tolerant subjects without family history of diabetes demonstrated that the genes altered during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp were due to hyperinsulinemia and were unrelated to the biopsy procedure per se. The results of the present study demonstrate that insulin acutely regulates the levels of mRNAs involved in inflammation and transcription and identifies several candidate genes, including HES1 and BHLHB2, for further investigation.
gene expression; muscle; insulin action; euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp; inflammation
To characterize the defects in β-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and compare the results to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects, β-cell glucose sensitivity and rate sensitivity during the oral glucose tolerance test were measured with the model by Mari in 172 Mexican Americans. A subgroup (n = 70) received a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp (+125 mg/dL), and first- and second-phase insulin secretion were quantitated. Compared with NGT, subjects with IFG and IGT manifested a decrease in β-cell glucose sensitivity; IFG subjects, but not IGT subjects, had decreased β-cell rate sensitivity. In IFG subjects, the defect in β-cell glucose sensitivity was time dependent, began to improve after 60 min, and was comparable to NGT after 90 min. The incremental area under the plasma C-peptide concentration curve during the first 12 min of the hyperglycemic clamp (ΔC-pep[AUC]0–12) was inversely related with the increase in FPG concentration (r = −36, r = 0.001), whereas ΔC-pep[AUC]15–120 positively correlated with FPG concentration (r = 0.29, r < 0.05). When adjusted for the prevailing level of insulin resistance, first-phase insulin secretion was markedly decreased in both IFG and IGT, whereas second-phase insulin secretion was decreased only in IGT. These results demonstrate distinct defects in β-cell function in IFG and IGT.
Emerging evidence suggests that TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4 and downstream pathways [MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)] play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and saturated NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids) activate TLR4, and plasma concentrations of these TLR4 ligands are elevated in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Our goals were to define the role of TLR4 on the insulin resistance caused by LPS and saturated NEFA, and to dissect the independent contribution of LPS and NEFA to the activation of TLR4-driven pathways by employing TAK-242, a specific inhibitor of TLR4. LPS caused robust activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in L6 myotubes, along with impaired insulin signalling and glucose transport. TAK-242 completely prevented the inflammatory response (MAPK and NF-κB activation) caused by LPS, and, in turn, improved LPS-induced insulin resistance. Similar to LPS, stearate strongly activated MAPKs, although stimulation of the NF-κB axis was modest. As seen with LPS, the inflammatory response caused by stearate was accompanied by impaired insulin action. TAK-242 also blunted stearate-induced inflammation; yet, the protective effect conferred by TAK-242 was partial and observed only on MAPKs. Consequently, the insulin resistance caused by stearate was only partially improved by TAK-242. In summary, TAK-242 provides complete and partial protection against LPS- and NEFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively. Thus, LPS-induced insulin resistance depends entirely on TLR4, whereas NEFA works through TLR4-dependent and -independent mechanisms to impair insulin action.
endotoxin; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); nuclear factor κB (NF-κB); saturated non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA); Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).; AP-1, activator protein-1; 2-DG, 2-deoxy-D[1,2-3H]glucose; DAG, diacylglycerol; FBS, fetal bovine serum; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GSK, glycogen synthase kinase; IκB, inhibitory κB; IKK, IκB kinase; IL, interleukin; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; IRAK, IL-1-receptor-associated kinase; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MCP1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MEMα, minimum essential medium α; MyD88, myeloid differentiation factor 88; NEFA, non-esterified fatty acid(s); NF-κB, nuclear factor κB; NOD2, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2; PKC, protein kinase C; RT–PCR, reverse transcription–PCR; TIR, Toll/IL-1 receptor; TIRAP, TIR domain-containing adaptor protein; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; TRAF-6, TNF-receptor-associated factor-6
To develop a model for the prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk on the basis of a multivariate logistic model and 1-h plasma glucose concentration (1-h PG).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The model was developed in a cohort of 1,562 nondiabetic subjects from the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and validated in 2,395 nondiabetic subjects in the Botnia Study. A risk score on the basis of anthropometric parameters, plasma glucose and lipid profile, and blood pressure was computed for each subject. Subjects with a risk score above a certain cut point were considered to represent high-risk individuals, and their 1-h PG concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test was used to further refine their future T2DM risk.
We used the San Antonio Diabetes Prediction Model (SADPM) to generate the initial risk score. A risk-score value of 0.065 was found to be an optimal cut point for initial screening and selection of high-risk individuals. A 1-h PG concentration >140 mg/dL in high-risk individuals (whose risk score was >0.065) was the optimal cut point for identification of subjects at increased risk. The two cut points had 77.8, 77.4, and 44.8% (for the SAHS) and 75.8, 71.6, and 11.9% (for the Botnia Study) sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value, respectively, in the SAHS and Botnia Study.
A two-step model, based on the combination of the SADPM and 1-h PG, is a useful tool for the identification of high-risk Mexican-American and Caucasian individuals.
Aging increases the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes. It has been proposed that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by dysfunctional mitochondria could play a role in the pathogenesis of these metabolic abnormalities. We examined whether aging per se (in subjects with normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) impairs mitochondrial function and how this relates to ROS generation, whether older subjects with IGT have a further worsening of mitochondrial function (lower ATP production and elevated ROS generation), and whether exercise reverses age-related changes in mitochondrial function.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Mitochondrial ATP and ROS production were measured in muscle from younger individuals with NGT, older individuals with NGT, and older individuals with IGT. Measurements were performed before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise.
ATP synthesis was lower in older subjects with NGT and older subjects with IGT versus younger subjects. Notably, mitochondria from older subjects (with NGT and IGT) displayed reduced ROS production versus the younger group. ATP and ROS production were similar between older groups. Exercise increased ATP synthesis in the three groups. Mitochondrial ROS production also increased after training. Proteomic analysis revealed downregulation of several electron transport chain proteins with aging, and this was reversed by exercise.
Old mitochondria from subjects with NGT and IGT display mitochondrial dysfunction as manifested by reduced ATP production but not with respect to increased ROS production. When adjusted to age, the development of IGT in elderly individuals does not involve changes in mitochondrial ATP and ROS production. Lastly, exercise reverses the mitochondrial phenotype (proteome and function) of old mitochondria.
In the U.S., ∼21 × 106 individuals have type 2 diabetes, and twice as many have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Approximately 40–50% of individuals with IGT will progress to type 2 diabetes over their lifetime. Therefore, treatment of high-risk individuals with IGT to prevent type 2 diabetes has important medical, economic, social, and human implications. Weight loss, although effective in reducing the conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes, is difficult to achieve and maintain. Moreover, 40–50% of IGT subjects progress to type 2 diabetes despite successful weight reduction. In contrast, pharmacological treatment of IGT with oral antidiabetic agents that improve insulin sensitivity and preserve β-cell function—the characteristic pathophysiological abnormalities present in IGT and type 2 diabetes—uniformly have been shown to prevent progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. The most consistent results have been observed with the thiazolidinediones (Troglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes [TRIPOD], Pioglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes [PIPOD], Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication [DREAM], and Actos Now for the Prevention of Diabetes [ACT NOW]), with a 50–70% reduction in IGT conversion to diabetes. Metformin in the U.S. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) reduced the development of type 2 diabetes by 31% and has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for treating high-risk individuals with IGT. The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, which augment insulin secretion, preserve β-cell function, and promote weight loss, also would be expected to be efficacious in preventing the progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. Because individuals in the upper tertile of IGT are maximally/near-maximally insulin resistant, have lost 70–80% of their β-cell function, and have an ∼10% incidence of diabetic retinopathy, pharmacological intervention, in combination with diet plus exercise, should be instituted.
The study objective was to assess the relationship between β-cell function and HbA1c.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 522 Mexican American subjects participated in this study. Each subject received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 10- to 12-h overnight fast. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the Matsuda index. Insulin secretory rate was quantitated from deconvolution of the plasma C-peptide concentration. β-Cell function was assessed with the insulin secretion/insulin resistance (IS/IR) (disposition) index and was related to the level of HbA1c.
At HbA1c levels <5.5%, both the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity and IS/IR index were constant. However, as the HbA1c increased >5.5%, there was a precipitous decrease in both the Matsuda index and the IS/IR index. Subjects with HbA1c = 6.0–6.4% had a 44 and 74% decrease in the Matsuda index and the IS/IR index, respectively, compared with subjects with HbA1c <5.5% (P < 0.01 for both indices). Subjects with normal glucose tolerance and HbA1c <5.7% had β-cell function comparable to that of subjects with normal glucose tolerance with HbA1c = 5.7–6.4%. However, subjects with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance had a marked decrease in β-cell function independent of their HbA1c level.
The results of the current study demonstrate that in Mexican Americans, as HbA1c increases >6.0%, both insulin sensitivity and β-cell function decrease markedly. Performing an OGTT is pivotal for accurate identification of subjects with impaired β-cell function.
By using tracer techniques, we explored the metabolic mechanisms by which pioglitazone treatment for 16 weeks improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes when compared to subjects without diabetes.
In all subjects, before and after treatment, we measured rates of tissue glucose clearance (MCR), oral glucose appearance (RaO) and endogenous glucose production (EGP) during a (4-h) double tracer oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (1-14C-glucose orally and 3-3H-glucose intravenously). Basal hepatic insulin resistance index (HepIR) was calculated as EGPxFPI. β-cell function was assessed as the incremental ratio of insulin to glucose (ΔI/ΔG) during the OGTT.
Pioglitazone decreased fasting plasma glucose concentration (10·5 ± 0·7 to 7·8 ± 0·6 mM, P < 0·0003) and HbA1c (9·7 ± 0·7 to 7·5 ± 0·5%, P < 0·003) despite increased body weight and no change in plasma insulin concentrations. This was determined by a decrease both in fasting EGP (20·0 ± 1·1 to 17·3 ± 0·8 μmol/kgffm min, P < 0·005) and HepIR (from 8194 declined by 49% to 3989, P < 0·002). During the OGTT, total glucose Ra during the 0- to 120-min time period following glucose ingestion decreased significantly because of a reduction in EGP. During the 0- to 240-min time period, pioglitazone caused only a modest increase in MCR (P < 0·07) but markedly increased ΔI/ΔG (P = 0·003). The decrease in 2h-postprandial hyperglycaemia correlated closely with the increase in ΔI/ΔG (r = −0·76, P = 0·004) and tissue clearance (r = −0·74, P = 0·006) and with the decrease in HepIR (r = 0·62, P = 0·006).
In diabetic subjects with poor glycaemic control, pioglitazone improves oral glucose tolerance mainly by enhancing the suppression of EGP and improving β-cell function.
Mutations in insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway have been shown to lead to increased longevity in various invertebrate models. Therefore, the effect of the haplo- insufficiency of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r+/−) on longevity/aging was evaluated in C57Bl/6 mice using rigorous criteria where lifespan and end-of-life pathology were measured under optimal husbandry conditions using large sample sizes. Igf1r+/− mice exhibited reductions in IGF-1 receptor levels and the activation of Akt by IGF-1, with no compensatory increases in serum IGF-1 or tissue IGF-1 mRNA levels, indicating that the Igf1r+/− mice show reduced IGF-1 signaling. Aged male, but not female Igf1r+/− mice were glucose intolerant, and both genders developed insulin resistance as they aged. Female, but not male Igf1r+/− mice survived longer than wild type mice after lethal paraquat and diquat exposure, and female Igf1r+/− mice also exhibited less diquat-induced liver damage. However, no significant difference between the lifespans of the male Igf1r+/− and wild type mice was observed; and the mean lifespan of the Igf1r+/− females was increased only slightly (less than 5%) compared to wild type mice. A comprehensive pathological analysis showed no significant difference in end-of-life pathological lesions between the Igf1r+/− and wild type mice. These data show that the Igf1r+/− mouse is not a model of increased longevity and delayed aging as predicted by invertebrate models with mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway.
Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.
To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR) and lean insulin sensitive (IS) baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.
Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver) and peripheral (mainly muscle) insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.
Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA) was greater than saturated (LC-SFA) fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.
Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.
In vitro studies suggest that adiponectin plays an important role in nitric oxide (NO) generation. We studied the relationship between plasma adiponectin and skeletal muscle nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients.
We determined NOS activity in skeletal muscle of 7 T2DM and 8 nondiabetic control subjects under basal conditions and after a 4-h euglycemic insulin (80 mU/m2 · min) clamp.
Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) (5.2 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.9 mg/kg-min, P < 0.01) and basal NOS activity (107 ± 45 vs. 459 ± 100 pmol/min-mg protein, P < 0.05) were reduced in T2DM versus controls. In response to hyperinsulinemia, NOS activity increased approximately two-fold in controls (757 ± 244, P < 0.05 vs basal) but failed to increase in T2DM (105 ± 38, P < 0.01 vs. T2DM). Basal NOS protein content was similar in controls and T2DM and did not change following insulin. Plasma adiponectin was decreased in T2DM (4.5 ± 0.8 vs. 7.0 ± 1.0 μg/mL, P < 0.02) and correlated with insulin-stimulated NOS activity (r = 0.49, P < 0.05) and with Rd (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). In controls and T2DM collectively, Rd correlated with insulin-stimulated NOS activity (r = 0.48, P < 0.05).
Decreased plasma adiponectin correlates with impaired insulin-stimulated NOS activity and severity of insulin resistance in T2DM. Because impaired NO generation plays a central role in endothelial dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis, our results may provide a link between reduced plasma adiponectin levels and accelerated atherosclerosis in T2DM.
We sought to determine whether dysregulation of arginine metabolism is related to insulin resistance and underlies impaired nitric oxide generation in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients.
Research Design and Methods
We measured plasma arginase activity, arginine metabolites and skeletal muscle NOS activity in 12 T2DM and 10 age/BMI matched non-diabetic subjects before and following 4 hour euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with muscle biopsies. Arginine metabolites were determined by tandem mass spectroscopy. Arginase activity was determined by conversion of [14C] guanidoinoarginine to [14 C] urea.
Glucose disposal (Rd) was reduced by 50% in diabetic vs. control subjects. NOS activity was 4 fold reduced in the diabetic group (107 ± 45 vs. 459 ± 100 pmol/min•mg protein, P<0.05) and failed to increase with insulin. Plasma arginase activity was increased by 50% in diabetic vs. control group (0.48 ± 0.11 vs.0.32 ± 0.12 umol/ml•hr, P < 0.05) and markedly declined in diabetic subjects with 4-h insulin infusion (to 0.13 ± 0.04 vs. basal, P <0.05). In both groups collectively, plasma arginase activity correlated positively with fasting plasma glucose (R = 0.46, P < 0.05) and HbA1c levels (R = 0.51, P < 0.02), but not with Rd.
Plasma arginase activity is increased in T2DM subjects with impaired NOS activity, correlates with the degree of hyperglycemia, and is reduced by physiologic hyperinsulinemia. Elevated arginase activity may contribute to impaired nitric oxide generation in type 2 diabetes and insulin may ameliorate this defect via reducing arginase activity.
type 2 diabetes; insulin; arginase; nitric oxide; hyperglycemia; insulin resistance