Central arterial wall stiffening driven by a chronic inflammatory milieu accompanies arterial diseases, the leading cause of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in Western society. Increase in central arterial wall stiffening, measured as an increase in aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), is a major risk factor for clinical CV disease events. However, no specific therapies to reduce PWV are presently available. In rhesus monkeys, a two-year diet high in fat and sucrose (HFS) increases not only body weight and cholesterol, but also induces prominent central arterial wall stiffening and increases PWV and inflammation. The observed loss of endothelial cell integrity, lipid and macrophage infiltration, and calcification of the arterial wall were driven by genomic and proteomic signatures of oxidative stress and inflammation. Resveratrol prevented the HFS-induced arterial wall inflammation and the accompanying increase in PWV. Dietary resveratrol may hold promise as a novel therapy to ameliorate increases in PWV.
Recent studies demonstrate that aging exacerbates hypertension-induced cognitive decline, but the specific age-related mechanisms remain elusive. Cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs) are associated with rupture of small intracerebral vessels and are thought to progressively impair neuronal function. To determine whether aging exacerbates hypertension-induced CMHs young (3 months) and aged (24 months) mice were treated with angiotensin II plus L-NAME. We found that the same level of hypertension leads to significantly earlier onset and increased incidence of CMHs in aged mice than in young mice, as shown by neurological examination, gait analysis, and histological assessment of CMHs in serial brain sections. Hypertension-induced cerebrovascular oxidative stress and redox-sensitive activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were increased in aging. Treatment of aged mice with resveratrol significantly attenuated hypertension-induced oxidative stress, inhibited vascular MMP activation, significantly delayed the onset, and reduced the incidence of CMHs. Collectively, aging promotes CMHs in mice likely by exacerbating hypertension-induced oxidative stress and MMP activation. Therapeutic strategies that reduce microvascular oxidative stress and MMP activation may be useful for the prevention of CMHs, protecting neurocognitive function in high-risk elderly patients.
arteriole; dementia; microbleed; NADPH oxidase; oxidative stress; cognitive impairment
Mild cognitive impairment is a well-documented consequence of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) that affects 40-50% of long-term brain tumor survivors. The exact mechanisms for the decline in cognitive function post-WBRT remain elusive and no treatment or preventative measures are available for use in the clinic. Here, we review recent findings indicating how changes in the neurovascular unit may contribute to the impairments of learning and memory. In addition to affecting neuronal development, WBRT induces profound capillary rarefaction within the hippocampus-a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Therapeutic strategies such as hypoxia, which restore the capillary density, result in the rescue of cognitive function. In addition to decreasing vascular density, WBRT impairs vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis, which may also contribute to radiation-induced cognitive decline. Further studies aimed at uncovering the specific mechanisms underlying these WBRT-induced changes in the cerebrovasculature are essential for developing therapies to mitigate the deleterious effects of WBRT on cognitive function.
angiogenesis; cerebrovasculature; cognitive impairment; neurogenesis; vasculogenesis
Cerebromicrovascular rarefaction is believed to play a central role in cognitive impairment in patients receiving whole-brain irradiation therapy. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the deleterious effects of γ-irradiation on the cerebral microcirculation, rat primary cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) were irradiated in vitro. We found that in CMVECs, γ-irradiation (2–8 Gy) elicited increased DNA damage, which was repaired less efficiently in CMVECs compared with neurons, microglia, and astrocytes. Increased genomic injury in CMVECs associated with increased apoptotic cell death. In the surviving cells, γ-irradiation promotes premature senescence (indicated by SA-β-galactosidase positivity and upregulation of p16INK4a), which was associated with impaired angiogenic capacity (decreased proliferation and tube-forming capacity). γ-Irradiated CMVECs acquired a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, characterized by upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (including IL-6, IL-1α, and MCP-1). Collectively, increased vulnerability of γ-irradiated CMVECs and their impaired angiogenic capacity likely contribute to cerebromicrovascular rarefaction and prevent regeneration of the microvasculature postirradiation. The acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype in irradiated CMVECs is biologically highly significant as changes in the cytokine microenvironment in the hippocampus may affect diverse biological processes relevant for normal neuronal function (including regulation of neurogenesis and the maintenance of the blood brain barrier).
Senescence; Endothelial; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Angiogenesis; Vascular cognitive impairment; Capillary.
Hypertension in the elderly substantially contributes to cerebromicrovascular damage and promotes the development of vascular cognitive impairment. Despite the importance of the myogenic mechanism in cerebromicrovascular protection, it is not well understood how aging affects the functional adaptation of cerebral arteries to high blood pressure. Hypertension was induced in young (3 months) and aged (24 months) C57/BL6 mice by chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII). In young hypertensive mice, the range of cerebral blood flow autoregulation was extended to higher pressure values, and the pressure-induced tone of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was increased. In aged hypertensive mice, autoregulation was markedly disrupted, and MCAs did not show adaptive increases in myogenic tone. In young mice, the mechanism of adaptation to hypertension involved upregulation of the 20-HETE (20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid)/transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C (TRPC6) pathway and this mechanism was impaired in aged hypertensive mice. Downstream consequences of cerebrovascular autoregulatory dysfunction in aged AngII-induced hypertensive mice included exacerbated disruption of the blood–brain barrier and neuroinflammation (microglia activation and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines), which were associated with impaired hippocampal dependent cognitive function. Collectively, aging impairs autoregulatory protection in the brain of mice with AngII-induced hypertension, potentially exacerbating cerebromicrovascular injury and neuroinflammation.
blood–brain barrier; CBF; dementia; inflammation; myogenic; TRPC
We compared apoptosis, cellular oxidative stress, and inflammation of cultured endothelial cells treated with sera from 130 subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and 36 control subjects with high burden of co-morbid conditions and cardiovascular risk factors. Secondly, we compared circulating inflammatory, antioxidant capacity, and vascular biomarkers between the groups. The groups were not significantly different (p>0.05) on apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity, and nuclear factor k-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. Circulating tissue necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) (p=0.016) and interleukin-8 (p=0.006) were higher in the PAD group, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) (p=0.023) was lower. PAD does not impair the endothelium beyond that which already occurs from co-morbid conditions and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with claudication. However, subjects with PAD have lower circulating VEGF-A than controls, and higher circulating inflammatory parameters of TNFα and IL-8.
Claudication; Inflammation; Peripheral Artery Disease; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A
Age-related impairment of angiogenesis is likely to play a central role in cerebromicrovascular rarefaction and development of vascular cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To test the hypothesis that dysregulation of Dicer1 (ribonuclease III, a key enzyme of the microRNA [miRNA] machinery) impairs endothelial angiogenic capacity in aging, primary cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) were isolated from young (3 months old) and aged (24 months old) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats. We found an age-related downregulation of Dicer1 expression both in CMVECs and in small cerebral vessels isolated from aged rats. In aged CMVECs, Dicer1 expression was increased by treatment with polyethylene glycol–catalase. Compared with young cells, aged CMVECs exhibited altered miRNA expression profile, which was associated with impaired proliferation, adhesion to vitronectin, collagen and fibronectin, cellular migration (measured by a wound-healing assay using electric cell–substrate impedance sensing technology), and impaired ability to form capillary-like structures. Overexpression of Dicer1 in aged CMVECs partially restored miRNA expression profile and significantly improved angiogenic processes. In young CMVECs, downregulation of Dicer1 (siRNA) resulted in altered miRNA expression profile associated with impaired proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tube formation, mimicking the aging phenotype. Collectively, we found that Dicer1 is essential for normal endothelial angiogenic processes, suggesting that age-related dysregulation of Dicer1-dependent miRNA expression may be a potential mechanism underlying impaired angiogenesis and cerebromicrovascular rarefaction in aging.
Angiogenesis; Capillary density; Vascular aging; Cerebrovascular; Cardiovascular aging; Epigenetics.
Obesity in the elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that aging exacerbates obesity-induced inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue, which contributes to increased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in a paracrine manner. To test this hypothesis, we assessed changes in the secretome, reactive oxygen species production, and macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue of young (7 month old) and aged (24 month old) high-fat diet–fed obese C57BL/6 mice. High-fat diet–induced vascular reactive oxygen species generation significantly increased in aged mice, which was associated with exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. In young animals, high-fat diet–induced obesity promoted oxidative stress in the perivascular adipose tissue, which was associated with a marked proinflammatory shift in the profile of secreted cytokines and chemokines. Aging exacerbated obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and significantly increased macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue. Using cultured arteries isolated from young control mice, we found that inflammatory factors secreted from the perivascular fat tissue of obese aged mice promote significant prooxidative and proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in the vascular wall, mimicking the aging phenotype. Overall, our findings support an important role for localized perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in exacerbation of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in aging, an effect that likely enhances the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases from obesity in the elderly individuals.
Diabetes; Metabolic disease; Obesity; Adiposity; Fat
The elderly patients show a significantly elevated mortality rate during sepsis than younger patients, due to their higher propensity to microvascular dysfunction and consequential multiorgan failure. We tested whether aging renders vascular endothelial cells more susceptible to damage induced by inflammatory factors present in the circulation during sepsis. Primary microvascular endothelial cells derived from young (3 months) and aged (24 months) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were treated with sera obtained from sepsis patients and healthy controls. Oxidative stress (MitoSox fluorescence), death receptor activation (caspase 8 activity), and apoptotic cell death (caspase 3 activity) induced by treatment with septic sera were exacerbated in aged endothelial cells as compared with responses obtained in young cells. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 and thrombomodulin in response to treatment with septic sera was impaired in aged endothelial cells. Treatment with septic sera elicited greater increases in tumor necrosis factor-α expression in aged endothelial cells, as compared with young cells, whereas induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule did not differ between the two groups. Collectively, aging increases sensitivity of microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) to oxidative stress and cellular damage induced by inflammatory factors present in the circulation during septicemia. We hypothesize that these responses may contribute to the increased vulnerability of elderly patients to multiorgan failure associated with sepsis.
Aging; Endothelial cells; Microcirculation; Microvascular injury; Bacteremia; Septicemia; Sepsis; Septic shock.
We compared apoptosis, cellular oxidative stress, and inflammation of cultured endothelial cells treated with sera from 156 subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and 16 healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we compared circulating inflammatory, antioxidant capacity, and vascular biomarkers between the two groups. The PAD group had a 164% higher value for endothelial cell apoptosis (P < 0.001) and a 62% higher value for endothelial cellular reactive oxygen species production (P < 0.001) than the control group. Furthermore, the PAD group had lower systemic antioxidant capacity measured by hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity activity (P < 0.001), higher inflammatory and vascular measures of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), interleukin-8 (P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (P < 0.001), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < 0.001), adiponectin (P < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (P = 0.013), apolipoprotein CIII (P = 0.035), lower vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.001), and hepatocyte growth factor (P < 0.001) than the control group. Subjects with PAD have greater endothelial apoptosis and oxidative stress than control subjects with low burden of comorbid conditions and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, subjects with PAD have lower systemic antioxidant capacity and angiogenic measures and higher circulating inflammatory parameters.
Bivalve molluscs are newly discovered models of successful aging. Here, we test the hypothesis that extremely long-lived bivalves are not uniquely resistant to oxidative stressors (eg, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, as demonstrated in previous studies) but exhibit a multistress resistance phenotype. We contrasted resistance (in terms of organismal mortality) to genotoxic stresses (including topoisomerase inhibitors, agents that cross-link DNA or impair genomic integrity through DNA alkylation or methylation) and to mitochondrial oxidative stressors in three bivalve mollusc species with dramatically differing life spans: Arctica islandica (ocean quahog), Mercenaria mercenaria (northern quahog), and the Atlantic bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians (maximum species life spans: >500, >100, and ~2 years, respectively). With all stressors, the short-lived A i irradians were significantly less resistant than the two longer lived species. Arctica islandica were consistently more resistant than M mercenaria to mortality induced by oxidative stressors as well as DNA methylating agent nitrogen mustard and the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. The same trend was not observed for genotoxic agents that act through cross-linking DNA. In contrast, M mercenaria tended to be more resistant to epirubicin and genotoxic stressors, which cause DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerases. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing resistance to genotoxic stressors in bivalve mollusc species with disparate longevities. In line with previous studies of comparative stress resistance and longevity, our data extends, at least in part, the evidence for the hypothesis that an association exists between longevity and a general resistance to multiplex stressors, not solely oxidative stress. This work also provides justification for further investigation into the interspecies differences in stress response signatures induced by a diverse array of stressors in short-lived and long-lived bivalves, including pharmacological agents that elicit endoplasmic reticulum stress and cellular stress caused by activation of innate immunity.
Arctica islandica; Bivalves; Comparative biology; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Longevity; Oxidation; Stress resistance.
Bivalve species with exceptional longevity are newly introduced model systems in biogerontology to test evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of aging. Here, we tested predictions based on the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging using one of the tropical long-lived sessile giant clam species, the smooth giant clam (Tridacna derasa; predicted maximum life span: >100 years) and the short-lived Atlantic bay scallop (Argopecten irradians irradians; maximum life span: 2 years). The warm water–dwelling giant clams warrant attention because they challenge the commonly held view that the exceptional longevity of bivalves is a consequence of the cold water they reside in. No significant interspecific differences in production of H2O2 and in the gills, heart, or adductor muscle were observed. Protein carbonyl content in gill and muscle tissues were similar in T derasa and A i irradians. In tissues of T derasa, neither basal antioxidant capacities nor superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently greater than in A i irradians. We observed a positive association between longevity and resistance to mortality induced by exposure to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). This finding is consistent with the prediction based on the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging. The findings that in tissues of T derasa, proteasome activities are significantly increased as compared with those in tissues of A i irradians warrant further studies to test the role of enhanced protein recycling activities in longevity of bivalves.
Mollusc; Evolution; Oxidative stress resistance; Senescence; Oxidative stress theory.
Background and Purpose
Hypertension increases cerebrovascular oxidative stress and inflammation and impairs vasomotor function. These pathological alterations lead to dysregulation of cerebral blood flow and exacerbate atherogenesis, increasing the morbidity of ischaemic cerebrovascular diseases and promoting vascular cognitive impairment. We aimed to test the hypothesis that increased production of the arachidonic acid metabolite 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) contributes to hypertension-induced cerebrovascular alterations.
We treated male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with HET0016 (N-hydroxy-N′-(4-butyl-2-methylphenyl)-formamidine), an inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis. In middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of SHRs, we focused on vasomotor responses and end points that are highly relevant for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inflammatory cytokine expression and NF-κB activation.
SHRs treated with HET0016 remained hypertensive (SHR + HET0016: 149 ± 8 mmHg, Wistar-Kyoto rat: 115 ± 4 mmHg; P < 0.05.), although their systolic blood pressure was decreased compared to untreated SHRs (191 ± 6 mmHg). In MCAs of SHRs, flow-induced constriction was increased, whereas ACh- and ATP-induced dilations were impaired. This functional impairment was reversed by treatment with HET0016. Treatment with HET0016 also significantly decreased oxidative stress in MCAs of SHRs (as shown by dihydroethidium staining and analysis of vascular 5-nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal and carbonyl content) and inhibited cerebrovascular inflammation (shown by the reduced mRNA expression of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6). Treatment of SHRs with HET0016 also attenuated vascular NF-κB activation. In vitro treatment with 20-HETE significantly increased vascular production of ROS and promoted NF-κB activation in cultured cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells.
Conclusions and Implications
Taken together, treatment with HET0016 confers anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in the cerebral arteries of SHRs by disrupting 20-HETE-mediated autocrine/paracrine signalling pathways in the vascular wall. It is likely that HET0016-induced decreases in blood pressure also potentiate the cerebrovascular protective effects of the drug.
ROS; cytokines; cerebral blood flow; ischaemic stroke; vascular cognitive impairment; NF-κB; 20-HETE
Moderate caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition increases healthspan in virtually every species studied, including nonhuman primates. In mice, CR exerts significant microvascular protective effects resulting in increased microvascular density in the heart and the brain, which likely contribute to enhanced tolerance to ischemia and improved cardiac performance and cognitive function. Yet, the underlying mechanisms by which CR confer microvascular protection remain elusive. To test the hypothesis that circulating factors triggered by CR regulate endothelial angiogenic capacity, we treated cultured human endothelial cells with sera derived from Macaca mulatta on long-term (over 10 years) CR. Cells treated with sera derived from ad-libitum-fed control monkeys served as controls. We found that factors present in CR sera upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and stimulate angiogenic processes, including endothelial cell proliferation and formation of capillary-like structures. Treatment with CR sera also tended to increase cellular migration (measured by a wound-healing assay using electric cell–substrate impedance sensing [ECIS] technology) and adhesion to collagen. Collectively, we find that circulating factors induced by CR promote endothelial angiogenic processes, suggesting that increased angiogenesis may be a potential mechanism by which CR improves cardiac function and prevents vascular cognitive impairment.
Dietary restriction; Vascular aging; Angiogenesis; Microcirculation; Cardiovascular system.
The redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a key
role in preserving a healthy endothelial phenotype and maintaining the functional
integrity of the vasculature. Previous studies demonstrated that aging is associated with
Nrf2 dysfunction in endothelial cells, which alters redox signaling and likely promotes
the development of large vessel disease. Much less is known about the consequences of Nrf2
dysfunction at the level of the microcirculation. To test the hypothesis that Nrf2
regulates angiogenic capacity of endothelial cells, we determined whether disruption of
Nrf2 signaling (by siRNA knockdown of Nrf2 and overexpression of Keap1, the cytosolic
repressor of Nrf2) impairs angiogenic processes in cultured human coronary arterial
endothelial cells stimulated with vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like
growth factor-1. In the absence of functional Nrf2, coronary arterial endothelial cells
exhibited impaired proliferation and adhesion to vitronectin and collagen. Disruption of
Nrf2 signaling also reduced cellular migration (measured by a wound-healing assay using
electric cell-substrate impedance sensing technology) and impaired the ability of coronary
arterial endothelial cells to form capillary-like structures. Collectively, we find that
Nrf2 is essential for normal endothelial angiogenic processes, suggesting that Nrf2
dysfunction may be a potential mechanism underlying impaired angiogenesis and
microvascular rarefaction in aging.
Vascular aging; Microcirculation; Capillary density; Angiogenesis; Heart
The present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years. We assessed both basal and stress-induced reactive oxygen species production in fibroblasts from five great apes (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan), four Old World monkeys (baboon, rhesus and crested black macaques, and patas monkey), three New World monkeys (common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, and woolly monkey), and one lemur (ring-tailed lemur). Measurements of cellular MitoSox fluorescence, an indicator of mitochondrial superoxide (O2·−) generation, showed an inverse correlation between longevity and steady state or metabolic stress–induced mitochondrial O2·− production, but this correlation was lost when the effects of body mass were removed, and the data were analyzed using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Fibroblasts from longer-lived primate species also exhibited superior resistance to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death than cells from shorter-living primates. After correction for body mass and lack of phylogenetic independence, this correlation, although still discernible, fell short of significance by regression analysis. Thus, increased longevity in this sample of primates is not causally associated with low cellular reactive oxygen species generation, but further studies are warranted to test the association between increased cellular resistance to oxidative stressor and primate longevity.
Primates; Comparative biology; Free radical; Oxidative stress
There is increasing evidence that age-associated chronic low-grade inflammation promotes
the development of both large-vessel disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral
arterial disease) and small-vessel pathologies (including vascular cognitive impairment)
in older persons. However, the source of age-related chronic vascular inflammation remains
unclear. To test the hypothesis that cell-autonomous mechanisms contribute to the
proinflammatory changes in vascular phenotype that accompanies advancing age, we analyzed
the cytokine secretion profile of primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived
from young (∼13 years old) and aged (∼21 years old) Macaca
mulatta. Aged VSMCs cultured in the absence of systemic factors exhibited
significantly increased secretion of interleukin-1β, MCP-1, and tumor necrosis
factorα compared with young control cells. Secretion of interleukin-6 also tended to
increase in aged VSMCs. This age-associated proinflammatory shift in the cellular
secretory phenotype was associated with an increased mitochondrial O2
− production and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated
B cells activation. Treatment of aged VSMCs with a physiologically relevant concentration
of resveratrol (1 μM) exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects, reversing
aging-induced alterations in the cellular cytokine secretion profile and inhibiting
nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. Resveratrol also
attenuated mitochondrial O2
− production and upregulated the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in aged
VSMCs. Thus, in non-human primates, cell-autonomous activation of nuclear factor
κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and expression of an inflammatory
secretome likely contribute to vascular inflammation in aging. Resveratrol treatment
prevents the proinflammatory properties of the aged VSMC secretome, an effect that likely
contributes to the demonstrated vasoprotective action of resveratrol in animal models of
Vascular aging; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Cytokine; 3,5,4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene
Previous studies suggest that the age-related decline in circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels significantly contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging by impairing cellular oxidative stress resistance pathways. Obesity in elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates, and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging, GH/IGF-1 deficiency, and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that low circulating GH/IGF-1 levels exacerbate the pro-oxidant and proinflammatory vascular effects of obesity, GH/IGF-1–deficient Lewis dwarf rats and heterozygous control rats were fed either a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 months. Feeding an HFD resulted in similar relative weight gains and increases in body fat content in Lewis dwarf rats and control rats. HFD-fed Lewis dwarf rats exhibited a relative increase in blood glucose levels, lower insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance as compared with HFD-fed control rats. Analysis of serum cytokine expression signatures indicated that chronic GH/IGF-1 deficiency exacerbates HFD-induced inflammation. GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exacerbated HFD-induced endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, ICAM-1) in aortas of Lewis dwarf rats. Overall, our results are consistent with the available clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that GH/IGF-1 deficiency renders the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of obesity.
Accelerated aging; Endothelial dysfunction; IGF-1; Obesity; Vascular pathophysiology
This review focuses on cardiovascular protective effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, provides a landscape of molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular alterations in patients and animal models with congenital and adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency, and explores the link between age-related IGF-1 deficiency and the molecular, cellular, and functional changes that occur in the cardiovascular system during aging. Microvascular protection conferred by endocrine and paracrine IGF-1 signaling, its implications for the pathophysiology of cardiac failure and vascular cognitive impairment, and the role of impaired cellular stress resistance in cardiovascular aging considered here are based on emerging knowledge of the effects of IGF-1 on Nrf2-driven antioxidant response.
Vascular aging; Myocardial infarction; Vascular dementia; Atherosclerosis; Endothelial dysfunction
Because the initial reports demonstrating that circulating growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 decrease with age in laboratory animals and humans, there have been numerous studies related to the importance of these hormones for healthy aging. Nevertheless, the role of these potent anabolic hormones in the genesis of the aging phenotype remains controversial. In this chapter, we review the studies demonstrating the beneficial and deleterious effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 deficiency and explore their effects on specific tissues and pathology as well as their potentially unique effects early during development. Based on this review, we conclude that the perceived contradictory roles of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the genesis of the aging phenotype should not be interpreted as a controversy on whether growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor-1 increases or decreases life span but rather as an opportunity to explore the complex roles of these hormones during specific stages of the life span.
IGF-1; Longevity; Growth hormone
Recent studies demonstrate that age-related dysfunction of NF-E2–related factor-2 (Nrf2)–driven pathways impairs cellular redox homeostasis, exacerbating age-related cellular oxidative stress and increasing sensitivity of aged vessels to oxidative stress–induced cellular damage. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 decline during aging, which significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases in humans. To test the hypothesis that adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency impairs Nrf2-driven pathways in the vasculature, we utilized a novel mouse model with a liver-specific adeno-associated viral knockdown of the Igf1 gene using Cre-lox technology (Igf1f/f + MUP-iCre-AAV8), which exhibits a significant decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels (∼50%). In the aortas of IGF-1–deficient mice, there was a trend for decreased expression of Nrf2 and the Nrf2 target genes GCLC, NQO1 and HMOX1. In cultured aorta segments of IGF-1–deficient mice treated with oxidative stressors (high glucose, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and H2O2), induction of Nrf2-driven genes was significantly attenuated as compared with control vessels, which was associated with an exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, mimicking the aging phenotype. In conclusion, endocrine IGF-1 deficiency is associated with dysregulation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses in the vasculature, which likely promotes an adverse vascular phenotype under pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidative stress (eg, diabetes mellitus, hypertension) and results in accelerated vascular impairments in aging.
vascular aging; endocrine
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important anabolic hormone that decreases with age. In the past two decades, extensive research has determined that the reduction in IGF-1 is an important component of the age-related decline in cognitive function in multiple species including humans. Deficiency in circulating IGF-1 results in impairment in processing speed and deficiencies in both spatial and working memory. Replacement of IGF-1 or factors that increase IGF-1 to old animals and humans reverses many of these cognitive deficits. Despite the overwhelming evidence for IGF-1 as an important neurotrophic agent, the specific mechanisms through which IGF-1 acts have remained elusive. Recent evidence indicates that IGF-1 is both produced by and has important actions on the cerebrovasculature as well as neurons and glia. Nevertheless, the specific regulation and actions of brain- and vascular-derived IGF-1 is poorly understood. The diverse effects of IGF-1 discovered thus far reveal a complex endocrine and paracrine system essential for integrating many of the functions necessary for brain health. Identification of the mechanisms of IGF-1 actions will undoubtedly provide critical insight into regulation of brain function in general and the causes of cognitive decline with age.
aging; cognitive decline; IGF-1; vasculature
Aging promotes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, which contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. NF-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor, which is activated by reactive oxygen species in the vasculature of young animals, leading to adaptive upregulation of numerous reactive oxygen species detoxifying and antioxidant genes. The present study was designed to elucidate age-associated changes in the homeostatic role of Nrf2-driven free radical detoxification mechanisms in the vasculature of nonhuman primates. We found that carotid arteries of aged rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, age: ≥20 years) exhibit significant oxidative stress (as indicated by the increased 8-iso-PGF2α and 4-HNE content and decreased glutathione and ascorbate levels) as compared with vessels of young macaques (age: ∼10 years) that is associated with activation of the redox-sensitive proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB. However, age-related oxidative stress does not activate Nrf2 and does not induce Nrf2 target genes (NQO1, GCLC, and HMOX1). In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from young M mulatta, treatment with H2O2 and high glucose significantly increases transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and upregulates the expression of Nrf2 target genes. In contrast, in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells cells derived from aged macaques, H2O2– and high glucose–induced Nrf2 activity and Nrf2-driven gene expression are blunted. High glucose–induced H2O2 production was significantly increased in aged vascular smooth muscle cells compared with that in vascular smooth muscle cells from young M mulatta. Taken together, aging is associated with Nrf2 dysfunction in M mulatta arteries, which likely exacerbates age-related cellular oxidative stress, promoting nuclear factor-kappaB activation and vascular inflammation in aging.
Artery; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Smooth muscle; Vascular aging
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are thought to play important roles in mammalian aging. Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that exerts diverse anti-aging activities, mimicking some of the molecular and functional effects of dietary restriction. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial protective effects of resveratrol, which could be exploited for the prevention or amelioration of age-related diseases in the elderly.
senescence; bioenergetics; mitochondria; aging; caloric restriction; cardiovascular disease; phytochemicals; 3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene