During the aging process, an accumulation of non-heme iron disrupts cellular homeostasis and contributes to the mitochondrial dysfunction typical of various neuromuscular degenerative diseases. Few studies have investigated the effects of iron accumulation on mitochondrial integrity and function in skeletal muscle and liver tissue. Thus, we isolated liver mitochondria (LM), as well as quadriceps-derived subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM), from male Fischer 344× Brown Norway rats at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Non-heme iron content in SSM, IFM and LM was significantly higher with age, reaching a maximum at 37 months of age. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) was more susceptible to the opening in aged mitochondria containing high levels of iron (i.e. SSM and LM) compared to IFM. Furthermore, mitochondrial RNA oxidation increased significantly with age in SSM and LM, but not in IFM. Levels of mitochondrial RNA oxidation in SSM and LM correlated positively with levels of mitochondrial iron, whereas a significant negative correlation was observed between the maximum Ca2+ amounts needed to induce mPTP opening and iron contents in SSM, IFM and LM. Overall, our data suggest that age-dependent accumulation of mitochondrial iron may increase mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, thereby enhancing the susceptibility to apoptosis.
mitochondrial aging; mitochondrial iron homeostasis; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; mitochondrial RNA; oxidative stress; skeletal muscle subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/γ dual agonists have been developed to alleviate metabolic disorders and have the potential to be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of a newly synthesized PPAR α/γ dual agonist, 2-[4-(5-chlorobenzo [d] thiazol-2-yl) phenoxy]-2-methylpropanoic acid (MHY908) on type 2 diabetes in vitro and in vivo. To obtain initial evidence that MHY908 acts as a PPAR α/γ dual agonist, ChIP and reporter gene assays were conducted in AC2F rat liver cells, and to investigate the anti-diabetic effects and molecular mechanisms, eight-week-old, male db/db mice were allowed to eat ad libitum, placed on calorie restriction, or administered MHY908 (1 mg or 3 mg/kg/day) mixed in food for 4 weeks. Age-matched male db/m lean mice served as non-diabetic controls. It was found that MHY908 enhanced the binding and transcriptional activity of PPAR α and γ in AC2F cells, and it reduced serum glucose, triglyceride, and insulin levels, however increased adiponectin levels without body weight gain. In addition, MHY908 significantly improved hepatic steatosis by enhancing CPT-1 levels. Remarkably, MHY908 reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the livers of db/db mice, and subsequently reduced insulin resistance. The study shows MHY908 has beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes by simultaneously activating PPAR α/γ and improving ER stress, and suggests that MHY908 could have a potent anti-diabetic effect as a PPAR α/γ dual agonist, and potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Recent scientific studies have advanced the notion of chronic inflammation as a major risk factor underlying aging and age-related diseases. In this review, low-grade, unresolved, molecular inflammation is described as an underlying mechanism of aging and age-related diseases, which may serve as a bridge between normal aging and age-related pathological processes. Accumulated data strongly suggest that continuous (chronic) up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1β, 6, COX-2, iNOS) are induced during the aging process due to an age-related redox imbalance that activates many pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, including the NF-κB signaling pathway. These pro-inflammatory molecular events are discussed in relation to their role as basic mechanisms underlying aging and age-related diseases. Further, the anti-inflammatory actions of aging-retarding caloric restriction and exercise are reviewed. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the molecular roles of age-related physiological functional declines and the accompanying chronic diseases associated with aging. This new view on the role of molecular inflammation as a mechanism of aging and age-related pathogenesis can provide insights into potential interventions that may affect the aging process and reduce age-related diseases, thereby promoting healthy longevity.
molecular inflammation; aging; calorie restriction; exercise; cytokines; oxidative stress; inflammatory diseases; age-related diseases; obesity; sarcopenia; dementia; atherosclerosis; cancer; osteoporosis
Ferulate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a well-known phenolic compound that scavenges free radicals and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), a transcription factor that plays important roles in aging processes, decreases with age and is negatively regulated through phosphorylation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. The present study investigated the efficacy of short-term ferulate feeding on age-related changes in PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a and upstream insulin signaling pathways in aged rats. In addition, changes in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase expression were examined because of their dependence on PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a activity. Short-term feeding experiments were done with a diet containing ferulate that was given to aged rats at doses of 3 or 6 mg kg−1 day−1 for 10 days. Results showed that FOXO3a activity was increased in the ferulate-fed old group compared with the control old group. Also, ferulate suppressed the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is responsible for FOXO3a inhibition in aged rats. Plasma insulin levels and the upstream insulin signaling pathway were also modulated by ferulate correspondingly with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a activity. The age-related decrease in two major antioxidant enzymes, MnSOD and catalase, was blunted by ferulate, which was accompanied by FOXO3a transcriptional activity. The significance of the present study is the finding that short-term feeding of ferulate effectively modulates age-related renal FOXO3a, PI3K/Akt and insulin signaling pathways, and MnSOD and catalase expression, all of which may be beneficial for attenuating the aging process.
Ferulate; FOXO3a; Aging; PI3K/Akt; MnSOD; Catalase
Ginsenoside Rd is a primary constituent of the ginseng rhizome and has been shown to participate in the regulation of diabetes and in tumor formation. Reports also show that ginsenoside Rd exerts anti-oxidative effects by activating anti-oxidant enzymes. Treatment with ginsenoside Rd decreased nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-challenged RAW264.7 cells and in ICR mouse livers (5 mg/kg LPS; LPS + ginsenoside Rd [2, 10, and 50 mg/kg]). Furthermore, these decreases were associated with the down-regulations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that ginsenoside Rd treatment decreases; 1) nitric oxide production (40% inhibition); 2) PGE2 synthesis (69% to 93% inhibition); 3) NF-κB activity; and 4) the NF-κB-regulated expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Taken together, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenoside Rd are due to the down-regulation of NF-κB and the consequent expressional suppressions of iNOS and COX-2.
Panax ginseng; Ginsenoside Rd; Inducible nitric oxide synthase; Cyclooxygenase-2; Prostaglandin E2
Angiotensin II (Ang II), a major effector of the renin–angiotensin system, is now recognized as a pro-inflammatory mediator. This Ang II signaling, which causes transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, is regulated through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of aging on Ang II signaling and NF-κB activation are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to document altered molecular events involved in age-related changes in Ang II signaling and NF-κB activation. Experimentations were carried out using kidney tissues from Fischer 344 rats at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age, and the rat endothelial cell line, YPEN-1 for the detailed molecular work. Results show that increases in Ang II and Ang II type 1 receptor during aging were accompanied by the generation of reactive species. Increased Ang II activated NF-κB by phosphorylating IκBα and p65. Increased phosphorylation of p65 at Ser 536 was mediated by the enhanced phosphorylation of IκB kinase αβ, while phosphorylation site Ser 276 of p65 was mediated by upregulated mitogen-activated and stress-activated protein kinase-1. These altered molecular events in aged animals were partly verified by experiments using YPEN-1 cells. Collectively, our findings provide molecular insights into the pro-inflammatory actions of Ang II, actions that influence the phosphorylation of p65-mediated NF-κB activation during aging. Our study demonstrates the age-related pleiotropic nature of the physiologically important Ang II can change into a deleterious culprit that contributes to an increased incidence of many chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and dementia.
Ang II; Aging; NF-κB; p65 phosphorylation; Inflammation
In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), enalapril, and the Ang II receptor blocker (ARB), losartan suppress oxidative stress and NF-κB activation-induced inflammatory responses in aged rat kidney. The experimentations were carried out utilizing aged (24-month-old) Brown Norway x Fischer 344 (F1) male rats which were randomized into 3 groups and administered enalapril (40 mg/kg), losartan (30 mg/kg) or placebo for 6 months (daily p.o.). The level of reactive species (RS), peroxynitrite (ONOO−), GSH/GSSG and lipid peroxidation were measured. The activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, and gene expression of proteins in upstream signaling cascades were measured by electro-mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blotting. Enalapril and losartan differentially attenuated redox imbalance and the redox-sensitive transcription factor, NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, stimulation of the NF-κB activation pathway by phosphorylation of p65 was attenuated by both compounds. Moreover, mediation of phosphorylation of p65 by phosphorylation of IκB kinase αβ (IKKαβ) and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1), were also inhibited by enalapril and losartan. Finally, both compounds also lowered expression of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS). Only losartan lowered levels of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). These findings indicate that enalapril and losartan differentially suppress inflammatory responses via inhibition of oxidative stress-induced NF-κB activation in aged rat kidney.
The primary purpose of the present set of studies was to provide a direct comparison of the effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril and the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan on body composition, physical performance, and muscle quality when administered late in life to aged rats. Overall, enalapril treatment consistently attenuated age-related increases in adiposity relative to both placebo and losartan. The maximal effect was achieved after 3 months of treatment (between 24 and 27 months of age), at a dose of 40 mg/kg and was observed in the absence of any changes in physical activity, body temperature, or food intake. In addition, the reduction in fat mass was not due to changes in pathology given that enalapril attenuated age-related increases in tumor development relative to placebo- and losartan-treated animals. Both enalapril and losartan attenuated age-related decreases in grip strength, suggesting that changes in body composition appear dissociated from improvements in physical function and may reflect a differential impact of enalapril and losartan on muscle quality. To link changes in adiposity to improvements in skeletal muscle quality, we performed gene array analyses to generate hypotheses regarding cell signaling pathways altered with enalapril treatment. Based on these results, our primary follow-up pathway was mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of myocytes. Relative to losartan- and placebo-treated rats, only enalapril decreased DNA fragmentation and caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling. These data suggest that attenuation of the severity of skeletal muscle apoptosis promoted by enalapril may represent a distinct mechanism through which this compound improves muscle strength/quality.
Age-related adiposity; Body composition; Sarcopenia; Renin–angiotensin system; Physical function; Muscle quality
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells, including colon, prostate, breast and leukemia. Among them, aspirin, a classical NSAID, shows promise in cancer therapy in certain types of cancers. We hypothesized that aspirin might affect the growth of liver cancer cells since liver is the principal site for aspirin metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the effects of aspirin on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line in vitro and the HepG2 cell xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice. We found that treatment with aspirin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis involving both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways as measured by DNA ladder formation, alteration in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of the caspase activities and related protein expressions. In vivo antitumor activity assay also showed that aspirin resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition compared to the control. Oral administration of aspirin (100 mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction in the growth of HepG2 tumors in nude mice. These findings suggest that aspirin may be used as a promising anticancer agent against liver cancer.
aspirin; hepatocellular carcinoma; apoptosis; xenograft model
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major form of age-related dementia and is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment, the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in affected brain regions. Tau hyperphosphorylation and accumulation in neurofibrillary tangles is strongly correlated with cognitive deficits, and is apparently a critical event in the dementia process because mutations in tau can cause a tangle-only form of dementia called frontotemporal lobe dementia. Among kinases that phosphorylate tau, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is strongly implicated in AD pathogenesis. In the present study, we established an ELISA to screen for agents that inhibit GSK3β activity and found that the flavonoid morin effectively inhibited GSK3β activity and blocked GSK3β-induced tau phosphorylation in vitro. In addition, morin attenuated Aβ-induced tau phosphorylation and protected human neuroblastoma cells against Aβ cytotoxicity. Furthermore, treatment of 3×Tg-AD mice with morin resulted in reductions in tau hyperphosphorylation and paired helical filament-like immunoreactivity in hippocampal neurons. Morin is a novel inhibitor of GSK3β that can reduce tau pathology in vivo and may have potential as a therapeutic agent in tauopathies.
Alzheimer’s disease; GSK3β; Tau hyperphosphorylation; Morin
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) are oxidative products formed from the reaction between carbohydrates and a free amino group of proteins that are provoked by reactive species (RS). It is also known that AGE enhance the generation of RS and that the binding of AGE to a specific AGE receptor (RAGE) induces the activation of the redox-sensitive, pro-inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB). In this current study, we investigated the anti-oxidative effects of short-term kaempferol supplementation on the age-related formation of AGE and the binding activity of RAGE in aged rat kidney. We further investigated the suppressive action of kaempferol against AGE's ability to stimulate activation of pro-inflammatory NF-ĸB and its molecular mechanisms. For this study, we utilized young (6 months old), old (24 months old), and kaempferol-fed (2 and 4 mg/kg/day for 10 days) old rats. In addition, for the molecular work, the rat endothelial cell line, YPEN-1 was used. The results show that AGE and RAGE were increased during aging and that these increases were blunted by kaempferol. In addition, dietary kaempferol reduced age-related increases in NF-κB activity and NF-ĸB-dependant pro-inflammatory gene activity. The most significant new finding from this study is that kaempferol supplementation prevented age-related NF-κB activation by suppressing AGE-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase). Taken together, our results demonstrated that dietary kaempferol exerts its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions by modulating the age-related NF-κB signaling cascade and its pro-inflammatory genes by suppressing AGE-induced NADPH oxidase activation. Based on these data, dietary kaempferol is proposed as a possible anti-AGE agent that may have the potential for use in anti-inflammation therapies.
Kaempferol; Aging; NF-κB; AGE; NADPH oxidase; Anti-inflammation
Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 188.8.131.52) plays an important antioxidant defense role in skins exposed to oxygen. We studied the inhibitory effects of Al3+ on the activity and conformation of manganese-containing SOD (Mn-SOD). Mn-SOD was significantly inactivated by Al3+ in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetic studies showed that Al3+ inactivated Mn-SOD follows the first-order reaction. Al3+ increased the degree of secondary structure of Mn-SOD and also disrupted the tertiary structure of Mn-SOD, which directly resulted in enzyme inactivation. We further simulated the docking between Mn-SOD and Al3+ (binding energy for Dock 6.3: −14.07 kcal/mol) and suggested that ASP152 and GLU157 residues were predicted to interact with Al3+, which are not located in the Mn-contained active site. Our results provide insight into the inactivation of Mn-SOD during unfolding in the presence of Al3+ and allow us to describe a ligand binding via inhibition kinetics combined with the computational prediction.
Although systems biology is a perfect framework for investigating system-level declines during aging, only a few reports have focused on a comprehensive understanding of system-level changes in the context of aging systems. The present study aimed to understand the most sensitive biological systems affected during aging and to reveal the systems underlying the crosstalk between aging and the ability of calorie restriction (CR) to effectively slow-down aging. We collected and analyzed 478 aging- and 586 CR-related mouse genes. For the given genes, the biological systems that are significantly related to aging and CR were examined according to three aspects. First, a global characterization by Gene Ontology (GO) was performed, where we found that the transcriptome (a set of genes) for both aging and CR were strongly related in the immune response, lipid metabolism, and cell adhesion functions. Second, the transcriptional modularity found in aging and CR was evaluated by identifying possible functional modules, sets of genes that show consistent expression patterns. Our analyses using the given functional modules, revealed systemic interactions among various biological processes, as exemplified by the negative relation shown between lipid metabolism and the immune response at the system level. Third, transcriptional regulatory systems were predicted for both the aging and CR transcriptomes. Here, we suggest a systems biology framework to further understand the most important systems as they age.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-009-9106-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Aging; Calorie restriction; Systems biology; Transcriptome analysis
Adipogenesis and ectopic lipid accumulation during aging have a great impact on the aging process and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases with age. However, at present, information on the age-related molecular changes in lipid redistribution patterns and their potential nutritional interventions is sparse. We investigated the mechanism underlying age-related lipid redistribution and its modulation using 5-, 17-, and 24-month-old male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum (AL) or a 3-week-long CR (40% less than AL) diet. Results revealed that the activities of adipogenic transcription factors were decreased in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of aged AL rats. In contrast, the skeletal muscle of aged AL rats showed increased fat accumulation through decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity, which was blunted by short-term CR. This study suggests an age-related shift in lipid distribution by reducing the adipogenesis of WAT while increasing intramyocellular lipid accumulation, and that CR can modulate age-related adipogenesis and ectopic lipid accumulation.
Aging; Calorie restriction; Lipid accumulation; Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors; Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1; Skeletal muscle
Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis represents a central process driving age-related muscle loss. However, the temporal relation between mitochondrial apoptotic signaling and sarcopenia as well as the regulation of release of pro-apoptotic factors from the mitochondria has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of rats across a wide age range. We also investigated whether mitochondrial-driven apoptosis was accompanied by changes in the expression of Bcl-2 proteins and components of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Analyses were performed on gastrocnemius muscle of 8-, 18-, 29- and 37- month-old male Fischer344×Brown Norway rats (9 per group). Muscle weight declined progressively with advancing age, concomitant with increased apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Cytosolic and nuclear levels of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG) increased in old and senescent animals. In contrast, cytosolic levels of cytochrome c were unchanged with age. Mitochondrial Bcl-2, Bax and Bid increased dramatically in 37-month-old rats, with no changes in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in any of the age groups. Finally, expression of cyclophilin D was enhanced at very old age. Our findings indicate that the mitochondrial caspase-independent apoptotic pathway may play a more prominent role in skeletal muscle loss than caspase-mediated apoptosis.
sarcopenia; apoptosis; permeability transition pore; AIF; endonuclease G
Aging can be characterized in all living organisms as the inevitable biological changes that occur with advancing age. The aging process is time-dependent and leads to functional declines and increased incidences of disease. The underlying pathphysiologic processes of aging may best be explained using several interacting biological processes: genomic activity, oxidative stress, and age-related disease processes, all of which modify the rate and progression of aging. In this report, we describe a database, termed AgingDB, used to retrieve information on the biomolecules known to be modulated during the aging process and by the life-prolonging action of caloric restriction (CR). To enhance the usefulness of AgingDB, we include data collected from studies of CR’s anti-oxidative action on gene expression, oxidative stress, and many chronic age-related diseases. We organized AgingDB into two sections A) apoptosis and the various mitochondrial biomolecules that play a role in aging; B) nuclear transcription factors known to be_sensitive to oxidative environment. AgingDB features an imagemap of biomolecular signal pathways and visualized information that includes protein-protein interactions of biomolecules. Authorized users can submit a new biomolecule or edit an existing biomolecule to reflect latest developments. By making available the most update information through AgingDB, we expect to assist researchers who are exploring the molecular basis of age-related changes modified by the life-prolonging action of CR. For the reader’s convenience and accessibility, AgingDB is freely available at http://agingdb.bio.pusan.ac.kr/.
Oxidative stress is claimed to be a major cause of aging. Recent data suggest that calorie restriction (CR) prolongs life span by its ability to retard aging, possibly by regulating the intracellular redox status through its antioxidative actions. Currently, there is little information showing the influences of age and CR on the redox-sensitive transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). In the present study, we investigated how age affects the status of AP-1 and whether CR modulates the age effect. For our study, we used the kidney from male Fischer 344 rats, ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months fed ad libitum (AL) or a CR diet. Results from our study showed that AP-1 binding activity markedly increases with age, while CR keeps this activity at the level of 6-month-old rats. We found that c-Jun and c-Fos protein levels increase during aging, and that aging induces phosphorylation of c-Jun, which might enhance AP-1 transcriptional activity. For CR’s action, we found that in the nucleus of aged rats, AP-1 activation was blunted by decreasing c-Jun and c-Fos levels and inhibiting c-Jun protein phosphorylation. Results also indicated that matrix metalloproteinase-13 and heme oxygenase-1, which have an AP-1 binding site in their promoter regions, have a similar tendency toward AP-1 binding activity. Based on the data of these findings, we concluded that AP-1 activity increases in rat kidney with age and that CR reduces AP-1 activity.
Oxidative stress is thought to be a causative factor for age-related damage in a wide variety of cellular constituents that can lead to dysfunction and various pathological conditions, including the inflammatory process. At the molecular level, the redox-sensitive transcription factor, NF-κB plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory process, along with cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We studied the mechanism underlying the modulation of the inflammatory reaction with age by investigating NF-κB activation and the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and cytokines genes in hepatic tissues isolated from young and old rats. We expanded our investigation of these factors in rats injected with the inflammatory activator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Data showed that NF-κB activity was up-regulated with age and was further enhanced by LPS injection, indicating an increased susceptibility and sensitivity to the inflammatory stimulus with age. To explore further the molecular events leading to NF-κB activation, we investigated the inhibitory component of NF-κB complex, IκB. Cytosolic IκBα, but not IκBβ, was significantly decreased in both old and LPS-treated rats, signifying the enhanced migration of cytosolic NF-κB complex into the nucleus following dissociation from the inhibitor. The appearance of the polypeptide, p65, as determined in the nucleus, corresponded with the change in IκBα, providing further supporting evidence for the molecular process involved in NF-κB activation. Our additional investigation of two proinflammatory-related enzymes, COX-2 and iNOS, and three cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α, clearly showed aged-related increases, in corroboration with the NF-κB activation. Our results demonstrated that LPS injection caused the enhanced gene expression of inducible proinflammatory proteins, COX-2 and iNOS through NF-κB activation.
It has been proposed that uric acid is an important scavenger of deleterious oxygen species and peroxynitrite in biological systems. The cellular sources responsible for the generation of damage-causing reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widespread. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) / oxidase (XOD) catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. The rosy (ry) gene encodes XDH/XOD in Drosophila melanogaster. XDH codes for uric acid which is a ROS scavenger. XOD however is an enzyme system implicated in ROS production. In this study, we investigated the roles of XDH in the fly’s immune defense response to infection and in the aging process. We first compared ROS generation and nitric oxide (NO) level in the whole body and the gut of XDH mutant with those of wild type. Our results suggested that XDH has a protective effect with respect to both ROS and NO generations, particularly in the gut. We also examined the effect of a XDH deletion mutant on the relative sensitivity of the organism against bacterial infection, on the immune inducibility of antimicrobial peptides and on the effect of aging in the defensive response to infection. Our results strongly suggest that XDH plays an important role in the innate immune response and that the age-associated deterioration of the innate immune response might be, at least in part, associated with the loss of XDH activity in the aging process.
The involvement of NF-kappa B binding activity is known to be important in the mechanism of acute liver injury and in the induction of cyclooxygenase (COX-2). This study was performed to evaluate NF-kappa B binding activity and the expression of COX-2 in chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). Liver tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats were collected at 1, 3, 5, and 7th week after intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mL of CCl(4)/100 g body weight twice a week. Reactive oxy-gen species (ROS) were measured in the postmitochondrial fraction by dichlorofluorescein formation with a fluorescent probe. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed for NF-kappa B binding activity. Western blot was performed to measure the level of COX-1, COX-2, p65, p50, and I B proteins. ROS and NF-kappa B activity increased during the CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. The expression of nuclear p65 protein and p50 protein increased compared with that of the control, while the cytoplasmic I B protein decreased as the inflammation persisted. The expression of COX-2 in CCl(4)-treated rat liver increased compared with that of the control. It could be suggested that ROS produced by CCl(4) treatment increased NF-kappa B binding activity and thereby COX-2 expression, and these might be implicated in the progress of chronic liver damage.
Xanthine oxidase (XOD), one of the major intracellular sources of superoxide production, is well characterized as a causative factor in ischemia/reperfusion related damage. In the present study, we investigated age-effect on the status of XOD, an enzyme interconvertible with xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) under oxidative stress. We also examined the modulation of the enzyme using the anti-oxidative action of dietary restriction (DR). We obtained evidence showing XOD activity to be significantly increased by DR, peaking at 24 months, although no progressive, age-related changes were noticed. On the other hand, while XDH activity decreased in ad libitum fed rats with age, DR maintained higher activity levels at 18 and 24 months of age. During aging, the conversion of XDH to XOD was slightly increased, as indicated by the XOD/XDH ratio. One novel finding of the present study is DR’s ability to elevate the uric acid level, which likely augments the anti-oxidative defense system, thereby buffering against oxidatively stressed conditions during aging. Based on what is known about the antioxidative abilities of DR and uric acid, we propose that the high uric acid levels we observed in DR rats may well serve as part of a defense strategy to protect redox balance.
xanthine oxidase; xanthine dehydrogenase; oxidative stress; aging; uric acid
Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) are single-gene products that exist in separate but interconvertible forms. XOD utilizes hypoxanthine or xanthine as a substrate and O2 as a cofactor to produce superoxide (·O2−) and uric acid. XDH acts on these same substrates but utilizes NAD as a cofactor to produce NADH instead of ·O2− and uric acid. XOD has been proposed as a source of oxygen radicals in polymorphonuclear, endothelial, epithelial, and connective tissue cells. However, several questions remain about the physiological significance and functions of XOD on aging and oxidative stress. XOD is reported to play an important role in cellular oxidative status, detoxification of aldehydes, oxidative injury in ischemia-reperfusion, and neutrophil mediation. For example, XOD may serve as a messenger or mediator in the activation of neutrophil, T cell, cytokines, or transcription in defense mechanisms rather than as a free radical generator of tissue damage. Emerging evidence on the synergistic interactions of ·O2−, a toxic product of XOD and nitric oxide, may be another illustration of XOD involvement in tissue injury and cytotoxicity in an emergent condition such as ischemia or inflammation.
Xanthine dehydrogenase; Xanthine oxidase; Aging; Oxidative stress
Ultraviolet B (UVB; 290~320nm) irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation induces inflammatory responses that lead to skin wrinkle formation and epidermal thickening. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/γ dual agonists have the potential to be used as anti-wrinkle agents because they inhibit inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation. In this study, we evaluated the function of 2-bromo-4-(5-chloro-benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl) phenol (MHY 966), a novel synthetic PPAR α/γ dual agonist, and investigated its anti-inflammatory and anti-lipid peroxidation effects. The action of MHY 966 as a PPAR α/γ dual agonist was also determined in vitro by reporter gene assay. Additionally, 8-week-old melanin-possessing hairless mice 2 (HRM2) were exposed to 150 mJ/cm2 UVB every other day for 17 days and MHY 966 was simultaneously pre-treated every day for 17 days to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. MHY 966 was found to stimulate the transcriptional activities of both PPAR α and γ. In HRM2 mice, we found that the skins of mice exposed to UVB showed significantly increased pro-inflammatory mediator levels (NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) and increased lipid peroxidation, whereas MHY 966 co-treatment down-regulated these effects of UVB by activating PPAR α and γ. Thus, the present study shows that MHY 966 exhibits beneficial effects on inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation by simultaneously activating PPAR α and γ. The major finding of this study is that MHY 966 demonstrates potential as an agent against wrinkle formation associated with chronic UVB exposure.
Skin aging is a multisystem degenerative process caused by several factors, such as, UV irradiation, stress, and smoke. Furthermore, wrinkle formation is a striking feature of photoaging and is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil, which were isolated from garlic, modulate UVB-induced wrinkle formation and effect the expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and NF-κB signaling. The results obtained showed that all three compounds significantly inhibited the degradation of type І procollagen and the expressions of MMPs in vivo and attenuated the histological collagen fiber disorder and oxidative stress in vivo. Furthermore, caffeic acid and S-allyl cysteine were found to decrease oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating the activities of NF-κB and AP-1, and uracil exhibited an indirect anti-oxidant effect by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions levels and downregulating transcriptional factors. These results suggest that the anti-wrinkle effects of caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil are due to anti-oxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects. Summarizing, caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation by modulating MMP via NF-κB signaling.