The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay was evaluated with microscopically negative and positive pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens from patients with substantial clinical indications for tuberculosis. For the pulmonary samples, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 90.6%, 94.3%, 93.5%, and 91.7%, and for the extrapulmonary samples, they were 100%, 91.6%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. For microscopically negative specimens, the respective values were 86.3%, 93%, 79%, and 95.6%. The assay correctly detected rifampin resistance in all but one specimen, which harbored a mixed population. The GeneXpert assay was highly effective for tuberculosis diagnosis and identification of rifampin-resistant strains in smear-negative samples.