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2.  Changes in the ratio of free NEDD8 to ubiquitin triggers NEDDylation by ubiquitin enzymes 
Biochemical Journal  2012;441(Pt 3):927-936.
Ubiquitin and UBL (ubiquitin-like) modifiers are small proteins that covalently modify other proteins to alter their properties or behaviours. Ubiquitin modification (ubiquitylation) targets many substrates, often leading to their proteasomal degradation. NEDD8 (neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8) is the UBL most closely related to ubiquitin, and its best-studied role is the activation of CRLs (cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases) by its conjugation to a conserved C-terminal lysine residue on cullin proteins. The attachment of UBLs requires three UBL-specific enzymes, termed E1, E2 and E3, which are usually well insulated from parallel UBL pathways. In the present study, we report a new mode of NEDD8 conjugation (NEDDylation) whereby the UBL NEDD8 is linked to proteins by ubiquitin enzymes in vivo. We found that this atypical NEDDylation is independent of classical NEDD8 enzymes, conserved from yeast to mammals, and triggered by an increase in the NEDD8 to ubiquitin ratio. In cells, NEDD8 overexpression leads to this type of NEDDylation by increasing the concentration of NEDD8, whereas proteasome inhibition has the same effect by depleting free ubiquitin. We show that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor used in cancer therapy, triggers atypical NEDDylation in tissue culture, which suggests that a similar process may occur in patients receiving this treatment.
doi:10.1042/BJ20111671
PMCID: PMC3280039  PMID: 22004789
bortezomib; MG132; MLN4924; neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8)-activating enzyme (NAE); proteasome; ubiquitinactivating enzyme; BCA3, breast cancer-associated gene 3; CHO, Chinese-hamster ovary; CRL, cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; FBS, fetal bovine serum; HA, haemagglutinin; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; LDS, lithium dodecyl sulfate; NAE, NEDD8-activating enzyme; NEDD8, neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8; siRNA, small interfering RNA; SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier; TCA, trichloroacetic acid; UBL, ubiquitin-like; WT, wild-type

Results 1-2 (2)