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author:("Chen, qinjiao")
1.  Identification of a Hotdog Fold Thioesterase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Menaquinone in Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  2013;195(12):2768-2775.
Escherichia coli is used as a model organism for elucidation of menaquinone biosynthesis, for which a hydrolytic step from 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A (DHNA-CoA) to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate is still unaccounted for. Recently, a hotdog fold thioesterase has been shown to catalyze this conversion in phylloquinone biosynthesis, suggesting that its closest homolog, YbgC in Escherichia coli, may be the DHNA-CoA thioesterase in menaquinone biosynthesis. However, this possibility is excluded by the involvement of YbgC in the Tol-Pal system and its complete lack of hydrolytic activity toward DHNA-CoA. To identify the hydrolytic enzyme, we have performed an activity-based screen of all nine Escherichia coli hotdog fold thioesterases and found that YdiI possesses a high level of hydrolytic activity toward DHNA-CoA, with high substrate specificity, and that another thioesterase, EntH, from siderophore biosynthesis exhibits a moderate, much lower DHNA-CoA thioesterase activity. Deletion of the ydiI gene from the bacterial genome results in a significant decrease in menaquinone production, which is little affected in ΔybgC and ΔentH mutants. These results support the notion that YdiI is the DHNA-CoA thioesterase involved in the biosynthesis of menaquinone in the model bacterium.
PMCID: PMC3697248  PMID: 23564174
2.  Structure and Reactivity of Bacillus subtilis MenD Catalyzing the First Committed Step in Menaquinone Biosynthesis 
Journal of Molecular Biology  2010;401(2):253-264.
The first committed step in the classical biosynthetic route to menaquinone (vitamin K2) is a Stetter-like conjugate addition of α-ketoglutarate with isochorismate. This reaction is catalyzed by the thiamine diphosphate and metal-ion-dependent 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase (MenD). The medium-resolution (2.35 Å) crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis MenD with cofactor and Mn2+ has been determined. Based on structure–sequence comparisons and modeling, a two-stage mechanism that is primarily driven by the chemical properties of the cofactor is proposed. Hypotheses for the molecular determinants of substrate recognition were formulated. Five basic residues (Arg32, Arg106, Arg409, Arg428, and Lys299) are postulated to interact with carboxylate and hydroxyl groups to align substrates for catalysis in combination with a cluster of non-polar residues (Ile489, Phe490, and Leu493) on one side of the active site. The powerful combination of site-directed mutagenesis, where each of the eight residues is replaced by alanine, and steady-state kinetic measurements has been exploited to address these hypotheses. Arg409 plays a significant role in binding both substrates while Arg428 contributes mainly to binding of α-ketoglutarate. Arg32 and in particular Arg106 are critical for recognition of isochorismate. Mutagenesis of Phe490 and Ile489 has the most profound influence on catalytic efficiency, indicating that these two residues are important for binding of isochorismate and for stabilizing the cofactor position. These data allow for a detailed description of the structure–reactivity relationship that governs MenD function and refinement of the model for the catalytic intermediate that supports the Stetter-like conjugate addition.
PMCID: PMC2914249  PMID: 20600129
CoA, coenzyme A; PDB, Protein Data Bank; SAD, single-wavelength anomalous diffraction; SEPHCHC, 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate; SeMet, selenomethionine; ThDP, thiamine diphosphate; PEG, polyethylene glycol; crystal structure; enzyme mechanism; menaquinone biosynthesis; thiamine diphosphate cofactor

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