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author:("Xie, dawn")
1.  Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 genes and risk of colorectal adenoma 
Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX1 and COX2, are key in converting arachidonic acid (AA) into prostaglandins that have been associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to investigate associations of polymorphisms in COX genes, alone and in interaction with exposures known to be related to inflammation and AA metabolism, with risk of colorectal adenomas.
Materials and methods
In a community-, colonoscopy-based case–control study with 162 incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma cases and 211 controls, we investigated associations of two promoter polymorphisms (−842 A >G in COX1 and −765 G>C in COX2) and two polymorphisms in the 3′-UTR of COX2 (8473 T>C and 9850 A>G) with risk of adenomas. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of colorectal adenoma after adjusting for potential confounders.
Overall, there was no evidence for an association between any of the four polymorphisms and colorectal adenomas. However, we found a statistically significant interaction between the COX2 8473 T>C polymorphism and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) use (Pinteraction =0.03): The greatest reduced risk was observed for individuals with the 8473 C variant allele who also regularly used NSAIDs (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.16–0.75).
These results suggest that the C allele of COX2 8473 T>C polymorphism may interact with NSAIDs to reduce risk for colorectal adenoma.
PMCID: PMC3461962  PMID: 19205707
COX1; COX2; Polymorphisms; Inflammation; Colorectal adenoma
2.  Circadian Disruption, Per3, and Human Cytokine Secretion 
Integrative cancer therapies  2009;8(4):329-336.
Circadian disruption has been linked with inflammation, an established cancer risk factor. Per3 clock gene polymorphisms have also been associated with circadian disruption and with increased cancer risk. Patients completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample prior to undergoing a colonoscopy (n = 70). Adjusted mean serum cytokine concentrations (IL-6, TNF-alpha, gamma-INF, IL-I ra, IL-I-beta, VEGF) were compared among patients with high and low scores for fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II), or sleep disruption (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), or among patients with different Per3 clock gene variants. Poor sleep was associated with elevated VEGF, and fatigue-related reduced activity was associated with elevated TNF-alpha concentrations. Participants with the 4/5 or 5/5 Per3 variable tandem repeat sequence had elevated IL-6 concentrations compared to those with the 4/4 genotype. Biological processes linking circadian disruption with cancer remain to be elucidated. Increased inflammatory cytokine secretion may playa role.
PMCID: PMC2959170  PMID: 19926609
circadian rhythm; clock gene; cytokine; inflammation

Results 1-2 (2)