Since the first proposal that fullerenes are capable of hosting atoms, ions, or clusters by the late Smalley in 1985, tremendous examples of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) have been reported. Breaking the dogma that monometallofullerenes (mono-EMFs) always exist in the form of M@C2n while clusterfullerenes always require multiple (two to four) metal cations to stabilize a cluster that is unstable as a single moiety, here we show an unprecedented monometallic endohedral clusterfullerene entrapping an yttrium cyanide cluster inside a popular C82 cage—YCN@Cs(6)-C82. X-ray crystallography and 13C NMR characterization unambiguously determine the cage symmetry and the endohedal cyanide structure, unexpectedly revealing that the entrapped YCN cluster is triangular. The unprecedented monometallic clusterfullerene structure unveiled by YCN@Cs(6)-C82 opens up a new avenue for stabilizing a cluster by a single metal cation within a carbon cage, and will surely stimulate further studies on the stability and formation mechanism of EMFs.
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1 is capable of utilizing 3-hydroxybenzoate via gentisate, and the 6.3-kb gene cluster mhbRTDHIM conferred the ability to grow on 3-hydroxybenzoate to Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida PaW340. Four of the six genes (mhbDHIM) encode enzymes converting 3-hydroxybenzoate to pyruvate and fumarate via gentisate. MhbR is a gene activator, and MhbT is a hypothetical protein belonging to the transporter of the aromatic acid/H+ symporter family. Since a transporter for 3-hydrxybenzoate uptake has not been characterized to date, we investigated whether MhbT is responsible for the uptake of 3-hydroxybenzoate, its metabolic intermediate gentisate, or both. The MhbT-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was located on the cytoplasmic membrane. P. putida PaW340 containing mhbRΔTDHIM could not grow on 3-hydroxybenzoate; however, supplying mhbT in trans allowed the bacterium to grow on the substrate. K. pneumoniae M5a1 and P. putida PaW340 containing recombinant MhbT transported 14C-labeled 3-hydroxybenzoate but not 14C-labeled gentisate and benzoate into the cells. Site-directed mutagenesis of two conserved amino acid residues (Asp-82 and Asp-314) and a less-conserved residue (Val-311) among the members of the symporter family in the hydrophilic cytoplasmic loops resulted in the loss of 3-hydroxybenzoate uptake by P. putida PaW340 carrying the mutant proteins. Hence, we demonstrated that MhbT is a specific 3-hydroxybenzoate transporter.
Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a major regulator of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion in gonadotrope cell in the anterior pituitary gland. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that control gene expression by imperfect binding to the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mRNA at the post-transcriptional level. It has been proven that miRNAs play an important role in hormone response and/or regulation. However, little is known about miRNAs in the regulation of FSH secretion. In this study, primary anterior pituitary cells were treated with 100 nM GnRH. The supernatant of pituitary cell was collected for FSH determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 3 hours and 6 hours post GnRH treatment respectively. Results revealed that GnRH significantly promoted FSH secretion at 3 h and 6 h post-treatment by 1.40-fold and 1.80-fold, respectively. FSHβ mRNA at 6 h post GnRH treatment significantly increased by 1.60-fold. At 6 hours, cells were collected for miRNA expression profile analysis using MiRCURY LNA Array and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Consequently, 21 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated miRNAs were identified, and qPCR verification of 10 randomly selected miRNAs showed a strong correlation with microarray results. Chromosome location analysis indicated that 8 miRNAs were mapped to chromosome 12 and 4 miRNAs to chromosome X. Target and pathway analysis showed that some miRNAs may be associated with GnRH regulation pathways. In addition, In-depth analysis indicated that 10 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated miRNAs probably target FSHβ mRNA 3′-UTR directly, including miR-361-3p, a highly conserved X-linked miRNA. Most importantly, functional experimental results showed that miR-361-3p was involved in FSH secretion regulation, and up-regulated miR-361-3p expression inhibited FSH secretion, while down-regulated miR-361-3p expression promoted FSH secretion in pig pituitary cell model. These differentially expressed miRNAs resolved in this study provide the first guide for post-transcriptional regulation of pituitary gonadotrope FSH secretion in pig, as well as in other mammals.
Serotonin (5-HT) is a central inhibitor of food intake in mammals. Thus far, the intracellular mechanisms for the effect of serotonin on appetite regulation remain unclear. It has been recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus are a crucial integrative target for the regulation of food intake. To investigate the role of ROS in the serotonin-induced anorexigenic effects, conscious mice were treated with 5-HT alone or combination with Trolox (a ROS scavenger) or Apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) by acute intracerebroventricular injection. Both Trolox and Apocynin reversed the anorexigenic action of 5-HT and the 5-HT-induced hypothalamic ROS elevation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were dramatically increased after ICV injection with 5-HT. The anorexigenic action of 5-HT was accompanied by markedly elevated hypothalamic MDA levels and GSH-Px activity, while the SOD activity was decreased. Moreover, 5-HT significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP-2 but reduced the levels of UCP-3. Both Trolox and Apocynin could block the 5-HT-induced changes in UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the anorexigenic effect of 5-HT is mediated by the generation of ROS in the hypothalamus through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway.
Learning to be skillful is an endowed talent of humans, but neural mechanisms underlying behavioral improvement remain largely unknown. Some studies have reported that the mean magnitude of neural activation is increased after learning, whereas others have instead shown decreased activation. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate learning-induced changes in the neural activation in the human brain with a classic motor training task. Specifically, instead of comparing the mean magnitudes of activation before and after training, we analyzed the learning-induced changes in multi-voxel spatial patterns of neural activation. We observed that the stability of the activation patterns, or the similarity of the activation patterns between the even and odd runs of the fMRI scans, was significantly increased in the primary motor cortex (M1) after training. By contrast, the mean magnitude of neural activation remained unchanged. Therefore, our study suggests that learning shapes the brain by increasing the stability of the activation patterns, therefore providing a new perspective in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying learning.
The identification of hepatitis E virus (HEV) from rabbits motivated us to assess the possibility of using rabbits as a non-human primate animal model for HEV infection and vaccine evaluation.
First, 75 rabbits were inoculated with seven strains of genotypes 1, 3, 4, and rabbit HEV, to determine the appropriate strain, administrative route and viral dosage. Second, 15 rabbits were randomly divided into three groups and vaccinated with 0 µg (placebo), 10 µg and 20 µg of HEV candidate vaccine, HEV p179, respectively. After three doses of the vaccination, the rabbits were challenged with 3.3×105 genome equivalents of genotype 4 HEV strain H4-NJ703. The strain of genotype 1 HEV was not found to be infectious for rabbits. However, approximately 80% of the animals were infected by two rabbit HEV strains. All rabbits inoculated with a genotype 3 strain were seroconverted but did not show viremia or fecal viral shedding. Although two genotype 4 strains, H4-NJ153 and H4-NJ112, only resulted in part of rabbits infected, another strain of genotype 4, H4-NJ703, had an infection rate of 100% (five out of five) when administrated intravenously. However, only two out of fifteen rabbits showed virus excretion and seroconversion when inoculated orally with H4-NJ703 of three different dosages. In the vaccine evaluation study, rabbits vaccinated with 20 µg of the HEV p179 produced anti-HEV with titers of 1∶104–1∶105 and were completely protected from infection. Rabbits vaccinated with 10 µg produced anti-HEV with titers of 1∶103–1∶104 and were protected from hepatitis, but two out of the five rabbits showed virus shedding.
Rabbits may be served as an alternative to the non-human primate models for HEV infection and vaccine evaluation when certain virus strains, appropriate viral dosages, and the intravenous route of inoculation are selected.
Our previous study has demonstrated that cyclosporine A (CsA) administration in vivo induces Th2 bias at the maternal-fetal interface, leading to improved murine pregnancy outcomes. Here, we investigated how CsA treatment in vitro induced Th2 bias at the human maternal-fetal interface in early pregnancy. The cell co-culture in vitro in different combination of component cells at the maternal-fetal interface was established to investigate the regulation of CsA on cytokine production from the interaction of these cells. It was found that interferon (IFN)-γ was produced only by decidual immune cells (DICs), and not by trophoblasts or decidual stromal cells (DSCs); all these cells secreted interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Treatment with CsA completely blocked IFN-γ production in DICs and inhibited TNF-α production in all examined cells. CsA increased IL-10 and IL-4 production in trophoblasts co-cultured with DSCs and DICs although CsA treatment did not affect IL-10 or IL-4 production in any of the cells when cultured alone. These results suggest that CsA promotes Th2 bias at the maternal-fetal interface by increasing Th2-type cytokine production in trophoblasts with the aid of DSCs and DICs, while inhibiting Th1-type cytokine production in DICs and TNF-α production in all investigated cells. Our study might be useful in clinical therapeutics for spontaneous pregnancy wastage and other pregnancy complications.
Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals from air to olfactory receptors in the lymph of antennal chemosensilla. They may represent a new class of soluble carrier protein involved in insect chemoreception. However, their specific functional roles in insect chemoreception have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we report for the first time three novel CSP genes (AlinCSP1-3) of the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) by screening the antennal cDNA library. The qRT-PCR examinations of the transcript levels revealed that all three genes (AlinCSP1-3) are mainly expressed in the antennae. Interestingly, these CSP genes AlinCSP1-3 are also highly expressed in the 5th instar nymphs, suggesting a proposed function of these CSP proteins (AlinCSP1-3) in the olfactory reception and in maintaining particular life activities into the adult stage. Using bacterial expression system, the three CSP proteins were expressed and purified. For the first time we characterized the types of sensilla in the antennae of the plant bug using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Immunocytochemistry analysis indicated that the CSP proteins were expressed in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea and general odorant-sensitive sensilla basiconica, providing further evidence of their involvement in chemoreception. The antennal activity of 55 host-related semiochemicals and sex pheromone compounds in the host location and mate selection behavior of A. lineolatus was investigated using electroantennogram (EAG), and the binding affinities of these chemicals to the three CSPs (AlinCSP1-3) were measured using fluorescent binding assays. The results showed several host-related semiochemicals, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-al and valeraldehyde, have a high binding affinity with AlinCSP1-3 and can elicit significant high EAG responses of A. lineolatus antennae. Our studies indicate the three antennae-biased CSPs may mediate host recognition in the alfalfa plant bug A. lineolatus.
Oncogenes, which are essential for tumor initiation, development, and maintenance, are valuable targets for cancer therapy. However, it remains a challenge to effectively inhibit oncogene activity by targeting their downstream pathways without causing significant toxicity to normal tissues. Here we show that deletion of mir-181a-1/b-1 expression inhibits the development of Notch1 oncogene-induced T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). mir-181a-1/b-1 controls the strength and threshold of Notch activity in tumorigenesis in part by dampening multiple negative feedback regulators downstream of NOTCH and pre-T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. Importantly, although Notch oncogenes utilize normal thymic progenitor cell genetic programs for tumor transformation, comparative analyses of mir-181a-1/b-1 function in normal thymocyte and tumor development demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1 can be specifically targeted to inhibit tumor development with little toxicity to normal development. Finally, we demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1, but not mir-181a-2b-2 and mir-181-c/d, controls the development of normal thymic T cells and leukemia cells. Together, these results illustrate that NOTCH oncogene activity in tumor development can be selectively inhibited by targeting the molecular networks controlled by mir-181a-1/b-1.
Oncogenes elicit driving signals required for tumor initiation, development, and maintenance and are valuable targets for cancer therapy. However, oncogenes often have essential functions in normal cellular physiology and produce intracellular proteins that are difficult to inhibit with small molecule drugs without causing significant toxicity to normal tissues. Thus, one of the challenges in cancer therapy is to identify downstream networks that can be targeted to specifically dampen the oncogenic signals in tumor cells without harming normal tissues. In this study we demonstrate that deletion of a microRNA (miRNA) gene, mir-181a-1/b-1, specifically inhibits the activity of the Notch oncogene in tumorigenesis without causing significant defects in normal development. Although earlier studies have elegantly shown the essential role of NOTCH and pre-TCR signals in NOTCH-induced tumorigenesis, neither NOTCH nor pre-TCR signals can be targeted effectively for treatment of T-ALL with available drugs due to their weak therapeutic effects and severe toxicities. Our findings illustrate that dissecting the downstream targets of miRNAs can reveal the molecular networks that can be targeted to control tumor transformation caused by oncogenes. More importantly, our results illustrate that comparative studies on the pathways utilized by normal cells and tumor cells may reveal novel insights into how tumorigenic pathways may be selectively inhibited with limited damage to normal tissues.
Gentisate (2,5-dihydroxybenzoate) is a key ring-cleavage substrate involved in various aromatic compounds degradation. Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 is capable of growing on gentisate and genK was proposed to encode a transporter involved in this utilization by its disruption in the restriction-deficient mutant RES167. Its biochemical characterization by uptake assay using [14C]-labeled gentisate has not been previously reported.
In this study, biochemical characterization of GenK by uptake assays with [14C]-labeled substrates demonstrated that it specifically transported gentisate into the cells with Vmax and Km of 3.06±0.16 nmol/min/mg of dry weight and 10.71±0.11 µM respectively, and no activity was detected for either benzoate or 3-hydoxybenzoate. When GenK was absent in strain RES167 ΔgenK, it retained 85% of its original transport activity at pH 6.5 compared to that of strain RES167. However, it lost 79% and 88% activity at pH 7.5 and 8.0, respectively. A number of competing substrates, including 3-hydroxybenzoate, benzoate, protocatechuate and catechol, significantly inhibited gentisate uptake by more than 40%. Through site-directed mutagenesis, eight amino acid residues of GenK, Asp-54, Asp-57 and Arg-386 in the hydrophobic transmembrane regions and Arg-103, Trp-309, Asp-312, Arg-313 and Ile-317 in the hydrophilic cytoplasmic loops were shown to be important for gentisate transport. When conserved residues Asp-54 and Asp-57 respectively were changed to glutamate, both mutants retained approximately 50% activity and were able to partially complement the ability of strain RES167 ΔgenK to grow on gentisate.
Our results demonstrate that GenK is an active gentisate transporter in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032. The GenK-mediated gentisate transport was also shown to be a limiting step for the gentisate utilization by this strain. This enhances our understanding of gentisate transport in the microbial degradation of aromatic compounds.
Here, for the first time, we evaluate the hypothesis that the proliferative abilities of satellite cells (SCs) isolated from Lantang (indigenous Chinese pigs) and Landrace pigs, which differ in muscle characteristics, are different. SCs were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal Lantang and Landrace pigs. Proliferative ability was estimated by the count and proliferative activity of viable cells using a hemocytometer and MTT assay at different time points after seeding, respectively. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that there was a greater (P<0.05) number of SCs in Lantang pigs compared with Landrace pigs after 72 h of culture. The percentage of cell population in S phase and G2/M phases in Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05), while in G0/G1 phase was lower (P<0.05) in comparison with the Landrace pigs. The mRNA abundances of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and Pax7 in SCs from Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05), while those of myostatin, Smad3 and genes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (with the exception of 4EBP1) were lower (P<0.05) than the Landrace pigs. Protein levels of MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, S6K, phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated eIF4E were consistent with the corresponding mRNA abundance. Collectively, these findings suggested that SCs in the two breeds present different proliferative abilities, and the proliferative potential of SCs in Lantang pigs is higher than in Landrace pigs.
In Positron Emission Tomography (PET), an optimal estimate of the radioactivity concentration is obtained from the measured emission data under certain criteria. So far, all the well-known statistical reconstruction algorithms require exactly known system probability matrix a priori, and the quality of such system model largely determines the quality of the reconstructed images. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for PET image reconstruction for the real world case where the PET system model is subject to uncertainties. The method counts PET reconstruction as a regularization problem and the image estimation is achieved by means of an uncertainty weighted least squares framework. The performance of our work is evaluated with the Shepp-Logan simulated and real phantom data, which demonstrates significant improvements in image quality over the least squares reconstruction efforts.
Given the potential interference between treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and surgical procedures, we sought to determine the prevalence of major surgery following mCRC diagnosis in clinical practice.
This cohort study used physician-surveyed data from the LifeLink™ Oncology Analyzer database for mCRC patients in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom [UK]). All patients aged ≥21 years at mCRC diagnosis and with data collected during 2009 were included. Major surgical procedures were examined descriptively by the purpose and location of surgery.
The study sample included 3,249 mCRC patients; 515, 862, 656, 649, and 567 were from France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK, respectively. Following mCRC diagnosis, at least one major surgical procedure for any purpose was seen in 30.5% (UK), 35.2% (Germany), 35.6% (Spain), 36.3% (France), and 38.4% (Italy) of patients, with a mean of 1.3 (UK) to 1.6 (France) procedures. The rate of major surgery for curative purposes was the highest in Italy (13.4%), followed by France (12.8%), Spain (10.3%), and Germany (9.2%); the lowest was in the UK (7.2%). Major surgery performed on the primary tumor (12.4–27.1% of patients, depending on the country) and metastasis (6.4–14.6%) made up the majority of all surgical procedures.
Major surgery is highly prevalent following mCRC diagnosis, suggesting an important role in meeting the goals of mCRC treatment. The role of pharmacological treatment options and their potential to interfere with both surgery use and surgical outcomes should be considered when evaluating mCRC treatment strategies.
Colorectal cancer; Surgery; Metastasis; Monoclonal antibodies
Background and Methods
To understand the burden and epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease among children between 1 and 59 months of age in China, we conducted a review of literature published between 1980 and 2008 applying standardized algorithms. Because of the absence of population-based surveillance for pneumococcal disease (PD), we identified all-cause pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis burden, syndromes most commonly associated with S. pneumoniae, and applied the proportion of disease attributable to S. pneumoniae from studies that determined the etiology of these three syndromes to calculate PD burden. Because of the microbiologic difficulties in identifying S. pneumoniae–attributable pneumonia which likely underestimates the pneumonia burden, we also used the proportion obtained from vaccine efficacy trials.
Between 1980 and 2008, there were 12,815 cases/100,000/year of all-cause pneumonia among children between 1 month and 59 months, with 526 deaths/100,000 annually. There were 14 meningitis cases/100,000/year. We estimate that as of 2000, there were 260,768 (113,000 to 582,382) and 902 (114–4,463) cases of pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis, respectively with 10,703 (4,638–23,904) and 75 (9–370) pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis deaths, respectively. Pneumococcal pneumonia cases and deaths were more than two-fold higher, 695,382 (173,845–1,216,918) and 28,542 (7,136–49,949), respectively, when parameters from efficacy trials were used. Serotypes 19F, 19A and 14 were the most common serotypes obtained from pneumonia/meningitis patients. Currently available vaccines are expected to cover 79.5% to 88.4% of the prevalent serotypes. With high antibiotic resistance, introducing pneumococcal vaccines to the routine immunization program should be considered in China. Population-based studies are warranted.
To help understand the potential impact of bacterial coinfection during pandemic influenza periods, we undertook a far-reaching review of the existing literature to gain insights into the interaction of influenza and bacterial pathogens. Reports published between 1950 and 2006 were identified from scientific citation databases using standardized search terms. Study outcomes related to coinfection were subjected to a pooled analysis. Coinfection with influenza and bacterial pathogens occurred more frequently in pandemic compared with seasonal influenza periods. The most common bacterial coinfections with influenza virus were due to S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Of these, S. pneumoniae was the most common cause of bacterial coinfection with influenza and accounted for 40.8% and 16.6% of bacterial coinfections during pandemic and seasonal periods, respectively. These results suggest that bacterial pathogens will play a key role in many countries, as the H1N1(A) influenza pandemic moves forward. Given the role of bacterial coinfections during influenza epidemics and pandemics, the conduct of well-designed field evaluations of public health measures to reduce the burden of these common bacterial pathogens and influenza in at-risk populations is warranted.
Accurately corresponding a population of human cortical surfaces provides important shape information for the diagnosis of many brain diseases. This problem is very challenging due to the highly convoluted nature of cortical surfaces. Pairwise methods using a fixed template may not handle well the case when a target cortical surface is substantially different from the template. In this paper, we develop a new method to organize the population of cortical surfaces into pairs with high shape similarity and only correspond such similar pairs to achieve a higher accuracy. In particular, we use the geometric information to identify co-located gyri and sulci for defining a new measure of shape similarity. We conduct experiments on 40 instances of the cortical surface, resulting in an improved performance over several existing shape-correspondence methods.
Intramolecular cyclization of N-alkoxyl amines are studied for the stereoselective preparation of 2, 4-disubstituted pyrrolidine derivatives. Reduction of oximes under acidic conditions by NaBH3CN afforded the corresponding nucleophilic hydroxylamine derivatives, which subsequently cyclized via SN2′ mechanism to give the desired N-alkoxyl pyrrolidines.
SN′ reaction; pyrrolidines; oxime; hydroxylamine
Circadian clocks gate cellular proliferation and, thereby, therapeutically target availability within proliferative pathways. This temporal coordination occurs within both cancerous and noncancerous proliferating tissues. The timing within the circadian cycle of the administration of drugs targeting proliferative pathways necessarily impacts the amount of damage done to proliferating tissues and cancers. Concurrently measuring target levels and associated key pathway components in normal and malignant tissues around the circadian clock provides a path toward a fuller understanding of the temporal relationships among the physiologic processes governing the therapeutic index of antiproliferative anticancer therapies. The temporal ordering among these relationships, paramount to determining causation, is less well understood using two- or three-dimensional representations. We have created multidimensional multimedia depictions of the temporal unfolding of putatively causative and the resultant therapeutic effects of a drug that specifically targets these ordered processes at specific times of the day. The systems and methods used to create these depictions are provided, as well as three example supplementary movies.
Background: A major shortcoming in tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) is the lack of healthy and easily attainable smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs), especially from peripheral blood, may offer an alternative cell source for tissue engineering involving a less invasive harvesting technique. Methods: SPCs were isolated from 5-ml fresh rat peripheral blood by density-gradient centrifugation and cultured for 3 weeks in endothelial growth medium-2-MV (EGM-2-MV) medium containing platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF BB). Before seeded on the synthesized scaffold, SPC-derived smooth muscle outgrowth cell (SOC) phenotypes were assessed by immuno-fluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cells were seeded onto the silk fibroin-modified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (SF-PHBHHx) scaffolds by 6×104 cells/cm2 and cultured under the static condition for 3 weeks. The growth and proliferation of the seeded cells on the scaffold were analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Results: SOCs displayed specific “hill and valley” morphology, expressed the specific markers of the SMC lineage: smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, calponin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM MHC) at protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels. RT-PCR results demonstrate that SOCs also expressed smooth muscle protein 22α (SM22α), a contractile protein, and extracellular matrix components elastin and matrix Gla protein (MGP), as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After seeded on the SF-PHBHHx scaffold, the cells showed excellent metabolic activity and proliferation. Conclusion: SPCs isolated from peripheral blood can be differentiated into the SMCs in vitro and have an impressive growth potential in the biodegradable synthesized scaffold. Thus, SPCs may be a promising cell source for constructing TEBVs.
Smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs); Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs); Silk fibroin (SF); Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx)
Tripeptide tyroserleutide (YSL) is a novel small molecule anti-tumor polypeptide that has been shown to inhibit the growth of human liver cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of YSL plus doxorubicin on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells that had been transplanted into nude mice.
Nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 tumors were treated with successive intraperitoneal injections of saline; low-, mid-, or high-dose doxorubicin; or low-, mid-, or high-dose doxorubicin plus YSL. Effects on the weight and volume of the tumors were evaluated.
Co-administration of YSL and high-dose doxorubicin (6 mg/kg every other day) prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice as compared to high-dose doxorubicin alone. As well, the anti-tumor effects of mid- and low-dose doxorubicin (2 and 0.7 mg/kg every other day, respectively) were enhanced when supplemented with YSL; the tumor growth inhibition rates for YSL plus doxorubicin were greater than the inhibition rates for the same dosages of doxorubicin alone. The combination of YSL and doxorubicin decreased chemotherapy-associated weight loss, leukocyte depression, and heart, liver, and kidney damage as compared to doxorubicin alone.
The combination of YSL plus doxorubicin enhances the anti-tumor effect and reduces the side effects associated with doxorubicin chemotherapy.
In the title compound, C15H18ClNO2, the internal torsion angles of the tropane ring are comparable to those of tropane rings in the crystal structures reported for cocaine and its derivatives. There is an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the N atom in the tropane ring and the O atom of the carboxyl group. The crystal structure is further stabilized by many weak C—H⋯O interactions between the molecules in the ab plane, forming a two-dimensional supramolecular network.
AIM: To block the adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix, and prevent tumor metastasis and recurrence, the dimer of the β peptide (DLYYLMDLSYSMKGGDLYYLMDLSYSMK, β2) was designed and synthesized and its anti-adhesion and anti-invasion effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells were assessed. Additionally, its influence on the metastasis and recurrence of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma was measured.
METHODS: The anti-adhesion effect of β2 on the highly metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HCCLM6 cells and fibronectin (FN) was assayed by the MTT assay. The inhibition of invasion of HCCLM6 cells by β2 was observed using a Transwell (modified Boyden chamber) and matrigel. Using the hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis model and LCI-D20 nude mice, the influence of β2 on the metastasis and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after early resection was investigated.
RESULTS: HCCLM6 cells co-incubated with 100 μmol/L, 50 μmol/L, 20 μmol/L or 10 μmol/L β2 for 3 h showed an obvious decrease in adhesion to FN. The adhesion inhibition ratios were 11.8%, 21.7%, 29.6% and 48.7%, respectively. Additionally, HCCLM6 cells cultured with 100 μmol/L β2 had a dramatic decrease in cell invasion. β2 was also observed to inhibit the incisal edge recurrence and the distant metastasis of nude mice hepatocellular carcinoma after early resection (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The β2 peptide can specifically block the adhesion and invasion of HCCLM6 cells, and can inhibit HCC recurrence and metastasis of LCI-D20 model posthepatectomy in vivo. Thus, β2 should be further studied as a new anti-tumor drug.
β peptide; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Anti-adhesion; Invasion; Metastasis; Recurrence
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients can be identified prospectively by troponin-I (TnI) result monitoring and retrospectively by ICD-9 diagnosis coding. Prospective identification is needed for interventions, while retrospective identification is required for regulatory reporting. Prospective approaches can identify patients with a reasonable degree of accuracy, but they cannot always predict ICD-9 coding for that condition. Our approach focuses on prospective identification of patients with CHD to improve their care. Meeting regulatory standards is a secondary goal.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex heterodimeric transcription factor, comprising the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) domain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) proteins, mediates the toxic effects of TCDD (2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). The molecular events underlying TCDD-inducible gene activation, beyond the activation of the AHRC, are poorly understood. The SRC-1/NCoA-1, NCoA-2/GRIP-1/TIF-2, and p/CIP/AIB/ACTR proteins have been shown to act as mediators of transcriptional activation. In this report, we demonstrate that SRC-1, NCoA-2, and p/CIP are capable of independently enhancing TCDD-dependent induction of a luciferase reporter gene by the AHR/ARNT dimer. Furthermore, injection of anti-SRC-1 or anti-p/CIP immunoglobulin G into mammalian cells abolishes the transcriptional activity of a TCDD-dependent reporter gene. We demonstrate by coimmunoprecipitation and by a reporter gene assay that SRC-1 and NCoA-2 but not p/CIP are capable of interacting with ARNT in vivo after transient transfection into mammalian cells, while AHR is capable of interacting with all three coactivators. We confirm the interactions of ARNT and AHR with SRC-1 with immunocytochemical techniques. Furthermore, SRC-1, NCoA-2, and p/CIP all associate with the CYP1A1 enhancer region in a TCDD-dependent fashion, as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We demonstrate by yeast two-hybrid, glutathione S-transferase pulldown, and mammalian reporter gene assays that ARNT requires its helix 2 domain but not its transactivation domain to interact with SRC-1. This indicates a novel mechanism of action for SRC-1. SRC-1 does not require its bHLH-PAS domain to interact with ARNT or AHR, but utilizes distinct domains proximal to its p300/CBP interaction domain. Taken together, these data support a role for the SRC family of transcriptional coactivators in TCDD-dependent gene regulation.
Human myofibrillogenesis regulator 1, a novel 17-kDa protein, is closely involved in cardiac hypertrophy. We studied the molecular mechanism that links MR-1 to hypertrophic response. Hypertrophic hallmarks such as cell size and [3H]-leucine incorporation were significantly increased when MR-1 was transfected into cardiomyocytes for 48 h. However, sarcomere organization was promoted when MR-1 was transfected for 8 h. The finding that cardiac hypertrophy was induced long after increase of sarcomere organization indicates that the promoted sarcomere organization may be one of the crucial factors causing hypertrophy. Furthermore, when MR-1 was transfected into cardiomyocytes, the nuclear localization of myomesin-1 was shifted to the cytoplasm. Transfection with small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) mimicked the effect of MR-1 inducing translocation of myomesin-1. However, transfection with SUMO-1 in MR-1-silenced cardiomyocytes failed to induce translocation and sarcomere organization, even though SUMO-1 expression was at the same level. Overexpression of MR-1 may induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via myomesin-1-mediated sarcomere organization.
cardiomyocyte; hypertrophy; myofibrillogenesis regulator; sarcomere organization