Although much has been done to examine those factors associated with higher mortality among African American women, there is a paucity of literature which examines disparities among rural African Americans in South Carolina. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association of race and mortality among BrCA patients in a large cohort residing in South Carolina for which treatment regimens are standardized for all patients.
Subjects included 1209 women diagnosed with BrCA between 2000–2002 at a large, local hospital containing a comprehensive breast center. Kaplan Meier survival curves were calculated to determine survival rates among AA and EA women, stratified by disease stage or other prognostic characteristics. Adjusting for various characteristics, Cox multivariable survival models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR)
The 5-year overall all-cause mortality survival proportion was ~78% for AA women and ~89% for EA women, p<0.01. In analyses of sub-populations of women with identical disease characteristics, AA women had significantly higher mortality than EA women for the same type of breast cancer disease. In multivariable models, AA women had significantly higher mortality than EA women for both BrCA specific death (HR = 2.41; 1.21–4.79) and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.42; 1.06–1.89).
AA women residing in rural South Carolina had lower survival for breast cancer even after adjustment for disease-related prognostic characteristics.
These findings support health interventions among AA BrCA patients aimed at tertiary prevention strategies or further down-staging of disease at diagnosis.
Breast Neoplasms; Mortality; African Americans; Health Status Disparities; Tertiary Prevention
When performed competently, colonoscopy screening can reduce colorectal cancer rates, especially in high-risk groups such as African Americans (AAs). Training primary care physicians (PCPs) to perform colonoscopy may improve screening rates among underserved high-risk populations.
We compared colonoscopy screening rates and computed adjusted odds ratios for colonoscopy-eligible patients of trained AA PCPs (study group) vs. untrained PCPs (comparison group), before and since initiating colonoscopy training. All colonoscopies were performed at a licensed ambulatory surgery center with specialist standby support. Retrospective chart review was conducted on 200 consecutive, established outpatients aged ≥50 years at each of 12 PCP offices (7 trained AA PCPs and 5 untrained PCPs, practicing in the same geographic region), total 1,244 study group and 923 comparison group patients.
Post-training colonoscopy rates in both groups were higher than pre-training rates: 48.3% vs. 9.3% in the study group, 29.6% vs. 9.8% in the comparison group (both p<0.001). AA patients in the study group showed over 5-fold increase (8.9% pre-training vs. 52.8% post training), with no change among Whites (18.2% vs. 25.0%). Corresponding pre- and post-training rates among comparison patients were 10.4% and 38.7% respectively among AAs (p<0.001), and 13.3% vs. 13.2% respectively among Whites. After adjusting for demographics, duration since becoming the PCP’s patient, and health insurance, the study group had a 66% higher likelihood of colonoscopy in the post-training period (OR=1.66; CI, 1.30, 2.13), and AAs had a five-fold increased likelihood of colonoscopy relative to Whites.
Colonoscopy-trained PCPs may help reduce colorectal cancer disparities.
Screening colonoscopy; Colorectal cancer screening; African American screening rate; Colonoscopy-trained primary care physicians
Purpose. To examine the associations among intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans (AA, n = 930) and European Americans (EA, n = 993) in a population-based, case-only study (The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, PCaP). Methods. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was categorized as high, intermediate or low based on Gleason grade, PSA level and clinical stage. Dietary intake was assessed utilizing the NCI Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression (comparing high to intermediate/low aggressive cancers) and polytomous regression with adjustment for potential confounders were used to determine odds of high prostate cancer aggressiveness with intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber from all sources. Results. An inverse association with aggressive prostate cancer was observed in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of total fiber intake (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50–0.97 and OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.93, resp.) as compared to the lowest tertile of intake. In the race-stratified analyses, inverse associations were observed in the 3rd tertile of total fiber intake for EA (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.87) and the 2nd tertile of intake for AA (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35–0.95). Conclusions. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer among both AA and EA men.
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and a leading cause of cancer mortality among males in the United States. Large geographical variation and racial disparities exist in both the incidence of prostate cancer and in the survival rate after diagnosis. In this population-based study, a joint spatial survival model is constructed to investigate factors that affect the age at diagnosis of prostate cancer and the subsequent survival. The joint model for these two time-to-event outcomes is specified through parametric models for age at diagnosis and survival time conditional on diagnosis age. To account for possible correlation in these outcomes among men from the same geographical region, frailty terms are included in the survival model. Both spatially correlated and uncorrelated frailties are incorporated in each model considered. The deviance information criterion (DIC) is used to select a best-fitting model within the Bayesian framework. The results from our final best-fitting model indicate that race, marital status at diagnosis, and cancer stage are significantly associated with both of the two time-to-event outcomes. No pattern emerged in the geographical distribution of age at prostate cancer diagnosis. In contrast, a spatially clustered pattern was observed in the geographic distribution of survival experience post diagnosis.
Prostate cancer; joint spatial survival model; spatial clustering; deviance information criterion (DIC)
Background Reduction in pulmonary function, as estimated by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), has been found to predict all-cause mortality in developed-country populations. This study was designed to examine the association between FEV1 and mortality in an urban developing-country population.
Methods Data from the large, well-characterized Mumbai Cohort Study (Maharashtra, India) were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs; deaths/100-ml FEV1) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from Cox proportional hazards regression models in which age, tobacco use, education, height and relative body weight were controlled.
Results A total of 13 261 deaths occurred in this cohort of 148 173 individuals. After controlling for important covariates, there was a 1.7% reduction in risk of overall death in women for each 100-ml increment in FEV1 (HR = 0.983; 95% CI = 0.980–0.986) and a 1.5% reduction in men (HR = 0.985; 95% CI = 0.984–0.986). There was a 1.6% reduction in cancer deaths in women (HR = 0.984; 95% CI = 0.973–0.996) and a 0.8% reduction in men (HR = 0.992; 95% CI = 0.987–0.997). The largest reductions in women were observed in tuberculosis deaths (3.7%/100-ml increment in FEV1), and in men in respiratory system deaths (3.2%).
Conclusions In a densely populated urban Indian population, FEV1 predicted overall and cancer mortality. Effects were larger in women and were not attenuated by exclusion of smokers or restricting analyses to subjects dying >2 years from recruitment. Because FEV1 may be affected by air pollution, which is worsening in urban areas of most developing countries, further research is recommended to deepen understanding of these factors in relation to mortality.
Mortality; FEV1; neoplasms; tobacco; cohort study; respiratory function tests; air pollution
Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation.
To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors.
Participants were 13,621 adults (aged 20–84) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Four health behaviors were observed (diet, fitness, smoking, and drinking). Baseline characteristics of the study population and bivariate relations between pairs of the health behaviors were evaluated separately for those with and without chronic disease using cross-tabulation and a chi-square test. The odds of partaking in unhealthy behaviors were also calculated. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assess clustering. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors and mortality.
The four health behaviors were related to each other. LCA results suggested that two classes existed. Participants in class 1 had a higher probability of partaking in each of the four unhealthy behaviors than participants in class 2. No differences in health behavior clustering were found between participants with and without chronic disease. Mortality risk increased relative to the number of unhealthy behaviors participants engaged in.
Unhealthy behaviors cluster together irrespective of chronic disease status. Such findings suggest that multi-behavioral intervention strategies can be similar in those with and without chronic disease.
Health behaviors; Clustering; Chronic disease; All-cause mortality
Expanding the population’s access to colonoscopy screening can reduce colorectal cancer disparities. Innovative strategies are needed to address the prevailing 50% colonoscopy screening gap, partly attributable to inadequate specialist workforce. This study examined the quality of colonoscopies by primary care physicians (PCPs) with standby specialist support at a licensed ambulatory surgery center.
Retrospective data on 10,958 consecutive colonoscopies performed by 51 PCPs on 9815 patients from October 2002 to November 2007 were used to calculate the rates of cecal intubation, detection of polyps, adenomas, advanced neoplasia and cancer, adverse events, and time taken for endoscope insertion and withdrawal. The center’s protocol requires a 2-person technique (using a trained technician), polyp search and removal during both scope insertion and withdrawal, and onsite expert always available for rescue assistance (either navigational or therapeutic).
Mean patient age was 58.3 (±10.9) years, 48.0% were male, and 48.1% African-American. The cecal intubation rate was 98.1%, polyp detection rate 63.1%, hyperplastic polyp 27.5%, adenoma 29.9%, advanced neoplasia 5.7%, cancer 0.63%, major adverse events 0.06% (including 2 perforations; no death). Mean insertion and withdrawal times were 14.4 (±9.3) and 10.9 (±6.8) minutes, respectively; 13.2 (±8.6) and 8.0 (±4.5) minutes without polyps found, and 15.1 (±9.6) and 12.5 (±7.3) minutes when ≥1 polyp was found.
In the largest published study of PCP-performed colonoscopies with standby specialist support, we observed performance quality indicators and lesion detection rates that are comparable to documented rates for experienced gastroenterologists. Systems that use PCPs with specialist backup support enable high-quality colonoscopy performance by PCPs.
screening colonoscopy; primary care physicians; colorectal neoplasms; colonic polyps; adenomatous polyps; patient safety; performance quality; procedure time
The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (SC-CPCRN) implemented the Community Health Intervention Program (CHIP) mini-grants initiative to address cancer-related health disparities and reduce the cancer burden among high-risk populations across the state. The mini-grants project implemented evidence-based health interventions tailored to the specific needs of each community.
To support the SC-CPCRN’s goals of moving toward greater dissemination and implementation of evidence-based programs in the community to improve public health, prevent disease, and reduce the cancer burden.
Three community-based organizations were awarded $10,000 each to implement one of the National Cancer Institute’s evidence-based interventions. Each group had 12 months to complete their project. SC-CPCRN investigators and staff provided guidance, oversight, and technical assistance for each project. Grantees provided regular updates and reports to their SC-CPCRN liaisons to capture vital evaluation information.
The intended CHIP mini-grant target population reach was projected to be up to 880 participants combined. Actual combined reach of the three projects reported upon completion totaled 1,072 individuals. The majority of CHIP participants were African-American females. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 81 years. Evaluation results showed an increase in physical activity, dietary improvements, and screening participation.
The success of the initiative was the result of a strong community-university partnership built on trust. Active two-way communication and an honest open dialogue created an atmosphere for collaboration. Communities were highly motivated. All team members shared a common goal of reducing cancer-related health disparities and building greater public health capacity across the state.
Background While dietary patterns that are both predictive of chronic disease and mortality have been identified, the confounding effects of cardiorespiratory fitness have not been properly addressed. The primary objective was to assess the relation between dietary patterns with all-cause mortality, while controlling for the potentially confounding effects of fitness.
Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Participants consisted of 13 621 men and women from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Participants completed a clinical exam and 3-day diet record between 1987 and 1999. Participants were followed for mortality until 2003. Reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to identify dietary patterns that predicted unfavourable total and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, blood pressure, uric acid, white blood cell and body mass index values.
Results One primary dietary pattern emerged and was labelled the Unhealthy Eating Index. This pattern was characterized by elevated consumption of processed and red meat, white potato products, non-whole grains, added fat and reduced consumption of non-citrus fruits. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality in the fifth vs the first quintile of the Unhealthy Eating Index was 1.40 (1.02–1.91). This risk estimate was reduced by 13.5 and 55.0% after controlling for self-reported physical activity and fitness, respectively.
Conclusion In this study the association between diet and overall mortality was, in large part, confounded by fitness.
All-cause mortality; cardiorespiratory fitness; reduced rank regression
Inadequate participant recruitment, which may lead to unrepresentative study samples that threaten a study’s validity, is often a major challenge in the conduct of research studies.
The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of a recruitment plan and evaluate the different recruitment strategies for a prostate cancer behavioral intervention trial.
Our recruitment plan was based on a framework (The Heiney–Adams Recruitment Model) that we developed, which combines relationship building and social marketing. We evaluated the success of our model using several different recruitment sources including: mailed letters, physician referral, and self-referral.
Recruitment rates ranged from 67% for a support services department mailing to 100% for physician referral. While our original list of contacted patients was comprised of only 13% African American (AA) men, 22% of our recruited participants were AA.
One of the strongest barriers to recruitment was strict patient eligibility. Another significant barrier was the lack of electronic records systems to allow for the identification of large numbers of potential participants.
In conclusion, our model incorporating social marketing and relationship building was quite successful in recruiting for a prostate cancer behavioral study, particularly AA participants. In developing strategies, future researchers should attend to issues of staffing, financial resources, physician support, and eligibility criteria in the light of study accrual.
In the United States and particularly South Carolina, African-American women suffer disproportionately higher mortality rates than do European-American women. The timeliness of patient adherence to the follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may influence prognosis and survival. Consequently, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine racial differences in the completion and completion time of a diagnostic work-up following a finding of a suspicious breast abnormality.
Study participants of the Best Chance Network, a state-wide service program that provides free mammography screenings to economically disadvantaged and medically underserved women, were included in the study. Racial differences in tumor characteristics and adherence to recommended work-up were tested using Chi-square and t-tests. Logistic and Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between work-up completion and other factors among African-American and European-American women.
Completion of the work-up was associated with the number of previous procedures and income, with no significant differences noted by race. The amount of time to completion of the work-up was influenced by previous procedures, income, and race. After accounting for completion time, African-American women were 12% less likely than European-American women to complete the recommended work-up (HR=0.88, p-value=0.01).
This study established a racial disparity in the time to completion of a diagnostic work-up among Best Chance Network participants. These findings highlight the importance of understanding factors associated with delays and adherence in completion of recommended work-up when breast abnormalities are detected in mammograms.
Mammography; health status disparities; African Americans; medically uninsured; breast neoplasms
Circadian disruption has been linked with inflammation, an established cancer risk factor. Per3 clock gene polymorphisms have also been associated with circadian disruption and with increased cancer risk. Patients completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample prior to undergoing a colonoscopy (n = 70). Adjusted mean serum cytokine concentrations (IL-6, TNF-alpha, gamma-INF, IL-I ra, IL-I-beta, VEGF) were compared among patients with high and low scores for fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II), or sleep disruption (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), or among patients with different Per3 clock gene variants. Poor sleep was associated with elevated VEGF, and fatigue-related reduced activity was associated with elevated TNF-alpha concentrations. Participants with the 4/5 or 5/5 Per3 variable tandem repeat sequence had elevated IL-6 concentrations compared to those with the 4/4 genotype. Biological processes linking circadian disruption with cancer remain to be elucidated. Increased inflammatory cytokine secretion may playa role.
circadian rhythm; clock gene; cytokine; inflammation
Evidence exists that breast tumors differing by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status may be phenotypically distinct diseases resulting from dissimilar etiologic processes. Few studies have attempted to examine the association of physical activity with breast cancer subtype. Such research may prove instructive into the biological mechanisms of activity. Consequently, this investigation was designed to assess the relationship between physical activity and hormone receptor-defined breast cancers in a population of Asian women in which the distribution of receptor types differed from traditional Western populations. Participants, ages 25 to 64 years, were recruited into this population-based, case-control study of breast cancer conducted in Shanghai, China from August 1996 to March 1998. Histologically confirmed breast cancer cases with available receptor status information (n = 1001) and age frequency-matched controls (n = 1,556) completed in-person interviews. Polytomous logistic regression was used to model the association between measures of activity with each breast cancer subtype (ER+/PR+, ER−/PR−, ER+/PR−, and ER−/PR+) using the control population as the reference group. Exercise in both adolescence and the last 10 years was associated with a decreased risk of both receptor-positive (ER+/PR+) and receptor-negative (ER−/PR−) breast cancers in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women (odds ratios, 0.44 and 0.51 and 0.43 and 0.21, respectively). Sweating during exercise within the last 10 years was also associated with decreased risk for receptor-positive and receptor-negative breast cancers among post-menopausal women (odds ratios, 0.58 and 0.28, respectively). These findings suggest that physical activity may reduce breast cancer risk through both hormonal and nonhormonal pathways.
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women,1 and risk increases substantially with age.2 It is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in South Carolina and in the United States (U.S.). In South Carolina, European-American women are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than are African-American women (see Figure 1);3 however, African-American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than are European-American women (see Figure 2).4 Although breast cancer can occur in men, women are at a much (≈100-fold) higher risk of developing breast cancer.
Brassica vegetable intake has been associated with decreased risk and well-done meat intake has been associated with increased risk of cancers at multiple organ sites in epidemiologic studies. Experimental studies suggest a role of modulation of phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes as one mechanism for these associations. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens formed in meat that has been cooked to well-done and at high temperatures. Phase I metabolizing enzymes catalyze the activation of HAAs, and phase II metabolizing enzymes serve to detoxify the active carcinogens. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of phase II metabolizing enzymes that are induced by, and act to conjugate, isothiocyanates (ITCs), phytochemicals found in Brassica vegetables. This review summarizes the results of feeding studies in humans that examine effects of polymorphisms in GSTs on ITC metabolite excretion, reviews the evidence for modulation of HAA mutagenicity by ITCs, and discusses the need for feeding studies examining potential interactions among polymorphic genes encoding phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes, meat intake, and Brassica intake to elucidate their role in cancer etiology.
Brassica; heterocyclic aromatic amines; glutathione S-transferase; isothiocyanate
Breast cancer affects thousands each year in the United States, and disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, the incidence of breast cancer in South Carolina is lower in African American compared with European American women by ~12% to 15%, but their mortality rate is twice as high as in European American women. The purpose of the study was to assess factors associated with breast cancer mortality between African American and European American women. Participants (n = 314) in South Carolina's Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (SCBCCEDP), which provides breast cancer screening and treatment services, during the years 1996-2004 were included in the study. Data, including tumor characteristics, delay intervals, and race, were examined using the χ2 test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between delay intervals and other factors. No racial differences were found in age at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, or delay intervals. Time delay intervals did not explain differences and mortality rates by race. Survival, however, was affected by prognostic factors as well as by a significant interaction between hormone-receptor status and race. Despite the excellent record of the SCBCCEDP in screening and diagnostic or treatment referrals, the racial disparities in breast cancer mortality continue to exist in South Carolina. These findings highlight the need for future research into the etiology of racial differences, and their impact on breast cancer survival.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine social desirability and social approval as sources of error in three self-reported physical activity assessments using objective measures of physical activity as reference measures. In 1997, women (n = 81) living in Worcester, Massachusetts, completed doubly labeled water measurements and wore an activity monitor for 14 days. They also completed seven interviewer-administered 24-hour physical activity recalls (PARs) and two different self-administered 7-day PARs. Measures of the personality traits “social desirability” and “social approval” were regressed on 1) the difference between physical activity energy expenditure estimated from doubly labeled water and each physical activity assessment instrument and 2) the difference between monitor-derived physical activity duration and each instrument. Social desirability was associated with overreporting of activity, resulting in overestimation of physical activity energy expenditure by 0.65 kcal/kg/day on the second 7-day PAR (95% confidence interval: 0.06, 1.25) and overestimation of activity durations by 4.15–11.30 minutes/day (both 7-day PARs). Social approval was weakly associated with underestimation of physical activity on the 24-hour PAR (−0.15 kcal/kg/day, 95% confidence interval: −0.30, 0.005). Body size was not associated with reporting bias in this study. The authors conclude that social desirability and social approval may influence self-reported physical activity on some survey instruments.
energy metabolism; exercise; monitoring, physiologic; motor activity; social desirability; social environment
Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P < 0.01). Conversely, body mass index was negatively associated with weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors.
body image; body weight; body weight changes; diet; motor activity
Preventing cancer, downstaging disease at diagnosis, and reducing mortality require that relevant research findings be translated across scientific disciplines and into clinical and public health practice. Interdisciplinary research focuses on using the languages of different scientific disciplines to share techniques and philosophical perspectives to enhance discovery and development of innovations; (i.e., from the “left end” of the research continuum). Community-based participatory research (CBPR), whose relevance often is relegated to the “right end” (i.e., delivery and dissemination) of the research continuum, represents an important means for understanding how many cancers are caused as well as for ensuring that basic science research findings affect cancer outcomes in materially important ways. Effective interdisciplinary research and CBPR both require an ability to communicate effectively across groups that often start out neither understanding each other’s worldviews nor even speaking the same language. Both demand an ability and willingness to treat individuals from other communities with respect and understanding. We describe the similarities between CBPR and both translational and interdisciplinary research, and then illustrate our points using squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus as an example of how to deepen understanding and increase relevance by applying techniques of CBPR and interdisciplinary engagement.
Isothiocyanates (ITC) are potentially anticarcinogenic phytochemicals formed from the metabolism of glucosinolates and are found in cruciferous vegetables as well as a select number of other foods. ITC are both substrates for and inducers of glutathione S-transferase (GST) phase II metabolizing enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification as well as effectors of phase I pathways. Previous studies report mixed results on the interaction between cruciferous vegetable intake, GST polymorphisms, and risk of cancer. We conducted a study of 114 healthy human subjects between 18 and 50 y of age to examine the biologic mechanism underlying the associations, specifically, to assess whether GST genotype is associated with urinary ITC metabolites following a known dose of broccoli. After 48 h of abstaining from all sources of glucosinolates, participants provided a blood sample, consumed 1 meal containing 2.5 g broccoli/kg body weight, and collected urine for 24 h. ITC metabolites were measured in the urine using a HPLC cyclocondensation assay. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and GSTM1 deletion, GSTT1 deletion, GSTP1 Ile105Val, and GSTA1*A/*B were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight. A chi-square test was used to compare high and low ITC excretion levels across genotypes. ITC levels were regressed on genotype, adjusting for gender. There were no substantial differences in ITC levels among genotypes, either individually or in combination. Contrary to our hypothesis, a higher proportion of GSTM1 null individuals had high ITC excretion (62%) compared with the proportion of GSTM1 present with high ITC excretion (39%) (P = 0.03). These results are in agreement with another feeding study, and lend support to the idea of alternative routes of ITC metabolism.
The effect of dietary carbohydrate on blood lipids has received considerable attention in light of the current trend in lowering carbohydrate intake for weight loss.
To evaluate the association between carbohydrate intake and serum lipids.
Blood samples and 24-hour dietary and physical activity recall interviews were obtained from each subject at quarterly intervals for five consecutive quarters between 1994 and 1998 from 574 healthy adults in Central Massachusetts. Relationships between serum lipids and dietary carbohydrate factors were assessed using linear mixed models and adjusting for other risk factors known to be related to blood lipids. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal results were reported.
Cross-sectional analysis results from this study suggest that higher total carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI) and/or glycemic load (GL) are related to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher serum triacylglycerol levels, while higher total carbohydrate intake and/or GL are related to lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In a one-year longitudinal analysis, GL was positively associated with total and LDL-C levels, and there was an inverse association between percentage of calories from carbohydrate and HDL-C levels.
Results suggest that there is a complex and predominantly unfavorable effect of increased intake of highly processed carbohydrate on lipid profile, which may have implications for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Further studies in the form of randomized controlled trials are required to investigate these associations and determine the implications for lipid management.
dietary carbohydrates; LDL cholesterol; glycemic index; longitudinal studies
The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day dietary recalls, and physical activity recalls were collected quarterly from each subject throughout a 1-year study period. Data were collected between 1994 and 1998. Longitudinal analyses were conducted, and results were adjusted for other factors related to body habitus. Average body mass index was 27.4 kg/m2 (standard deviation, 5.5), while the average percentage of calories from carbohydrates was 44.9 (standard deviation, 9.6). Mean daily dietary glycemic index was 81.7 (standard deviation, 5.5), and glycemic load was 197.8 (standard deviation, 105.2). Body mass index was found to be positively associated with glycemic index, a measure of the glycemic response associated with ingesting different types of carbohydrates, but not with daily carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrates, or glycemic load. Results suggest that the type of carbohydrate may be related to body weight. However, further research is required to elucidate this association and its implications for weight management.
body mass index; carbohydrates; glycemic index; BMI, body mass index; FFQ, food frequency questionnaire; SD, standard deviation; 7DDR, 7-day dietary recall
We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic
load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall
interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily
GI and GL values from the 24HR.
Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts who
completed 9067 24HRs. The 24HR-derived food data were matched to the
International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values. The GI
values for specific foods not in the table were estimated against similar
foods according to physical and chemical factors that determine GI. Mixed
foods were disaggregated into individual ingredients.
Of 1261 carbohydrate-containing foods in the database, GI values of
602 foods were obtained from a direct match (47.7%), accounting
for 22.36% of dietary carbohydrate. GI values from 656 foods
(52.1%) were estimated, contributing to 77.64% of
dietary carbohydrate. The GI values from three unknown foods
(0.2%) could not be assigned. The average daily GI was 84 (SD
5.1, white bread as referent) and the average GL was 196 (SD 63).
Using this methodology for adding GI and GL values to nutrient
databases, it is possible to assess associations between GI and/or GL and
body weight and chronic disease outcomes (diabetes, cancer, heart disease).
This method can be used in clinical and survey research settings where 24HRs
are a practical means for assessing diet. The implications for using this
methodology compel a broader evaluation of diet with disease outcomes.
Glycemic index; 24-hour dietary recalls; Nutrition
Body mass index [BMI, weight (kg)/height (m2)], a measure of relative weight, is a good overall indicator of nutritional status and predictor of overall health. As in many developing countries, the high prevalence of very low BMIs in India represents an important public health risk. Tobacco, smoked in the form of cigarettes or bidis (handmade by rolling a dried rectangular piece of temburni leaf with 0.15–0.25 g of tobacco) or chewed, is another important determinant of health. Tobacco use also may exert a strong influence on BMI.
The relationship between very low BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2) and tobacco use was examined using data from a representative cross-sectional survey of 99,598 adults (40,071 men and 59,527 women) carried out in the city of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay) in western India. Participants were men and women aged ≥ 35 years who were residents of the main city of Mumbai.
All forms of tobacco use were associated with low BMI. The prevalence of low BMI was highest in bidi-smokers (32% compared to 13% in non-users). For smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were OR = 1.80(1.65 to 1.96) for men and OR = 1.59(1.09 to 2.32) for women, respectively, relative to non-users. For smokeless tobacco and mixed habits (smoking and smokeless tobacco), OR = 1.28(1.19 to 1.38) and OR = 1.83(1.67 to 2.00) for men and OR = 1.50(1.43 to 1.59) and OR = 2.19(1.90 to 3.41) for women, respectively.
Tobacco use appears to be an independent risk factor for low BMI in this population. We conclude that in such populations tobacco control research and interventions will need to be conducted in concert with nutrition research and interventions in order to improve the overall health status of the population.