Xanthium indicum stem is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. The objective of the study was to evaluate antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum stems (XISE) in mice.
Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice.
The methanol extract of stems showed dose-dependent and statistically significant antihyperglycemic activity at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight (p values, respectively, < than 0.01, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.01). Highest reduction in blood glucose level (31.2%) was observed with the highest dose (400 mg) of the extract. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, reduced blood glucose levels by 46.2%, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract when administered at the afore-mentioned four doses, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice, respectively, by 41.7, 50.0, 54.2, and 61.0%. In comparison, a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 37.5%.
The experimental results obtained in the present study validate the use of X. indicum stems in folk medicines of Bangladesh to lower blood sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain.