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1.  Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and melanoma: UK case-control comparisons and a meta-analysis of published VDR data 
We have carried out melanoma case-control comparisons for six vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in order to investigate the role of vitamin D in melanoma susceptibility. There was no significant evidence of an association between any VDR SNP and risk in 1028 population-ascertained cases and 402 controls from Leeds, UK. In a second Leeds case-control study (299 cases and 560 controls) the FokI T allele was associated with increased melanoma risk (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.06-1.91, p=0.02). In a meta-analysis in conjunction with published data from other smaller data sets (total 3769 cases and 3636 controls), the FokI T allele was associated with increased melanoma risk (odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.35), and the BsmI A allele was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.92), in each instance under a parsimonious dominant model. In the first Leeds case-control comparison cases were more likely to have a higher body mass index (BMI) than controls (p=0.007 for linear trend). There was no evidence of a case-control difference in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. In 1043 incident cases from the first Leeds case-control study, a single estimation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level taken at recruitment was inversely correlated with Breslow thickness (p=0.03 for linear trend). These data provide evidence to support the view that vitamin D and VDR may have a small but potentially important role in melanoma susceptibility, and putatively a greater role in disease progression.
doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2009.06.011
PMCID: PMC2786912  PMID: 19615888
vitamin D; Breslow thickness; heredity; body mass index
2.  Features associated with germline CDKN2A mutations: a GenoMEL study of melanoma‐prone families from three continents 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2006;44(2):99-106.
Background
The major factors individually reported to be associated with an increased frequency of CDKN2A mutations are increased number of patients with melanoma in a family, early age at melanoma diagnosis, and family members with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) or pancreatic cancer.
Methods
These four features were examined in 385 families with ⩾3 patients with melanoma pooled by 17 GenoMEL groups, and these attributes were compared across continents.
Results
Overall, 39% of families had CDKN2A mutations ranging from 20% (32/162) in Australia to 45% (29/65) in North America to 57% (89/157) in Europe. All four features in each group, except pancreatic cancer in Australia (p = 0.38), individually showed significant associations with CDKN2A mutations, but the effects varied widely across continents. Multivariate examination also showed different predictors of mutation risk across continents. In Australian families, ⩾2 patients with MPM, median age at melanoma diagnosis ⩽40 years and ⩾6 patients with melanoma in a family jointly predicted the mutation risk. In European families, all four factors concurrently predicted the risk, but with less stringent criteria than in Australia. In North American families, only ⩾1 patient with MPM and age at diagnosis ⩽40 years simultaneously predicted the mutation risk.
Conclusions
The variation in CDKN2A mutations for the four features across continents is consistent with the lower melanoma incidence rates in Europe and higher rates of sporadic melanoma in Australia. The lack of a pancreatic cancer–CDKN2A mutation relationship in Australia probably reflects the divergent spectrum of mutations in families from Australia versus those from North America and Europe. GenoMEL is exploring candidate host, genetic and/or environmental risk factors to better understand the variation observed.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2006.043802
PMCID: PMC2598064  PMID: 16905682
melanoma;  CDKN2A ; multiple primary melanomas; pancreatic cancer
3.  A comparison of CDKN2A mutation detection within the Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL) 
CDKN2A is the major melanoma susceptibility gene so far identified, but only 40% of three or more case families have identified mutations. A comparison of mutation detection rates was carried out by “blind” exchange of samples across GenoMEL, the Melanoma Genetics Consortium, to establish the false negative detection rates. Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) screening results from 451 samples were compared to screening data from nine research groups in which the initial mutation screen had been done predominantly by sequencing. Three samples with mutations identified at local centres were not detected by the DHPLC screen. No additional mutations were detected by DHPLC. Mutation detection across groups within GenoMEL is carried out to a consistently high standard. The relatively low rate of CDKN2A mutation detection is not due to failure to detect mutations and implies the existence of other high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes.
doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2008.03.005
PMCID: PMC2494985  PMID: 18394881
CDKN2A; melanoma; mutation detection; sequencing; polymorphism; audit; DHPLC; False negative
4.  Association between putative functional variants in the PSMB9 gene and risk of melanoma - re-analysis of published melanoma genome-wide association studies 
Pigment cell & melanoma research  2013;26(3):10.1111/pcmr.12069.
Summary
To mine possibly hidden causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the etiology of melanoma, we investigated the association of SNPs in 76 M/G1 transition genes with melanoma risk using our published genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset with 1804 melanoma cases and 1,026 cancer-free controls. We found multiple SNPs with P < 0.01 and performed validation studies for 18 putative functional SNPs in PSMB9 in other two GWAS datasets. Two SNPs (rs1351383 and rs2127675) were associated with melanoma risk in the GenoMEL dataset (P = 0.013 and 0.004, respectively), but failed validation in the Australia dataset. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed these two SNPs were significantly correlated with mRNA expression levels of PSMB9. Further experiments revealed that the promoter SNP rs2071480, which is in high LD with rs1351383 and rs2127675, involved in influencing transcription factor binding and gene expression. Taken together, our data suggested that functional variants in PSMB9 may contribute to melanoma susceptibility.
doi:10.1111/pcmr.12069
PMCID: PMC3721546  PMID: 23360169
GWAS; Cell cycle; PSMB9; Polymorphism; melanoma
5.  A variant in FTO shows association with melanoma risk not due to BMI 
Iles, Mark M | Law, Matthew H | Stacey, Simon N | Han, Jiali | Fang, Shenying | Pfeiffer, Ruth | Harland, Mark | MacGregor, Stuart | Taylor, John C | Aben, Katja K | Akslen, Lars A | Avril, Marie-Françoise | Azizi, Esther | Bakker, Bert | Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R | Bergman, Wilma | Scarrà, Giovanna Bianchi | Brown, Kevin M | Calista, Donato | Chaudru, Valerié | Fargnoli, Maria Concetta | Cust, Anne E | Demenais, Florence | de Waal, Anne C | Dębniak, Tadeusz | Elder, David E | Friedman, Eitan | Galan, Pilar | Ghiorzo, Paola | Gillanders, Elizabeth M | Goldstein, Alisa M | Gruis, Nelleke A | Hansson, Johan | Helsing, Per | Hočevar, Marko | Höiom, Veronica | Hopper, John L | Ingvar, Christian | Janssen, Marjolein | Jenkins, Mark A | Kanetsky, Peter A | Kiemeney, Lambertus A | Lang, Julie | Lathrop, G Mark | Leachman, Sancy | Lee, Jeffrey E | Lubiński, Jan | Mackie, Rona M | Mann, Graham J | Mayordomo, Jose I | Molven, Anders | Mulder, Suzanne | Nagore, Eduardo | Novaković, Srdjan | Okamoto, Ichiro | Olafsson, Jon H | Olsson, Håkan | Pehamberger, Hubert | Peris, Ketty | Grasa, Maria Pilar | Planelles, Dolores | Puig, Susana | Puig-Butille, Joan Anton | Randerson-Moor, Juliette | Requena, Celia | Rivoltini, Licia | Rodolfo, Monica | Santinami, Mario | Sigurgeirsson, Bardur | Snowden, Helen | Song, Fengju | Sulem, Patrick | Thorisdottir, Kristin | Tuominen, Rainer | Van Belle, Patricia | van der Stoep, Nienke | van Rossum, Michelle M | Wei, Qingyi | Wendt, Judith | Zelenika, Diana | Zhang, Mingfeng | Landi, Maria Teresa | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Bishop, D Timothy | Amos, Christopher I | Hayward, Nicholas K | Stefansson, Kari | Bishop, Julia A Newton | Barrett, Jennifer H
Nature genetics  2013;45(4):428-432.
We report the results of an association study of melanoma based on the genome-wide imputation of the genotypes of 1,353 cases and 3,566 controls of European origin conducted by the GenoMEL consortium. This revealed a novel association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 8 of the FTO gene, including rs16953002, which replicated using 12,313 cases and 55,667 controls of European ancestry from Europe, the USA and Australia (combined p=3.6×10−12, per-allele OR for A=1.16). As well as identifying a novel melanoma susceptibility locus, this is the first study to identify and replicate an association with SNPs in FTO not related to body mass index (BMI). These SNPs are not in intron 1 (the BMI-related region) and show no association with BMI. This suggests FTO’s function may be broader than the existing paradigm that FTO variants influence multiple traits only through their associations with BMI and obesity.
doi:10.1038/ng.2571
PMCID: PMC3640814  PMID: 23455637
6.  Biologic markers of sun exposure and melanoma risk in women: pooled case-control analysis 
A model has been proposed whereby melanomas arise through two distinct pathways dependent upon the relative influence of host susceptibility and sun exposure. Such pathways may explain site-specific patterns of melanoma occurrence. To explore this model, we investigated the relationship between melanoma risk and general markers of acute (recalled sunburns) and chronic (prevalent solar keratoses) sun exposure, stratified by anatomic site and host phenotype. Our working hypothesis was that head and neck melanomas have stronger associations with solar keratoses and weaker associations with sunburn than trunk melanomas. We conducted a collaborative analysis using original data from women subjects of 11 case–control studies of melanoma (2575 cases, 3241 controls). We adjusted for potential confounding effects of sunlamp use and sunbathing. The magnitude of sunburn associations did not differ significantly by melanoma site, nevus count or histologic sub-type of melanoma. Across all sites, relative risk of melanoma increased with an increasing number of reported lifetime ‘painful’ sunburns, lifetime ‘severe’ sunburns and ‘severe’ sunburns in youth (ptrend<0.001), with pooled odds ratios for the highest category of sunburns vs no sunburns of 3.22 (95%CI 2.04–5.09) for lifetime ‘painful’ sunburns, 2.10 (95%CI 1.30–3.38) for lifetime ‘severe’ sunburns, and 2.43 (95%CI 1.61–3.65) for ‘severe’ sunburns in youth. Solar keratoses strongly increased the risk of head and neck melanoma (pOR 4.91, 95% CI 2.10–11.46), but data were insufficient to assess risk for other sites. Reported sunburn is strongly associated with melanoma on all major body sites.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25691
PMCID: PMC3035752  PMID: 20857492
8.  A Novel Flexible Multiplex Bead-based Assay for Detecting Germline CDKN2A and CDK4 Variants in Melanoma-Prone Kindreds 
Background
The presence of recurrent high-risk mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4 among melanoma-prone kindreds suggests that a high-throughput, multiplex assay could serve as an effective initial screening tool. Moreover, with the emergence of new melanoma risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) through genome-wide association studies, a flexible platform that can easily accommodate these new risk alleles is needed for more accurate genetic risk profiling. To this end, we have developed a novel melanoma-associated mutation detection method using a multiplex bead-based assay. This assay is suitable for high-throughput CDKN2A and CDK4 genotyping and can be eventually adapted to multiple loci across various constituent populations.
Methods
Genomic DNA from a 1603 subjects (1005 in training set, 598 in validation set) were amplified by multiplex PCR using five primer sets followed by multiplex allele-specific primer extension for 39 different known germline variants. The products were then sorted on an xMAP™ (formerly Tag-It™) array and detected by use of the Luminex xMAP™ system. Genotypes were compared to previously-determined sequence data.
Results
In the Toronto training cohort, variants were detected in 145 samples, giving complete concordance between the bead assay and direct sequencing results. Analysis of the 598 samples from the GenoMEL validation set led to identification of 150/155 expected variants (96.77% concordance). Overall, the bead assay correctly genotyped 1540/1603 (96.07%) of all individuals in the study and 1540/1545 (99.68%) of individuals whose mutations were represented in the probe set. Out of a total of 62,512 SNP calls, 62,517 (99.99%) were correctly assigned.
Conclusions
In this initial evaluation, the multiplex bead-based assay for familial melanoma appears to be a highly accurate method for genotyping CDKN2A and CDK4 variants.
doi:10.1038/jid.2010.331
PMCID: PMC3045700  PMID: 21085193
Melanoma; CDKN2A; CDK4; p14ARF; familial; high-throughput
9.  Nevus density and melanoma risk in women: a pooled analysis to test the divergent pathway hypothesis 
A “divergent pathway” model for the development of cutaneous melanoma has been proposed. The model hypothesizes that melanomas occurring in people with a low tendency to develop nevi will, on average, arise more commonly on habitually sun-exposed body sites such as the head and neck. In contrast, people with an inherent propensity to develop nevi will tend to develop melanomas most often on body sites with large melanocyte populations, such as on the back. We conducted a collaborative analysis to test this hypothesis using the original data from ten case-control studies of melanoma in women (2406 cases and 3119 controls), with assessment of the potential confounding effects of socioeconomic, pigmentary, and sun exposure-related factors. Higher nevus count on the arm was associated specifically with an increased risk of melanoma of the trunk (p for trend=0.0004) and limbs (both upper and lower limb p for trends=0.01), but not of the head and neck (p for trend=0.25). The pooled odds ratios for the highest quartile of non-zero nevus count versus none were 4.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7–7.6) for melanoma of the trunk, 2.0 (95% CI 0.9–4.5) for the head and neck, 4.2 (95% CI 2.3–7.5) for the upper limbs and 3.4 (95% CI 1.5–7.9) for the lower limbs. Aggregate data from these studies suggest that high nevus counts are strongly associated with melanoma of the trunk but less so if at all of the head and neck. This finding supports different etiologic pathways of melanoma development by anatomic site.
doi:10.1002/ijc.24011
PMCID: PMC2729286  PMID: 19035450
10.  Common sequence variants on 20q11.22 confer melanoma susceptibility 
Nature genetics  2008;40(7):838-840.
We conducted a genome-wide association pooling study for cutaneous melanoma and performed validation in samples totalling 2019 cases and 2105 controls. Using pooling we identified a novel melanoma risk locus on chromosome 20 (rs910873, rs1885120), with replication in two further samples (combined P <1 × 10-15). The odds ratio is 1.75 (1.53, 2.01), with evidence for stronger association in early onset cases.
doi:10.1038/ng.163
PMCID: PMC2755512  PMID: 18488026

Results 1-10 (10)