Studies of smoking in relation to prostate cancer mortality or recurrence in prostate cancer patients are limited, with few prostate cancer-specific outcomes.
To assess the relation of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation with overall, prostate cancer-specific, and CVD mortality and biochemical recurrence among men with prostate cancer.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Prospective observational study of 5 366 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1986–2006 in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.
Main Outcome Measures
Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall, prostate cancer-specific, and CVD mortality, and biochemical recurrence, defined by PSA rise.
We documented 1,630 deaths, 524 (32%) due to prostate cancer and 416 (26%) due to CVD, and 878 biochemical recurrences. The absolute crude rates for prostate cancer-specific death for never smokers vs. current smokers were 9.6 vs. 15.3 per 1,000 person-years; for all-cause mortality the corresponding rates were 27.3 and 53.0 per 1,000 person-years. In multivariable analysis, compared with never smokers, current smokers had an increased risk of prostate cancer mortality (HR, 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–2.32 and among men with clinical stage T1–T3: HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.04–3.12), biochemical recurrence (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.16–2.22), total mortality (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.87–2.80), and CVD mortality (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.39–3.26). After adjusting for clinical stage and grade which are likely intermediates of the relation of smoking with prostate cancer recurrence and survival, the estimates for current smoking were as follows: prostate cancer mortality (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.94–2.03 and HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.80–2.49); biochemical recurrence (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.06–2.04). A greater number of pack-years was associated with a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer mortality but not biochemical recurrence: for current smokers of 40+ pack-years compared to never smokers: prostate cancer mortality (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.03–3.20; biochemical recurrence (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.88–2.48). Compared to current smokers, those who had quit smoking for 10 or more years, or who had quit for less than 10 years but smoked less than 20 pack-years, had prostate cancer mortality risks similar to never smokers: former smoker, quit 10+ years (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42–0.87); quit <10 years and <20 pack-years (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.28–1.45); never smoker (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42–0.88).
Smoking at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis is associated with increased overall and CVD mortality and prostate cancer-specific mortality and recurrence. 10-year quitters have prostate cancer-specific mortality risks similar to never smokers.