Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) play an important role in carcinogenesis; knowledge on lncRNA expression in renal cell carcinoma is rudimental. As a basis for biomarker development, we aimed to explore the lncRNA expression profile in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissue.
Microarray experiments were performed to determine the expression of 32,183 lncRNA transcripts belonging to 17,512 lncRNAs in 15 corresponding normal and malignant renal tissues. Validation was performed using quantitative real-time PCR in 55 ccRCC and 52 normal renal specimens. Computational analysis was performed to determine lncRNA-microRNA (MiRTarget2) and lncRNA-protein (catRAPID omics) interactions. We identified 1,308 dysregulated transcripts (expression change >2-fold; upregulated: 568, downregulated: 740) in ccRCC tissue. Among these, aberrant expression was validated using PCR: lnc-BMP2-2 (mean expression change: 37-fold), lnc-CPN2-1 (13-fold), lnc-FZD1-2 (9-fold), lnc-ITPR2-3 (15-fold), lnc-SLC30A4-1 (15-fold), and lnc-SPAM1-6 (10-fold) were highly overexpressed in ccRCC, whereas lnc-ACACA-1 (135-fold), lnc-FOXG1-2 (19-fold), lnc-LCP2-2 (2-fold), lnc-RP3-368B9 (19-fold), and lnc-TTC34-3 (314-fold) were downregulated. There was no correlation between lncRNA expression with clinical-pathological parameters. Computational analyses revealed that these lncRNAs are involved in RNA-protein networks related to splicing, binding, transport, localization, and processing of RNA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of lnc-BMP2-2 and lnc-CPN2-1 did not influence cell proliferation.
We identified many novel lncRNA transcripts dysregulated in ccRCC which may be useful for novel diagnostic biomarkers.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13148-015-0047-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Genomic translocation events frequently underlie cancer development through generation of gene fusions with oncogenic properties. Identification of such fusion transcripts by transcriptome sequencing might help to discover new potential therapeutic targets. We developed TRUP (Tumor-specimen suited RNA-seq Unified Pipeline) (https://github.com/ruping/TRUP), a computational approach that combines split-read and read-pair analysis with de novo assembly for the identification of chimeric transcripts in cancer specimens. We apply TRUP to RNA-seq data of different tumor types, and find it to be more sensitive than alternative tools in detecting chimeric transcripts, such as secondary rearrangements in EML4-ALK-positive lung tumors, or recurrent inactivating rearrangements affecting RASSF8.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-014-0558-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Resembling a potential therapeutic drug target, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification and expression was assessed in 515 human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples, lymph node metastases and CRC cell lines.
FGFR1 amplification status was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Additionally, we assessed protein levels employing Western blots and immunohistochemistry. The FGFR1 mRNA localization was analyzed using mRNA in situ hybridization. Functional studies employed the FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398.
Of 454 primary CRCs, 24 displayed FGFR1 amplification. 92/94 lymph node metastases presented the same amplification status as the primary tumor. Of 99 investigated tumors, 18 revealed membranous activated pFGFR1 protein. FGFR1 mRNA levels were independent of the amplification status or pFGFR1 protein occurrence. In vitro, a strong antiproliferative effect of NVP-BGJ398 could be detected in cell lines exhibiting high FGFR1 protein.
FGFR1 is a potential therapeutic target in a subset of CRC. FGFR1 protein is likely to represent a central factor limiting the efficacy of FGFR inhibitors. The lack of correlation between its evaluation at genetic/mRNA level and its protein occurrence indicates that the assessment of the receptor at an immunohistochemical level most likely represents a suitable way to assess FGFR1 as a predictive biomarker for patient selection in future clinical trials.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1; Colorectal cancer; NVP-BGJ398
Pulmonary carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. The molecular alterations underlying the pathogenesis of these tumors have not been systematically studied so far. Here we perform gene copy number analysis (n=54), genome/exome (n=44) and transcriptome (n=69) sequencing of pulmonary carcinoids and observe frequent mutations in chromatin-remodeling genes. Covalent histone modifiers and subunits of the SWI/SNF complex are mutated in 40% and 22.2% of the cases respectively, with MEN1, PSIP1 and ARID1A being recurrently affected. In contrast to small-cell lung cancer and large-cell neuroendocrine tumors, TP53 and RB1 mutations are rare events, suggesting that pulmonary carcinoids are not early progenitor lesions of the highly aggressive lung neuroendocrine tumors but arise through independent cellular mechanisms. These data also suggest that inactivation of chromatin remodeling genes is sufficient to drive transformation in pulmonary carcinoids.
Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes for cancer-related death in developed countries. In lung adenocarcinomas, EGFR mutations and EML4-ALK fusions are associated with response to EGFR and ALK inhibition. By contrast, therapeutically exploitable genetic alterations have been lacking in squamous-cell lung cancer. We conducted a systematic search for alterations that are therapeutically amenable and performed high-resolution gene-copy number analyses in a set of 232 lung cancer specimens. We identified frequent and focal FGFR1 amplification in squamous-cell lung cancer (n=155), but not in other lung cancer subtypes, and confirmed its presence in an independent cohort of squamous-cell lung cancer samples employing FISH (22% of cases). Using cell-based screening with the FGFR inhibitor (PD173074) in a large (n=83) panel of lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that this compound inhibited growth (p=0.0002) and induced apoptosis (p=0.008) specifically in those lung cancer cells carrying amplified FGFR1. We validated the dependency on FGFR1 of FGFR1-amplified cell lines by knockdown of FGFR1 and by ectopic expression of a resistance allele of FGFR1 (FGFR1V561M), which rescued FGFR1-amplified cells from PD173074-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally we showed that inhibition of FGFR1 with a small molecule led to significant tumor shrinkage in vivo. Focal FGFR1 amplification is common in squamous-cell lung cancer and associated with tumor growth and survival, suggesting that FGFR inhibitors may be a viable therapeutic option in this cohort of patients.
There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance.
A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization.
The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.
Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent human inflammatory diseases. The major clinical phenotypes of this polymicrobial, biofilm-mediated disease are chronic and aggressive periodontitis, the latter being characterized by a rapid course of destruction that is generally attributed to an altered immune-inflammatory response against periodontal pathogens. Still, the biological basis for the pathophysiological distinction of the two disease categories has not been well documented yet.
Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are a lymphocyte subset with important roles in regulating immune responses to either tolerance or immunity, including immune responses against bacterial pathogens. Here, we delineate the mechanisms of NKT cell activation in periodontal infections.
We show an infiltration of type I NKT cells in aggressive, but not chronic periodontitis lesions in vivo. Murine DCs infected with aggressive periodontitis-associated Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans triggered a type I interferon response followed by type I NKT cell activation. In contrast, infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, a principal pathogen in chronic periodontitis, did not induce NKT cell activation. This difference could be explained by the absence of a type I interferon response to P. gingivalis infection. We found these interferons to be critical for NKT cell activation.
Our study provides a conceivable biological distinction between the two periodontitis subforms and identifies factors required for the activation of the immune system in response to periodontal bacteria.
natural killer T cells; immune evasion; bacterial pathogenesis; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) represent highly aggressive tumors with an overall five-year survival rate in the range of 5 to 10%. Here, we show that four out of five SCLC cell lines reversibly develop a neuron-like phenotype on extracellular matrix constituents such as fibronectin, laminin or thrombospondin upon staurosporine treatment in an RGD/integrin-mediated manner. Neurite-like processes extend rapidly with an average speed of 10 µm per hour. Depending on the cell line, staurosporine treatment affects either cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase or induction of polyploidy. Neuron-like conversion, although not accompanied by alterations in the expression pattern of a panel of neuroendocrine genes, leads to changes in protein expression as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. It is likely that SCLC cells already harbour the complete molecular repertoire to convert into a neuron-like phenotype. More extensive studies are needed to evaluate whether the conversion potential of SCLC cells is suitable for therapeutic interventions.
The prognostic impact of BRAF-V600 tumor mutations in stage I/II melanoma patients has not yet been analyzed in detail. We investigated primary tumors of 437 patients diagnosed between 1989 and 2006 by Sanger sequencing. Mutations were detected in 38.7% of patients and were associated with age, histological subtype as well as mitotic rate. The mutational rate was 36.7% in patients with disease-free course and 51.7% in those with subsequent distant metastasis (p = 0.031). No difference in overall survival (p = 0.119) but a trend for worse distant-metastasis-free survival (p = 0.061) was observed in BRAF mutant compared to BRAF wild-type patients. Independent prognostic factors for overall survival were tumor thickness, mitotic rate and ulceration. An interesting significant prognostic impact was observed in patients with tumor thickness of 1 mm or less, with the mutation present in 6 of 7 patients dying from melanoma. In conclusion, no significant survival differences were found according to BRAF-V600 tumor mutations in patients with primary melanoma but an increasing impact of the mutational status was observed in the subgroup of patients with tumor thickness of 1 mm or less. A potential role of the mutational status as a prognostic factor especially in this subgroup needs to be investigated in larger studies.
Tosystematically evaluate ERG alterations in the multifocal tumor context by using whole-mount prostatectomy specimens of African American and Caucasian American patients matched for age, pathologic grade and stage. Oncogenic activation of the ETS-Related Gene (ERG) is the most common early genomic alteration in prostate cancer patients in Western countries. However, ERG alterations have not been systematically examined in African American patients with known higher risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality.
ERG oncoprotein expression was analyzed in 91 Caucasian American and 91 African American prostate cancer patients matched for age, Gleason score and pathologic stage. A unique aspect of this study was the evaluation of ERG in whole-mount prostatectomy sections, minimizing sampling bias and allowing the careful assessment of ERG in the multifocal tumor context of prostate cancer.
The frequency of ERG positive prostate tumors was significantly greater among Caucasian Americans vs. African Americans when assessed in all tumor foci (41.9% vs. 23.9%, p<0.0001). Markedly higher frequency of the ERG oncoprotein expression was noted between the index tumors of Caucasian Americans (63.3%) and African Americans (28.6%). Of note, in African American patients the higher grade index tumors were predominantly ERG negative.
ERG typing of prostate tumors establishes a major difference between the index tumors of Caucasian and African American patients. ERG negative index tumors may indicate less favorable outcome in African American patients. This study underscores that typing of prostate tumors for ERG may enhance our understanding of biological differences between the examined ethnic groups.
FGFR1 amplification is a genomic aberration recently identified in various types of cancer. Especially squamous cell carcinomas of the lung and the head and neck show this genetic alteration in high frequencies. In these cancers FGFR1 is not only a therapeutic target but does also serve as a biomarker that correlates with parameters of worse outcome. However, since FGFR1 amplification does not always correlate with high protein expression defining the best predictive biomarker for a FGFR1 targeted therapy is of great importance.
FGFR1; lung cancer; head and neck cancer; therapeutic target; biomarker
Periodontitis is a highly prevalent, biofilm-mediated chronic inflammatory disease that results in the loss of the tooth-supporting tissues. It features two major clinical entities: chronic periodontitis, which is more common, and aggressive periodontitis, which usually has an early onset and a rapid progression. Natural killer (NK) cells are a distinct subgroup of lymphocytes that play a major role in the ability of the innate immune system to steer immune responses. NK cells are abundant in periodontitis lesions, and NK cell activation has been causally linked to periodontal tissue destruction. However, the exact mechanisms of their activation and their role in the pathophysiology of periodontitis are elusive. Here, we show that the predominant NK cell-activating molecule in periodontitis is CD2-like receptor activating cytotoxic cells (CRACC). We show that CRACC induction was significantly more pronounced in aggressive than chronic periodontitis and correlated positively with periodontal disease severity, subgingival levels of specific periodontal pathogens, and NK cell activation in vivo. We delineate how Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an oral pathogen that is causally associated with aggressive periodontitis, indirectly induces CRACC on NK cells via activation of dendritic cells and subsequent interleukin 12 (IL-12) signaling. In contrast, we demonstrate that fimbriae from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a principal pathogen in chronic periodontitis, actively attenuate CRACC induction on NK cells. Our data suggest an involvement of CRACC-mediated NK cell activation in periodontal tissue destruction and point to a plausible distinction in the pathobiology of aggressive and chronic periodontitis that may help explain the accelerated tissue destruction in aggressive periodontitis.
More than 1,300,000 prostate needle biopsies are performed annually in the U.S. with up to 16% incidence of isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). HGPIN has low predictive value for identifying prostate cancer (PCA) on subsequent needle biopsies in PSA screened populations. In contemporary series, PCA is detected in about 20% of repeat biopsies following a diagnosis of HGPIN. Further, discrete histological subtypes of HGPIN with clinical implication in management have not been characterized. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion that has recently been described in PCA has also been demonstrated to occur in a subset of HGPIN. This may have significant clinical implications given that TMPRSS2-ERG fusion PCA is associated with a more aggressive clinical course.
In this study we assessed a series of HGPIN lesions and paired PCA for the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion.
Fusion positive HGPIN was observed in 16% of the 143 number of lesions, and in all instances the matching cancer shared the same fusion pattern. 60% of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion PCA had fusion negative HGPIN.
Given the more aggressive nature of TMPRSS2-ERG PCA, the findings of this study raise the possibility that gene fusion positive HGPIN lesions are harbingers of more aggressive disease. To date, pathological, molecular and clinical parameters do not help stratify which men with HGPIN are at increased risk for a cancer diagnosis. Our results suggest that the detection of isolated TMPRSS2-ERG fusion HGPIN would improve the positive predictive value of finding TMPRSS2-ERG fusion PCA in subsequent biopsies.
Fusion of the TMPRSS2 prostate-specific gene with the ERG transcription factor is a putatively oncogenic gene rearrangement that is commonly found in prostate cancer tissue from men undergoing prostatectomy. However, the prevalence of the fusion was less common in TURP samples from a Swedish cohort of incidental prostate cancer patients followed by watchful waiting, raising the question as to whether the high prevalence in prostatectomy specimens reflects selection bias. We sought to determine the prevalence of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion among PSA-screened men undergoing prostate biopsy in the United States.
We studied 140 prostate biopsies from the same number of patients for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status with a FISH assay. 134 (100 cancer and 34 benign) were assessable.
ERG gene rearrangement was detected in 46% prostate biopsies that were found to have prostate cancer and in 0% of benign prostate biopsies (p<0.0001). Evaluation of morphological features showed that cribriform growth, blue-tinged mucin, macronucleoli and collagenous micronodules were significantly more frequent in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive prostate cancer biopsies than gene fusion negative prostate cancer biopsies (p≤0.04). No significant association with Gleason score was detected. In addition, non-Caucasian patients were less likely to have positive fusion status (p=0.02).
This is the first prospective North American multi-center study to characterize the TMPRSS2-ERG prostate cancer prevalence in a cohort of patients undergoing needle biopsy irrespective of whether or not they subsequently undergo prostatectomy. Our results show that this gene rearrangement is common among North American men who have prostate cancer on biopsy, is absent in benign prostate biopsy, and is associated with specific morphological features. These findings indicate a need for prospective studies to evaluate the relationship of TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement with clinical course of screening-detected prostate cancer in North American men, and development of non-invasive screening tests to detect TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement.
The transcription factor SOX2 (3q26.3-q27) is an embryonic stem cell factor contributing to the induction of pluripotency in terminally differentiated somatic cells. Recently, amplification of the SOX2 gene locus has been described in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of different organ sites. Aim of this study was to investigate amplification and expression status of SOX2 in sinonasal carcinomas and to correlate the results with clinico-pathological data.
Materials and Methods
A total of 119 primary tumor samples from the sinonasal region were assessed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for SOX2 gene amplification and protein expression, respectively. Of these, 59 were SSCs, 18 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (SNUC), 10 carcinomas associated with an inverted papilloma (INVC), 19 adenocarcinomas (AD) and 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC).
SOX2 amplifications were found in subsets of SCCs (37.5%), SNUCs (35.3%), INVCs (37.5%) and ADs (8.3%) but not in ACCs. SOX2 amplification resulted in increased protein expression. Patients with SOX2-amplified sinonasal carcinomas showed a significantly higher rate of tumor recurrences than SOX2 non-amplified tumors.
This is the first study assessing SOX2 amplification and expression in a large cohort of sinonasal carcinomas. As opposed to AD and ACC, SOX2 amplifications were detected in more than 1/3 of all SCCs, SNUCs and INVCs. We therefore suggest that SNUCs are molecularly closely related to SCCs and INVCs and that these entities represent a subgroup of sinonasal carcinomas relying on SOX2 acquisition during oncogenesis. SOX2 amplification appears to identify sinonasal carcinomas that are more likely to relapse after primary therapy, suggesting that these patients might benefit from a more aggressive therapy regime.
Identification of specific somatic gene alterations is crucial for the insight into the development, progression, and clinical behavior of individual cancer types. The recently discovered recurrent ERG rearrangement in prostate cancer (PCa) might represent a PCa specific alteration that has not been systematically assessed in tumors other than PCa. Aim of this study was to assess, whether the ERG rearrangement and the distinct deletion site between TMPRSS2 and ERG, both predominantly resulting in a TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, occurs in tumors other than PCa.
We assessed 54 different tumor types (2942 samples in total) for their ERG rearrangement status by FISH. To calibrate, we analyzed 285 PCa samples for the ERG rearrangement frequency. Additionally, we interrogated a high-resolution SNP data set across 3131 cancer specimens (26 tumor types) for copy number alterations.
None of the 54 different tumor types assessed by FISH harbored an ERG rearrangement, whereas the PCa samples revealed an ERG rearrangement in 31.2%–49.5%, depending on the cohort. Furthermore, within the 26 tumor types assessed for copy number alterations by SNP, the distinct deletion site between TMPRSS2 and ERG (21q22.2-3) was detectable exclusively in PCa.
Although Ewing's sarcoma and AML have known rearrangements rarely involving ERG, we hypothesize that the ERG rearrangement as well as the distinct deletion site on 21q22.2-3 between TMPRSS2 and ERG, are PCa specific genomic alterations. These observations provide further insight into the oncogenesis of PCa and might be critical for the development of ERG rearrangement assessment as a clinical tool.
ERG rearrangement; prostate cancer; carcinoma
α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) is an enzyme that serves as a diagnostic biomarker of prostate cancer in clinical practice. Recent studies suggest that low AMACR expression is associated with biochemical recurrence and the development of fatal disease.
We conducted a prospective cohort study among 920 men aged 47–84 years, who were diagnosed with prostate cancer in the Physicians’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts, and whose resected tissue specimens were available for immunohistochemical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the association of AMACR expression with lethal prostate cancer over a 20-year follow-up period.
In total, 68 men died from prostate cancer, and an additional 18 developed bony metastases during follow-up. We found that lower AMACR intensity was associated with higher prostate-specific antigen levels (p=0.003) and more advanced clinical stage (p=0.06) at diagnosis, and a non-significant trend for higher risk of lethal outcomes. The hazard ratio comparing the lowest to the highest quartile of AMACR expression intensity was 1.53 ((95% CI: 0.86, 2.73), p-for-trend across quartiles=0.07); this trend was further attenuated after adjustment for age, Gleason score, stage and cohort with a hazard ratio of 1.24 (95% CI 0.69, 2.22), p-for-trend=0.23.
Low AMACR expression in primary tumor specimens was not independently associated with the development of metastatic and lethal prostate cancer after treatment over a 20-year follow-up period, after adjustment for important clinical covariates at diagnosis.
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), also referred to as anaplastic prostate cancer, is a lethal tumor that most commonly arises in late stages of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA) with predilection to metastasize to visceral organs. In the current study, we explore for evidence that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) and N-myc (MYCN) gene abnormalities are harbingers of treatment-related NEPC (t-NEPC). We studied primary prostate tissue from 15 hormone naïve PCAs, 51 castration-resistant prostate cancers, and 15 metastatic tumors from 72 patients at different stages of disease progression to t-NEPC, some with multiple specimens. Histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed and correlated with clinical variables. AURKA amplification was identified in overall 65% of PCAs (hormone naïve and treated) from patients that developed t-NEPC and in 86% of metastases. Concurrent amplification of MYCN was present in 70% of primary PCAs, 69% of treated PCAs, and 83% of metastases. In contrast, in an unselected PCA cohort, AURKA and MYCN amplifications were identified in only 5% of 169 cases. When metastatic t-NEPC was compared to primary PCA from the same patients, there was 100% concordance of ERG rearrangement, 100% concordance of AURKA amplification, and 60% concordance of MYCN amplification. In tumors with mixed features, there was also 100% concordance of ERG rearrangement and 94% concordance of AURKA and MYCN co-amplification between areas of NEPC and adenocarcinoma. AURKA and MYCN amplifications may be prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as they are harbingers of tumors at risk of progressing to t-NEPC after hormonal therapy.
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive subtype of prostate cancer that most commonly evolves from preexisting prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA). Using Next Generation RNA-sequencing and oligonucleotide arrays, we profiled 7 NEPC, 30 PCA, and 5 benign prostate tissue (BEN), and validated findings on tumors from a large cohort of patients (37 NEPC, 169 PCA, 22 BEN) using IHC and FISH. We discovered significant overexpression and gene amplification of AURKA and MYCN in 40% of NEPC and 5% of PCA, respectively, and evidence that that they cooperate to induce a neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cells. There was dramatic and enhanced sensitivity of NEPC (and MYCN overexpressing PCA) to Aurora kinase inhibitor therapy both in vitro and in vivo, with complete suppression of neuroendocrine marker expression following treatment. We propose that alterations in Aurora kinase A and N-myc are involved in the development of NEPC, and future clinical trials will help determine from the efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibitor therapy.
neuroendocrine prostate cancer; aurora kinase A; n-myc; drug targets
The erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors plays important roles in both physiological and pathological conditions. Even though many studies have focused on single ETS factors within a single tissue and within the context of specific promoters, the functional impact of multiple ETS members present within a specific cell type has not yet been investigated, especially in prostate cancer (PCa). As the most prominent gene rearrangement in PCa leads to the overexpression of the ETS-related gene (ERG), the aim of this study was to investigate whether ERG is part of a complex integrated transcriptional network that involves other ETS factors. More specifically, as the ETS family consists of 27 members, we focused our efforts initially on investigating whether ERG is associated with the three family members, ETS-1, ETS-2 and ETS variant gene-4 (ETV-4), in PCa as a proof of principle. Using western blot analysis, we show that ERG, ETS-1, ETS-2 and ETV-4 are expressed in PC3 cell nuclear extracts and in protein lysates prepared from human PCa prostatectomy specimens. Immunoprecipitations using an anti-ERG antibody were used with PC3 cell nuclear extracts as well as with a pooled protein lysate sample prepared from the PCa tissue samples of five patients. Importantly, our results revealed that ERG is specifically associated with ETS-2 and ETV-4, but not with ETS-1, in PC3 cell nuclear extracts and PCa tissue protein lysates. Our findings strongly support the notion that ERG is part of a complex integrated transcriptional network that involves other ETS factors, which are likely to cooperate or influence the activity of ERG in PCa. The functional impact of multiple ETS factors being associated with ERG in PCa requires further study, as it may provide insights into the mechanism by which ERG exerts its influence in PCa and may subsequently contribute to our understanding of the molecular basis of PCa.
ETS-related gene; ETS-2; ETS variant gene-4; ETS-1; prostate cancer
Prostate-specific antigen screening has led to enormous overtreatment of prostate cancer because of the inability to distinguish potentially lethal disease at diagnosis. We reasoned that by identifying an mRNA signature of Gleason grade, the best predictor of prognosis, we could improve prediction of lethal disease among men with moderate Gleason 7 tumors, the most common grade, and the most indeterminate in terms of prognosis.
Patients and Methods
Using the complementary DNA–mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation assay, we measured the mRNA expression of 6,100 genes in prostate tumor tissue in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort (n = 358) and Physicians' Health Study (PHS; n = 109). We developed an mRNA signature of Gleason grade comparing individuals with Gleason ≤ 6 to those with Gleason ≥ 8 tumors and applied the model among patients with Gleason 7 to discriminate lethal cases.
We built a 157-gene signature using the Swedish data that predicted Gleason with low misclassification (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91); when this signature was tested in the PHS, the discriminatory ability remained high (AUC = 0.94). In men with Gleason 7 tumors, who were excluded from the model building, the signature significantly improved the prediction of lethal disease beyond knowing whether the Gleason score was 4 + 3 or 3 + 4 (P = .006).
Our expression signature and the genes identified may improve our understanding of the de-differentiation process of prostate tumors. Additionally, the signature may have clinical applications among men with Gleason 7, by further estimating their risk of lethal prostate cancer and thereby guiding therapy decisions to improve outcomes and reduce overtreatment.
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized cancer research allowing the comprehensive study of cancer using high throughput deep sequencing methodologies. These methods detect genomic alterations, nucleotide substitutions, insertions, deletions and copy number alterations. SOLiD (Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection, Life Technologies) is a promising technology generating billions of 50 bp sequencing reads. This robust technique, successfully applied in gene identification, might be helpful in detecting novel genes associated with cancer initiation and progression using formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. This study’s aim was to compare the validity of whole exome sequencing of fresh-frozen vs. FFPE tumor tissue by normalization to normal prostatic FFPE tissue, obtained from the same patient. One primary fresh-frozen sample, corresponding FFPE prostate cancer sample and matched adjacent normal prostatic tissue was subjected to exome sequencing. The sequenced reads were mapped and compared. Our study was the first to show comparable exome sequencing results between FFPE and corresponding fresh-frozen cancer tissues using SOLiD sequencing. A prior study has been conducted comparing the validity of sequencing of FFPE vs. fresh frozen samples using other NGS platforms. Our validation further proves that FFPE material is a reliable source of material for whole exome sequencing.
exome sequencing; SOLiD4; prostate cancer; next-generation sequencing
The availability of well-annotated prostate tissue samples through biobanks is key for research. Whereas fresh-frozen tissue is well suited for a broad spectrum of molecular analyses, its storage and handling is complex and cost-intensive. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens (FFPE) are easy to handle and economic to store, but their applicability for molecular methods is restricted. The recently introduced Hepes-glutamic acid-buffer mediated Organic solvent Protection Effect (HOPE) is a promising alternative, which might have the potential to unite the benefits of FFPE and fresh-frozen specimen. Aim of the study was to compare HOPE-fixed, FFPE and fresh-frozen bio-specimens for their accessibility for diagnostic and research purposes.
10 prostate cancer samples were each preserved with HOPE, formalin, and liquid nitrogen and studied with in-situ and molecular methods. Samples were H&E stained, and assessed by immunohistochemistry (i.e. PSA, GOLPH2, p63) and FISH (i.e. ERG rearrangement). We assessed DNA integrity by PCR, using control genes ranging from 100 to 600 bp amplicon size. RNA integrity was assessed through qRT-PCR on three housekeeping genes (TBP, GAPDH, β-actin). Protein expression was analysed by performing western blot analysis using GOLPH2 and PSA antibodies.
Of the HOPE samples, morphologic quality of H&E sections, immunohistochemical staining, and the FISH assay was at least equal to FFPE tissue, and significantly better than the fresh-frozen specimens. DNA, RNA, and protein analysis of HOPE samples provided similar results as compared to fresh-frozen specimens. As expected, FFPE-samples were inferior for most of the molecular analyses.
This is the first study, comparatively assessing the suitability of these fixation methods for diagnostic and research utilization. Overall, HOPE-fixed bio-specimens combine the benefits of FFPE- and fresh-frozen samples. Results of this study have the potential to expand on contemporary prostate tissue biobanking approaches and can serve as a model for other organs and tumors.
HOPE technique; HOPE fixation; Prostate cancer
To characterize the clonality of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in multifocal prostate cancer.
From 80 consecutive radical prostatectomy specimens, we identified 32 cases with multiple spatially separate tumors. In each case we assessed 2–3 tumor foci for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion using an ERG break-apart interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization assay.
Individual tumor foci showed homogeneity for fusion status (intrafocal clonal homogeneity). In 59% (19/32) of cases, all foci within a case had the same fusion status (interfocal homogeneity): in 80% (15/19) of these cases no foci had fusion, and in 20% (4/19) all foci had fusion. 41% (13/32) of cases demonstrated heterogeneity for fusion status within a case (interfocal clonal heterogeneity).
We have demonstrated interfocal heterogeneity and intrafocal homogeneity for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer with multiple tumors. These findings support the multiclonal nature of prostate cancer with clinical implications for needle biopsy strategies and the development of urine-based screening tests.
The majority of prostate cancers harbor gene fusions of the 5′-untranslated region of the androgen-regulated transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) promoter with erythroblast transformation specific (ETS) transcription factor family members. The common v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog [avian] (TMPRSS2–ERG) fusion is associated with a more aggressive clinical phenotype, implying the existence of a distinct subclass of prostate cancer defined by this fusion.
We used cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, ligation, and extension to determine the expression profiles of 6144 transcriptionally informative genes in archived biopsy samples from 455 prostate cancer patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort (1987–1999) and the US-based Physicians Health Study cohort (1983–2003). A gene expression signature for prostate cancers with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was determined using partitioning and classification models and used in computational functional analysis. Cell proliferation and TMPRSS2-ERG expression in androgen receptor–negative (NCI-H660) and –positive (VCaP-ERβ) prostate cancer cells after treatment with vehicle or estrogenic compounds were assessed by viability assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided.
We identified an 87-gene expression signature that distinguishes TMPRSS2-ERG fusion prostate cancer as a discrete molecular entity (area under the curve = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.792 to 0.81; P<.001). Computational analysis suggested that this fusion signature was associated with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Viability of NCI-H660 cells decreased after treatment with estrogen (viability normalized to day 0, estrogen vs vehicle at day 8, mean = 2.04 vs 3.40, difference = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.62) or ERβ agonist (ERβ agonist vs vehicle at day 8, mean = 1.86 vs 3.40, difference = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.69) but increased after ERα agonist treatment (ERα agonist vs vehicle at day 8, mean = 4.36 vs 3.40, difference = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.23). Similarly, expression of TMPRSS2-ERG decreased after ERβ agonist treatment (fold change over internal control, ERβ agonist vs vehicle at 24 hours, NCI H660, mean = 0.57-fold vs 1.0-fold, difference = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.29-fold to 0.57-fold) and increased after ERα agonist treatment (ERα agonist vs vehicle at 24 hours, mean = 5.63-fold vs 1.0-fold, difference = 4.63-fold, 95% CI = 4.34-fold to 4.92-fold).
TMPRSS2-ERG fusion prostate cancer is a distinct molecular subclass. TMPRSS2-ERG expression is regulated by a novel ER-dependent mechanism.