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1.  Emerging players in prostate cancer: long non-coding RNAs 
Recent observations of novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have considerably altered our understanding of cell biology. The role of lncRNAs as tumor suppressors or oncogenes has been extensively studied. Over-expression of oncogenic lncRNAs promotes tumor-cell proliferation and metastasis through chromatin looping and distal engagement with the androgen receptor, anti-sense gene regulation, alternative splicing, and impeding DNA repair. Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer and frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in men worldwide. Unraveling the molecular and biological processes that contribute to prostate cancer development and progression is a challenging task. In prostate cancer, aberrant expression of lncRNAs has been associated with disease progression. In this review, we highlight the emerging impact of lncRNAs in prostate cancer research, with a particular focus on the mechanisms and functions of lncRNAs. Increased research on lncRNAs will lead to a greater understanding of prostate cancercinogenesis and progression and may lead to novel clinical applications. LncRNAs have great potential to become new biomarkers for detection, prognostication and prediction in prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC4297325  PMID: 25606575
Long non-coding RNAs; lncRNAs; prostate cancer
2.  Expression Differences of Circulating MicroRNAs in Metastastic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer and Low-risk, Localized Prostate Cancer 
The Prostate  2012;73(4):346-354.
Background
Recent studies show that microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, may have potential for monitoring cancer status. We investigated circulating miRNAs in prostate cancer that may be associated with the progression of hormone-sensitive primary tumors to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after androgen deprivation therapy.
Methods
Using genome-wide expression profiling by TaqMan Human MicroRNA Arrays (Applied Biosystems) and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we compared the expression levels of miRNAs in serum samples from 28 patients of low-risk localized disease, 30 of high-risk localized disease and 26 of metastatic CRPC.
Results
we demonstrated that serum samples from patients of low-risk, localized prostate cancer and metastatic CRPC patients exhibit distinct circulating miRNA signatures. MiR-375, miR-378*, and miR-141 were significantly over-expressed in serum from CRPC patients compared to serum from low-risk localized patients, while miR-409-3p was significantly under-expressed. In prostate primary tumor samples, miR-375 and miR-141 also had significantly higher expression levels compared to those in normal prostate tissue.
Conclusions
Circulating microRNAs, particularly miR-375, miR-141, miR-378* and miR-409-3p, are differentially expressed in serum samples from prostate cancer patients. In the search for improved minimally invasive methods to follow cancer pathogenesis, the correlation of disease status with the expression patterns of circulating miRNAs may indicate the potential importance of circulating miRNAs as prognostic markers for prostate cancer progression.
doi:10.1002/pros.22572
PMCID: PMC3980954  PMID: 22887127
circulating microRNAs; prostate cancer; castration resistant prostate cancer
3.  The Impact of Common Genetic Variations in Genes of the Sex Hormone Metabolic Pathways on Steroid Hormone Levels and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness 
Background
Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer (CaP) tumor grade at diagnosis. In this study, we systematically tested the hypothesis that inherited variations in the androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways may be associated with plasma levels of steroid hormones, or CaP aggressiveness at diagnosis.
Methods
Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized CaP. D’Amico risk classification at diagnosis was also determined. 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 30 genes that are involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism were selected for analysis. The global association of genotypes with plasma hormone levels and CaP aggressiveness (D’Amico risk classification) was statistically analyzed. Q-values were estimated to account for multiple testing.
Results
We observed significant associations between plasma testosterone level and SNPs in HSD17B2 (rs1424151), HSD17B3 (rs9409407) and HSD17B1 (rs12602084), with P values of 0.002, 0.006 and 0.006, respectively. We also observed borderline significant associations between prostate aggressiveness at diagnosis and SNPs in AKR1C1 (rs11252845; P = 0.005), UGT2B15 (rs2045100; P = 0.007) and HSD17B12 (rs7932905; P = 0.008). No individual SNP was associated with both clinical variables.
Conclusions
Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or CaP aggressiveness. However, it appears that the inherited variations affecting plasma hormone levels differ from those affecting disease aggressiveness.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0283
PMCID: PMC3773969  PMID: 21900597
Prostate cancer; Hormone metabolism; Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms
4.  Inherited Variations in AR, ESR1, and ESR2 Genes Are Not Associated With Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness or With Efficacy of Androgen Deprivation Therapy 
Background
Sex steroid hormone receptors mediate essential processes in normal prostate growth and contribute to prostate cancer development.
Method
In this study, we investigated the association between common inherited variation of the AR, ESR1, and ESR2 genes and two clinically relevant traits: the risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer and the response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in a hospital-based cohort. A total of 43 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the loci of AR (n = 4), ESR1 (n = 32), and ESR2 (n = 7) were successfully genotyped in 4,073 prostate cancer cases.
Results
None of these single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with disease aggressiveness as assessed by the D'Amico risk classification, pathologic stage, or the response to ADT.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that common genetic variations in AR, ESR1, or ESR2 are not strongly associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness or response to ADT.
Impact
Our study did not find convincing evidence of inherited variations in the major receptors for androgens and estrogens and their associations with prostate cancer traits.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0216
PMCID: PMC3755451  PMID: 20615892
5.  Double-Blind, Randomized Trial of Docetaxel Plus Vandetanib Versus Docetaxel Plus Placebo in Platinum-Pretreated Metastatic Urothelial Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;30(5):507-512.
Purpose
Vandetanib is an oral once-daily tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor. Vandetanib in combination with docetaxel was assessed in patients with advanced urothelial cancer (UC) who progressed on prior platinum-based chemotherapy.
Patients and Methods
The primary objective was to determine whether vandetanib 100 mg plus docetaxel 75 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus docetaxel. The study was designed to detect a 60% improvement in median PFS with 80% power and one-sided α at 5%. Patients receiving docetaxel plus placebo had the option to cross over to single-agent vandetanib at progression. Overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), and safety were secondary objectives.
Results
In all, 142 patients were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of therapy. Median PFS was 2.56 months for the docetaxel plus vandetanib arm versus 1.58 months for the docetaxel plus placebo arm, and the hazard ratio for PFS was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.49; P = .9). ORR and OS were not different between both arms. Grade 3 or higher toxicities were more commonly seen in the docetaxel plus vandetanib arm and included rash/photosensitivity (11% v 0%) and diarrhea (7% v 0%). Among 37 patients who crossed over to single-agent vandetanib, ORR was 3% and OS was 5.2 months.
Conclusion
In this platinum-pretreated population of advanced UC, the addition of vandetanib to docetaxel did not result in a significant improvement in PFS, ORR, or OS. The toxicity of vandetanib plus docetaxel was greater than that for vendetanib plus placebo. Single-agent vandetanib activity was minimal.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.37.7002
PMCID: PMC4104290  PMID: 22184381
7.  SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 May Determine Time to Progression for Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(18):2565-2573.
Purpose
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), an important treatment for advanced prostate cancer, is highly variable in its effectiveness. We hypothesized that genetic variants of androgen transporter genes, SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3, may determine time to progression on ADT.
Patients and Methods
A cohort of 538 patients with prostate cancer treated with ADT was genotyped for SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The biologic function of a SLCO2B1 coding SNP in transporting androgen was examined through biochemical assays.
Results
Three SNPs in SLCO2B1 were associated with time to progression (TTP) on ADT (P < .05). The differences in median TTP for each of these polymorphisms were about 10 months. The SLCO2B1 genotype, which allows more efficient import of androgen, enhances cell growth and is associated with a shorter TTP on ADT. Patients carrying both SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 genotypes, which import androgens more efficiently, exhibited a median 2-year shorter TTP on ADT, demonstrating a gene-gene interaction (Pinteraction = .041).
Conclusion
Genetic variants of SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 may function as pharmacogenomic determinants of resistance to ADT in prostate cancer.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.31.2405
PMCID: PMC3138634  PMID: 21606417
8.  Vitamin D Receptor Protein Expression in Tumor Tissue and Prostate Cancer Progression 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(17):2378-2385.
Purpose
Data suggest that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] interacts with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis for some malignancies, although evidence for prostate cancer is less clear. How VDR expression in tumor tissue may influence prostate cancer progression has not been evaluated in large studies.
Patients and Methods
We examined protein expression of VDR in tumor tissue among 841 patients with prostate cancer in relation to risk of lethal prostate cancer within two prospective cohorts, the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We also examined the association of VDR expression with prediagnostic circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and with two VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms, FokI and BsmI.
Results
Men whose tumors had high VDR expression had significantly lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis (P for trend < .001), lower Gleason score (P for trend < .001), and less advanced tumor stage (P for trend < .001) and were more likely to have tumors harboring the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (P for trend = .009). Compared with the lowest quartile, men whose tumors had the highest VDR expression had significantly reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.41). This association was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for Gleason score and PSA at diagnosis (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83) or, additionally, for tumor stage (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.94). Neither prediagnostic plasma vitamin D levels nor VDR polymorphisms were associated with VDR expression.
Conclusion
High VDR expression in prostate tumors is associated with a reduced risk of lethal cancer, suggesting a role of the vitamin D pathway in prostate cancer progression.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.30.9880
PMCID: PMC3107752  PMID: 21537045
9.  Modification of the Association Between Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG  
Background
TMPRSS2:ERG is a hormonally regulated gene fusion present in about half of prostate tumors. We investigated whether obesity, which deregulates several hormonal pathways, interacts with TMPRSS2:ERG to impact prostate cancer outcomes.
Methods
The study included 1243 participants in the prospective Physicians’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1982 and 2005. ERG overexpression (a TMPRSS2:ERG marker) was assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue from radical prostatectomy or transurethral resection of the prostate. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, measured on average 1.3 years and 5.3 years before diagnosis, respectively, were available from questionnaires. Data on BMI at baseline was also available. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
During a mean follow-up of 12.8 years, 119 men developed lethal disease (distant metastases or prostate cancer death). Among men with ERG-positive tumors, the multivariable hazard ratio for lethal prostate cancer was 1.48 (95% CI = 0.98 to 2.23) per 5-unit increase in BMI before diagnosis, 2.51 (95% CI = 1.26 to 4.99) per 8-inch increase in waist circumference before diagnosis, and 2.22 (95% CI = 1.35 to 3.63) per 5-unit increase in BMI at baseline. The corresponding hazard ratios among men with ERG-negative tumors were 1.10 (95% CI = 0.76 to1.59; P interaction = .24), 1.14 (95% CI = 0.62 to 2.10; P interaction = .09), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.19; P interaction = .001).
Conclusions
These results suggest that obesity is linked with poorer prostate cancer prognosis primarily in men with tumors harboring the gene fusion TMPRSS2:ERG.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djt332
PMCID: PMC3866157  PMID: 24292212
10.  Whole exome sequencing of circulating tumor cells provides a window into metastatic prostate cancer 
Nature biotechnology  2014;32(5):479-484.
Comprehensive analyses of cancer genomes promise to inform prognoses and precise cancer treatments. A major barrier, however, is inaccessibility of metastatic tissue. A potential solution is to characterize circulating tumor cells (CTCs), but this requires overcoming the challenges of isolating rare cells and sequencing low-input material. Here we report an integrated process to isolate, qualify and sequence whole exomes of CTCs with high fidelity, using a census-based sequencing strategy. Power calculations suggest that mapping of >99.995% of the standard exome is possible in CTCs. We validated our process in two prostate cancer patients including one for whom we sequenced CTCs, a lymph node metastasis and nine cores of the primary tumor. Fifty-one of 73 CTC mutations (70%) were observed in matched tissue. Moreover, we identified 10 early-trunk and 56 metastatic-trunk mutations in the non-CTC tumor samples and found 90% and 73% of these, respectively, in CTC exomes. This study establishes a foundation for CTC genomics in the clinic.
doi:10.1038/nbt.2892
PMCID: PMC4034575  PMID: 24752078
11.  Activating mTOR mutations in a patient with an extraordinary response on a phase I trial of everolimus and pazopanib 
Cancer discovery  2014;4(5):546-553.
Understanding the genetic mechanisms of sensitivity to targeted anticancer therapies may improve patient selection, response to therapy, and rational treatment designs. One approach to increase this understanding involves detailed studies of exceptional responders: rare patients with unexpected exquisite sensitivity or durable responses to therapy. We identified an exceptional responder in a phase I study of pazopanib and everolimus in advanced solid tumors. Whole exome sequencing of a patient with a 14-month complete response on this trial revealed two simultaneous mutations in mTOR, the target of everolimus. In vitro experiments demonstrate that both mutations are activating, suggesting a biological mechanism for exquisite sensitivity to everolimus in this patient. The use of precision (or “personalized”) medicine approaches to screen cancer patients for alterations in the mTOR pathway may help to identify subsets of patients who may benefit from targeted therapies directed against mTOR.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0353
PMCID: PMC4122326  PMID: 24625776
12.  Analysis of the Correlation between Endorectal MRI Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Biochemical Recurrence in Patients with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer 
Background
Intermediate endpoints are desirable to expedite the integration of neoadjuvant systemic therapy into the treatment strategy for high-risk localized prostate cancer. Endorectal MRI at 1.5 Tesla (1.5T erMRI) response has been utilized as an endpoint in neoadjuvant trials but has not been correlated with clinical outcomes.
Methods
Data were pooled from two trials exploring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk localized prostate cancer. Trial 1 explored docetaxel for 6 months and Trial 2 explored docetaxel plus bevacizumab for 4.5 months, both prior to radical prostatectomy. erMRI was done at baseline and end of chemotherapy. 1.5T erMRI response, based upon T2W sequences, was recorded. Multivariable Cox regression was undertaken to evaluate the association between clinical parameters and biochemical recurrence.
Results
There were 53 evaluable patients in the combined analysis: 20 (33%) achieved a PSA response, 16 (27%) achieved an erMRI partial response, and 24 (40%) achieved an erMRI minor response. Median follow-up was 4.2 years and 33 of 53 evaluable (62%) patients developed biochemical recurrence. On multivariable analysis, PSA response did not correlate with biochemical recurrence (HR=0.58, 95% CI 0.25–1.33) and paradoxically erMRI response was associated with a significantly shorter time to biochemical recurrence (HR=2.47, 95% CI 1.00–6.13).
Conclusions
Response by 1.5T erMRI does not correlate with a decreased likelihood of biochemical recurrence in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and may be associated with inferior outcomes. These data do not support the use of 1.5T erMRI response as a primary endpoint in neoadjuvant chemotherapy trials.
doi:10.1038/pcan.2013.15
PMCID: PMC4026061  PMID: 23712318
Prostate cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; endorectal MRI; intermediate endpoints
13.  FGFR3 expression in primary and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder 
Cancer Medicine  2014;3(4):835-844.
While fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is frequently mutated or overexpressed in nonmuscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC), the prevalence of FGFR3 protein expression and mutation remains unknown in muscle-invasive disease. FGFR3 protein and mRNA expression, mutational status, and copy number variation were retrospectively analyzed in 231 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary UCs, 33 metastases, and 14 paired primary and metastatic tumors using the following methods: immunohistochemistry, NanoString nCounterTM, OncoMap or Affymetrix OncoScanTM array, and Gain and Loss of Analysis of DNA and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer software. FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining was present in 29% of primary UCs and 49% of metastases and did not impact overall survival (P = 0.89, primary tumors; P = 0.78, metastases). FGFR3 mutations were observed in 2% of primary tumors and 9% of metastases. Mutant tumors expressed higher levels of FGFR3 mRNA than wild-type tumors (P < 0.001). FGFR3 copy number gain and loss were rare events in primary and metastatic tumors (0.8% each; 3.0% and 12.3%, respectively). FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining is present in one third of primary muscle-invasive UCs and half of metastases, while FGFR3 mutations and copy number changes are relatively uncommon.
doi:10.1002/cam4.262
PMCID: PMC4303151  PMID: 24846059
Biomarker; bladder cancer; FGFR3; metastatic urothelial carcinoma; muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma; targeted therapy
14.  Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Irinotecan and Cisplatin in Dual-Drug PSMA-Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles 
Nanomedicine (London, England)  2012;8(5):687-698.
Aim
Two unexplored aspects for irinotecan and cisplatin (I&C) combination chemotherapy are (1) actively targeting both drugs to a specific diseased cell type and (2) delivering both drugs on the same vehicle to ensure their synchronized entry into the cell at a well-defined ratio. In this work we report the use of targeted polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) to co-encapsulate and deliver I&C to cancer cells expressing the Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA).
Method
We prepared targeted NPs in a single-step by mixing four different precursors inside microfluidic devices.
Results
I&C were encapsulated in 55-nm NPs and showed an 8-fold increase in internalization by PSMA-expressing LNCaP cells compared to non-targeted NPs. NPs co-encapsulating both drugs exhibited strong synergism in LNCaP cells with a combination index of 0.2.
Conclusion
The strategy of co-encapsulating both irinotecan and cisplatin in a single NP targeted to a specific cell type could potentially be used to treat different types of cancer.
doi:10.2217/nnm.12.134
PMCID: PMC3694785  PMID: 23075285
Nanoparticles; Combination Chemotherapy; Cisplatin; Irinotecan; PSMA
15.  Punctuated Evolution of Prostate Cancer Genomes 
Cell  2013;153(3):666-677.
SUMMARY
The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term “chromoplexy”, frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.021
PMCID: PMC3690918  PMID: 23622249
16.  Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer 
Prostate Cancer  2014;2014:230812.
Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PC) remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT). BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83%) received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70%) were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P = 0.04), whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P = 0.04). Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.
doi:10.1155/2014/230812
PMCID: PMC4016923  PMID: 24864213
17.  A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Inflammatory Gene RNASEL Predicts Outcome After Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer 
Purpose
To study associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNASEL, a gene implicated in inflammation and prostate cancer risk, and outcomes following radiation therapy (RT).
Experimental Design
We followed participants in the prospective US Health Professionals Follow-Up Study treated with RT for early-stage prostate cancer. Three SNPs were genotyped based on previously determined functional and biological significance. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to assess per-allele associations with the primary outcome defined as time to a composite endpoint including development of lethal prostate cancer or biochemical recurrence.
Results
We followed 434 patients treated with RT for a median of 9 years. On multivariate analysis, the rs12757998 variant allele was associated with significantly decreased risk of the composite endpoint (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45–0.94; p = 0.02) driven by decreased biochemical recurrence (HR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.40 – 0.89; p = 0.01) and men treated with external beam (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36 – 0.93; p = 0.02). In contrast, in 516 men from the same cohort treated with radical prostatectomy, we found no significant impact of this variant on outcome. Furthermore, the rs12757998 variant allele significantly modified the association between androgen deprivation therapy and outcomes following RT (p-interaction = 0.02).
Conclusion
We demonstrate an association between RNASEL SNP rs12757998 and outcome after RT for prostate cancer. This SNP is associated with increased circulating C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, suggesting a potential role for inflammation in the response to radiation. If validated, genetic predictors of outcome may help inform prostate cancer management.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-2718
PMCID: PMC3602407  PMID: 23382116
prostate cancer; radiotherapy; inflammation; outcome; single nucleotide polymorphism
18.  Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators 
Prostate Cancer  2014;2014:912943.
Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3), 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4), and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8), respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; P = 0.008) and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of death. Conclusions. Men over the age of 76 with significant comorbidity and a PSA doubling time >2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.
doi:10.1155/2014/912943
PMCID: PMC3950926  PMID: 24701353
19.  Demystifying Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Understanding Current and Future Treatment Strategies 
Immunotherapy has emerged as a viable therapeutic option for patients with prostate cancer. There are multiple potential strategies that employ the immune system including therapeutic cancer vaccines that are designed to stimulate immune cells to target antigens expressed by cancer cells. Sipuleucel-T is a vaccine currently approved for the treatment of minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer, while the vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab are in phase III testing. Although there are no short term changes in disease progression or available biomarkers to assess response, these agents appear to improve survival. One hypothesis suggests that this apparent paradox can be explained by the growth moderating effects of these treatments which do not cause tumor size to diminish, but rather stall or slow their growth rate over time. For this reason the use of immunotherapy earlier in the disease process is being investigated. Another approach is to block immune regulatory mechanisms mediated by the molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1. Additional future strategies will combine immunotherapy with other standard therapies, potentially enhancing the latter’s clinical impact and thereby improving both time to progression and overall survival due to the combined effects of both treatments. Prospective trials are currently evaluating these hypotheses and will ultimately serve to optimize immunotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.
doi:10.1097/PPO.0b013e31828160a9
PMCID: PMC3556901  PMID: 23337757
Immunotherapy; Prostate Cancer; Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Combination Immunotherapy
20.  The Altered Expression of MiR-221/-222 and MiR-23b/-27b Is Associated With the Development of Human Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer 
The Prostate  2011;72(10):10.1002/pros.22456.
BACKGROUND
We have previously identified seven miRs-miR-221, -222, -23b, -27b, -15a, -16-1, and -203, that are differentially expressed in the hormone sensitive LNCaP cell line and the hormone resistant LNCaP-abl cell line and hypothesized that these miRs may characterize certain subtypes of human castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
METHODS
Functional studies in cell culture systems have been performed to determine the effect of alternated expression level on cellular response to androgen treatment. To determine the clinical relevance of the expression patterns of these miRs, we compared the expression levels of these seven miRs in normal prostate tissues from 86 individuals, prostate tumor tissues from 34 individuals with localized hormone naïve disease, and bone-derived metastatic CRPC tissues from 17 individuals.
RESULTS
The altered expression of miR-221/-222 (as previously described) or miR-203 affected the cellular response to androgen treatment, suggesting their potential involvement in the transition to CRPC. However, the expression of miR-23b, -27b, -15a, and -16-1 did not have a significant influence in the cellular response to androgen treatment, suggesting that these miRs may not play a causative role in the CRPC phenotype. Comparison of the expression levels of these miRs in tissue samples revealed that strikingly, ~90% of the analyzed metastatic CRPC tumors could be characterized by the increased miR-221/-222 expression and the down-regulated miR-23b/-27b expression.
CONCLUSIONS
This finding suggests that altered miR-221/-222 and miR-23b/-27b expression may be associated with the CRPC process.
doi:10.1002/pros.22456
PMCID: PMC3810996  PMID: 22127852
microRNA; miR-221/-222; prostate cancer
21.  Association of Prostate Cancer Risk Loci with Disease Aggressiveness and Prostate Cancer–Specific Mortality 
Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)  2011;4(5):10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0292.
Genome-wide association studies have detected more than 30 inherited prostate cancer risk variants. While clearly associated with risk, their relationship with clinical outcome, particularly prostate cancer–specific mortality, is less well known. We investigated whether the risk variants are associated with various measures of disease aggressiveness and prostate cancer–specific mortality. In a cohort of 3,945 men of European ancestry with prostate cancer, we genotyped 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): 35 known prostate cancer risk variants and one SNP (rs4054823) that was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness. The majority of subjects had a diagnosis of prostate cancer between 1995 and 2004, and the cohort included a total of 580 prostate cancer–specific deaths. We evaluated associations between the 36 polymorphisms and prostate cancer survival, as well as other clinical parameters including age at diagnosis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, and Gleason score. Two SNPs, rs2735839 at chromosome 19q13 and rs7679673 at 4q24, were associated with prostate cancer–specific survival (P = 7 × 10−4 and 0.014, respectively). A total of 12 SNPs were associated with other variables (P < 0.05): age at diagnosis, PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score, and/or disease aggressiveness based on D’Amico criteria. Genotype status at rs4054823 was not associated with aggressiveness or outcome. Our results identify two common polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer–specific mortality.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0292
PMCID: PMC3811002  PMID: 21367958
22.  THE TMPRSS2:ERG REARRANGEMENT, ERG EXPRESSION, AND PROSTATE CANCER OUTCOMES: A COHORT STUDY AND META-ANALYSIS 
Background
Whether the genomic rearrangement TMPRSS2:ERG has prognostic value in prostate cancer is unclear.
Methods
Among men with prostate cancer in the prospective Physicians’ Health and Health Professionals Follow-Up Studies, we identified rearrangement status by immunohistochemical assessment of ERG protein expression. We used Cox models to examine associations of ERG overexpression with biochemical recurrence and lethal disease (distant metastases or cancer-specific mortality). In a meta-analysis including 47 additional studies, we used random effects models to estimate associations between rearrangement status and outcomes.
Results
The cohort consisted of 1,180 men treated with radical prostatectomy between 1983 and 2005. During a median follow-up of 12.6 years, 266 men experienced recurrence, and 85 men developed lethal disease. We found no significant association between ERG overexpression and biochemical recurrence (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.78-1.26) or lethal disease (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.61-1.43). The meta-analysis of prostatectomy series included 5,074 men followed for biochemical recurrence (1,623 events), and 2,049 men followed for lethal disease (131 events). TMPRSS2:ERG was associated with stage at diagnosis (RR≥T3 vs. T2: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.16-1.30) but not with biochemical recurrence (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86-1.17) or lethal disease (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.47-2.09).
Conclusions
These results suggest that TMPRSS2:ERG, or ERG overexpression, is associated with tumor stage but does not strongly predict recurrence or mortality among men treated with radical prostatectomy.
Impact
This is the largest prospective cohort study to examine associations of ERG overexpression and lethal prostate cancer among men treated with radical prostatectomy.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0042
PMCID: PMC3671609  PMID: 22736790
TMPRSS2:ERG; prostate cancer; gene fusion; biomarker; prognosis
23.  Exome sequencing identifies recurrent SPOP, FOXA1 and MED12 mutations in prostate cancer 
Nature genetics  2012;44(6):685-689.
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide and causes over 250,000 deaths each year1. Overtreatment of indolent disease also results in significant morbidity2. Common genetic alterations in prostate cancer include losses of NKX3.1 (8p21)3,4 and PTEN (10q23)5,6, gains of the androgen receptor gene (AR)7,8 and fusion of ETS-family transcription factor genes with androgen-responsive promoters9–11. Recurrent somatic base-pair substitutions are believed to be less contributory in prostate tumorigenesis12,13 but have not been systematically analyzed in large cohorts. Here we sequenced the exomes of 112 prostate tumor/normal pairs. Novel recurrent mutations were identified in multiple genes, including MED12 and FOXA1. SPOP was the most frequently mutated gene, with mutations involving the SPOP substrate binding cleft in 6–15% of tumors across multiple independent cohorts. SPOP-mutant prostate cancers lacked ETS rearrangements and exhibited a distinct pattern of genomic alterations. Thus, SPOP mutations may define a new molecular subtype of prostate cancer.
doi:10.1038/ng.2279
PMCID: PMC3673022  PMID: 22610119
24.  EZH2 Oncogenic Activity in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells is Polycomb-Independent 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2012;338(6113):1465-1469.
Epigenetic regulators represent a promising new class of therapeutic targets for cancer. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), silences gene expression via its histone methyltransferase activity. Here we report that the oncogenic function of EZH2 in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is independent of its role as a transcriptional repressor. Instead, it involves the ability of EZH2 to act as a co-activator for critical transcription factors including the androgen receptor (AR). This functional switch is dependent on phosphorylation of EZH2, and requires an intact methyltransferase domain. Hence, targeting the non-PRC2 function of EZH2 may have significant therapeutic efficacy for treating metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
doi:10.1126/science.1227604
PMCID: PMC3625962  PMID: 23239736

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