The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruits could be underestimated if the bound phenolic compounds are not considered. In the present study, the extraction efficiencies of various solvents were investigated in terms of the total content of the free and bound phenolic compounds, as well as the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the extracts.
Five different solvent mixtures were used to extract the free phenolic compounds from litchi pulp. Alkaline and acidic hydrolysis methods were compared for the hydrolysis of bound phenolic compounds from litchi pulp residue. The phenolic compositions of the free and bound fractions from the litchi pulp were identified using HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activities of the litchi pulp extracts were determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays.
Of the solvents tested, aqueous acetone extracted the largest amount of total free phenolic compounds (210.7 mg GAE/100 g FW) from litchi pulp, followed sequentially by aqueous mixtures of methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate, and water itself. The acid hydrolysis method released twice as many bound phenolic compounds as the alkaline hydrolysis method. Nine phenolic compounds were detected in the aqueous acetone extract. In contrast, not all of these compounds were found in the other four extracts. The classification and content of the bound phenolic compounds released by the acid hydrolysis method were higher than those achieved by the alkaline hydrolysis. The aqueous acetone extract showing the highest ORAC value (3406.9 μmol TE/100 g FW) for the free phenolic extracts. For the CAA method, however, the aqueous acetone and methanol extracts (56.7 and 55.1 μmol QE/100 g FW) showed the highest levels of activity of the five extracts tested. The ORAC and CAA values of the bound phenolic compounds obtained by acid hydrolysis were 2.6- and 1.9-fold higher than those obtained using the alkaline hydrolysis method.
The free and bound phenolic contents and profiles and antioxidant activities of the extracts were found to be dependent on the extraction solvent used. Litchi exhibited good cellular antioxidant activity and could be a potentially useful natural source of antioxidants.
Vascular Endothelial (VE)-cadherin homophilic adhesion controls endothelial barrier permeability through assembly of adherens junctions (AJs). We observed that loss of VE-cadherin-mediated adhesion induced the activation of Src and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, which mediated Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores resulting in activation of calcineurin (CaN), a Ca2+-dependent phosphatase. Downregulation of CaN activity induced phosphorylation of serine 162 in End Binding (EB) protein 3. This phospho-switch was required to destabilize the EB3 dimer, suppress microtubule (MT) growth, and assemble AJs. The phospho-defective S162A EB3 mutant, in contrast, induced MT growth in confluent endothelial monolayers and disassembled AJs. Thus, VE-cadherin outside-in signaling regulates cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis and EB3 phosphorylation, which are required for assembly of AJs. These results identify a pivotal function of VE-cadherin homophilic interaction in modulating endothelial barrier through the tuning of MT dynamics.
China is one of the 22 tuberculosis (TB) high-burden countries in the world. As TB is a major public health problem in China, spatial analysis could be applied to detect geographic distribution of TB clusters for targeted intervention on TB epidemics.
Spatial analysis was applied for detecting TB clusters on county-based TB notification data in the national notifiable infectious disease case reporting surveillance system from 2005 to 2011. Two indicators of TB epidemic were used including new sputum smear-positive (SS+) notification rate and total TB notification rate. Global Moran’s I by ArcGIS was used to assess whether TB clustering and its trend were significant. SaTScan software that used the retrospective space-time analysis and Possion probability model was utilized to identify geographic areas and time period of potential clusters with notification rates on county-level from 2005 to 2011.
Two indicators of TB notification had presented significant spatial autocorrelation globally each year (p<0.01). Global Moran’s I of total TB notification rate had positive trend as time went by (t=6.87, p<0.01). The most likely clusters of two indicators had similar spatial distribution and size in the south-central regions of China from 2006 to 2008, and the secondary clusters in two regions: northeastern China and western China. Besides, the secondary clusters of total TB notification rate had two more large clustering centers in Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Qinghai provinces and several smaller clusters in Shanxi, Henan, Hebei and Jiangsu provinces.
The total TB notification cases clustered significantly in some special areas each year and the clusters trended to aggregate with time. The most-likely and secondary clusters that overlapped among two TB indicators had higher TB burden and risks of TB transmission. These were the focused geographic areas where TB control efforts should be prioritized.
T cells play an indispensable role in immune defense against infectious agents, but can also be pathogenic. These T cells develop in the thymus, are exported into the periphery as naïve cells and participate in immune responses. Upon recognition of antigen, they are activated and differentiate into effector and memory T cells. While effector T cells carry out the function of the immune response, memory T cells can last up to the life time of the individual, and are activated by subsequent antigenic exposure. Throughout this life cycle, the T cell uses the same receptor for antigen, the T cell Receptor, a complex multi-subunit receptor. Recognition of antigen presented by peptide/MHC complexes on antigen presenting cells unleashes signaling pathways that control T cell activation at each stage. In this review, we discuss the signals regulated by the T cell receptor in naïve and effector/memory T cells.
AIM: To investigate whether a virus constitutively expressing active Akt is useful to prevent cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).
METHODS: Using cre-loxp technique, we created an Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus, in which Akt is labeled by a HA tag and its expression is driven by myr promoter. Further, through measuring enzyme levels and histological structure, we determined the efficacy of this Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus in inhibiting the development of cirrhosis induced by CCl4 in rats. Lastly, using western blotting, we examined the expression levels and/or phosphorylation status of Akt, apoptotic mediators, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and markers for hepatic stellate cells activation to understand the underlying mechanisms of protective role of this virus.
RESULTS: The Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of inserted Akt gene and sequencing for full length of inserted fragment, which was consistent with the sequence reported in the GenBank. The concentrations of Ad-myr-HA-Akt and adenoviral enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) virus used in the current study were 5.5 × 1011 vp/mL. The portal vein diameter, peak velocity of blood flow, portal blood flow and congestion index were significantly increased in untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups when compared to normal control after the virus was introduced to animal through tail veil injection. In contrast, these parameters in the Akt cirrhosis group were comparable to normal control group. Compared to the normal control, the liver function (Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase and Albumin) was significantly impaired in the untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups. The Akt cirrhosis group showed significant improvement of liver function when compared to the untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups. The Hyp level and portal vein pressure in Akt cirrhosis groups were also significantly lower than other cirrhosis groups. The results of HE and Van Gieson staining indicated that Akt group has better preservation of histological structure and less fibrosis than other cirrhosis groups. The percentage of apoptotic cell was greatly less in Akt cirrhosis group than in other cirrhosis groups. Akt group showed positive HA tag and an increased level of phosphorylated Akt as well as decreased levels of Fas. In contrast, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 levels in Akt group were significantly lower than other cirrhosis groups. Noticeable decrease of DR5 and α-SMA and increase of phosphorylated eNOS were observed in the Akt group when compared to other cirrhosis groups. The NO level in liver was significantly higher in Akt group than other cirrhosis groups, which was consistent with the level of phosphorylated eNOS in these groups.
CONCLUSION: This study suggest that Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus is a useful tool to prevent CCl4-induced cirrhosis in rat model and Akt pathway may be a therapeutic target for human cirrhosis.
Adenovirus; Akt; Gene transfer; Apoptosis; Cirrhosis; Carbon tetrachloride; Rat
This study was conducted to evaluate the mechanism by which n-3 PUFA regulated the protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes. Compared with the BSA control, EPA at concentrations from 400 to 600 µM decreased total protein degradation (P < 0.01). However, the total protein degradation was decreased when the concentrations of DHA ranged from 300 µM to 700 µM (P < 0.01). DHA (400 µM, 24 h) more efficiently decreased the IκBα phosphorylation and increased in the IκBα protein level than 400 µM EPA (P < 0.01). Compared with BSA, 400 µM EPA and DHA resulted in a 47% or 68% induction of the NFκB DNA binding activity, respectively (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, 400 µM EPA and DHA resulted in a 1.3-fold and 2.0-fold induction of the PPARγ expression, respectively (P < 0.01). In C2C12 myotubes for PPARγ knockdown, neither 400 µM EPA nor DHA affected the levels of p-IκBα, total IκBα or NFκB DNA binding activity compared with BSA (P > 0.05). Interestingly, EPA and DHA both still decreased the total protein degradation, although PPARγ knockdown attenuated the suppressive effects of EPA and DHA on the total protein degradation (P < 0.01). These results revealed that DHA inhibits protein degradation more efficiently than EPA by regulating the PPARγ/NF-κB pathway in C2C12 myotubes.
The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) in the regulation of HBV replication remains controversial. In the present study, the role of HBx in regulating HBV replication was initially investigated in both HepG2 and Huh7 in vitro cell lines with a transient transfection system. Next, the regions of HBx responsible for transcriptional transactivation and promotion of HBV replication were mapped in an HBV replication mouse model by in vivo transfection of a series of HBx expression plasmids. In an in vitro setting, HBx deficiency had little effect on HBV replication in Huh7 cells, but impaired HBV replication in HepG2 cells. In an in vivo setting, HBx had a strong enhancing effect on HBV transcription and replication. For the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acids [aa] 51 to 154) was required for this function of HBx, and the regions spanning aa 52 to 72 and 88 to 154 were found to be important for the stimulatory function of HBx on HBV replication. In conclusion, the role of HBx in HBV replication regulation is affected by host cell type, and HBx has an important role in stimulating HBV transcription and replication in hepatocytes in vivo. Further, the transcriptional transactivation function of HBx may be crucial for its stimulatory effect on HBV transcription and replication.
hepatitis B virus; HBx protein; transcription and replication; cell culture; mouse model
The effect of active smoking on development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is controversial, and there are limited clinical data on the relationship between passive smoking and NAFLD. We investigated whether active and passive smoking are associated with NAFLD.
A total of 8580 subjects (2691 men) aged 40 years or older participated in a community-based survey in Shanghai, China. Information on active and passive smoking was collected using a validated questionnaire. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal B-mode ultrasound testing and serum liver enzymes.
NAFLD prevalence was 29.4% in never smokers, 34.2% in former smokers, 27.8% in light smokers (<20 cigarettes/day), 30.8% in moderate smokers (20–39 cigarettes/day), and 43.5% in heavy smokers (≥40 cigarettes/day). Fully adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that, as compared with never smoking, former and heavy smoking were associated with increased risk of prevalent NAFLD, with odds ratios of 1.45 (95% CI 1.05–2.00) and 2.29 (95% CI 1.30–4.03), respectively. Active smoking and body mass index (BMI) had a synergistic effect on the risk of prevalent NAFLD; the combination of these risk factors was associated with the highest observed odds ratio for NAFLD: 8.58. In never-smoking women, passive smoking during both childhood and adulthood was associated with a 25% increase in the risk of prevalent NAFLD (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.05–1.50) as compared with no passive smoking.
Passive smoking and heavy active smoking are associated with prevalent NAFLD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Active smoking and BMI have a synergistic effect on prevalent NAFLD.
active tobacco smoking; passive tobacco smoking; fatty liver
Impairment of lung function was reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between lung function and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in participants without chronic pulmonary disease.
Methodology and Principal Findings
A total of 6,423 participants aged 40 years and above were recruited from Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Lung function, evaluated by forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured with standard spirometry. CIMT was measured with high-resolution ultrasonography by trained physicians. Mean values of FVC (% pred) and FEV1 (% pred) in participants with elevated cIMT were significantly lower than in those without (0.92±0.20 vs. 0.99±0.19, 0.83±0.24 vs. 0.90±0.22; both p-values < 0.0001). The levels of cIMT in the lowest quartile of FVC (% pred) and FEV1 (% pred) were markedly higher than in the second, third and fourth quartile, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all). The lowest quartile of FVC (% pred) and FEV1 (% pred) was associated with increased odds of elevated cIMT, with the fully adjusted odds ratio of 1.34 and 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.65, p = 0.006, 95% CI 1.15–1.72, p = 0.0008), respectively.
Conclusions and Significance
Impaired lung function is associated with elevated cIMT in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. These findings suggest the need to screen impairment of lung function in people without respiratory disease for the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in CVD prevention.
Autonomic neuropathy is common in diabetics and may occur in prediabetes. A new and noninvasive autonomic test-EZSCAN evaluates sudomotor function precisely. No generally accepted EZSCAN thresholds to screen for prediabetes and diabetes have been defined.
Methodology and Principal Findings
Cross-sectional study of 5, 824 Chinese adults aged 40 and older was conducted in Shanghai, China. We used EZSCAN to evaluate autonomic function in different glucose status and screen for prediabetes and diabetes. The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes were 21.9% and 17.5% respectively. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of EZSCAN value had odds ratios for having dysglycemia (prediabetes or diabetes) of 2.08 (95% CI 1.67–2.58) in total population, 2.89 (95% CI 2.06–4.05) in men and 1.70 (95% CI 1.28–2.25) in women after adjustment for confounding factors. EZSCAN value improved the areas under ROC curve for detection of dysglycemia or diabetes beyond the contribution of conventional risk factors by 0.8% and 12.9%. The cut-off point of EZSCAN value higher than 30% provided reasonable sensitivities (70.3–83.7%) to detect dysglycemia not only in total population regardless of sex but also in individuals with high risk of developing diabetes.
Conclusions and Significance
EZSCAN value higher than 30% indicate an increased risk of prevalent prediabetes and diabetes, suggesting that subjects with EZSCAN ≥30% should be further evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test. The improvement of EZSCAN for diabetes detection was still of limited clinical relevance. Thus the clinical application value of EZSCAN is needed to be explored in future studies.
Previous studies indicated that apolipoprotein measurements predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, associations between apolipoproteins and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were less explored.
Methodology and Principal Findings
The cross-sectional study included 6069 participants aged 40 years or older with NGT from Shanghai, China. Serum fasting traditional lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and triglycerides [TG]), apoA-I and apoB were assessed. A high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure CIMT. We found CIMT increased progressively across the quartiles of serum apoB (p for trend <0.0001). In logistic regression, concentrations of apoB (odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–1.36), TC (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14–1.32), LDL-C (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.16–1.34) and TG (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04–1.20) were significantly related to elevated CIMT after adjusted for age and sex. Meanwhile, the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17–1.34) related to elevated CIMT. ApoB (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.00–1.51) and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04–1.36) remained significantly associated with elevated CIMT, after adjusted for the traditional CVD risk factors including traditional lipids.
Conclusions and Significance
There were significant associations between serum apoB, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and elevated CIMT. Serum apoB and the apoB/apoA-I ratio might be independent predictors of early atherosclerosis in NGT.
By moving the alkoxy group on the spacer from position 5 to position 4 to add another protocol for the algorithm for intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions, highly regioselectivity of noncovalent synthesis of the hydrazide-based cyclic hexamers was achieved: one out of thirteen possible isomeric cyclic hexamers selectively formed and thus precise control of the two hydrazide units in the cyclic hexamers (in or out) was accomplished.
Glioma is among the ten most common causes of cancer-related death and has no effective treatment for it, so we are trying to find a new target for anticancer treatment. This study investigates the different expression of SRPK1 as a novel protein in glioma, which can influence tumor cells biological characteristics in normoxic and hypoxic environment. The expression levels of SRPK1 protein in glioma cell lines transfected with siSRPK1 or not were examined using immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The impact of SRPK1 on the biological characteristics of U251 cells was further studied using methylthiazol tetrazolium assays, flow cytometry, and Transwell invasion chamber assays. The results showed that knockdown of SRPK1 inhibited tumor cells growth, invasion and migration in normoxic condition, but portion of the effect could be reversed in hypoxia. SRPK1 expression was induced in glioma cells by DDP treated, but not TMZ, in both normoxia and hypoxia conditions. We propose SRPK1 as a new molecular player contributing to the early treatment of glioma.
SRPK1; glioma; growth; metastasis; chemosensitivity.
The effects of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) rtA181T/sW172* mutation on viral replication and pathogenicity was concerned recently. This study aimed to investigate the biological characteristics of rtA181T/sW172* mutant strain of HBV in animal model.
The rtA181T/sW172* mutant plasmid was constructed using the pHBV4.1 (wild type HBV) as a template. The wild and mutant HBV replication mouse models were established utilizing a hydrodynamic technique. The titers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen, and HBV DNA in serum, and the levels of HBsAg, hepatitis B core antigen(HBcAg), HBV DNA replication intermediates (HBV DNA RI) and HBV RNA in liver were measured after 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 days of plasmid injection.
In wild-type HBV replication mouse model, serum HBsAg was high on day 1, 3, and 5, but became lower since day 7; while in mutant HBV mouse model, serum HBsAg was always at very low level. In liver tissues, HBV DNA RI of wild type HBV was detected on day 1 after transfection. The level subsequently peaked on day 3, gradually declined after day 5, and was almost undetectable on day 10. However, the HBV DNA RI levels of the mutant strain were always higher and lasted longer until day 15. Consistently, the expression levels of HBsAg and HBcAg in liver of the mutant group were significantly increased.
In the case of the HBV rtA181T/sW172* mutation, the secretion of serum HBsAg was impaired, whereas HBV DNA replication and HBsAg/HBcAg expression were increased in liver. These results suggest that the mutation can impair HBsAg secretion, and may cause the accumulation of viral core particles in liver.
Hepatitis B virus; rtA181T/sW172* mutation; Transcription and replication; Hepatitis B surface antigen; Secretion defect; Drug sensitivity
In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded base stations than the evacuation compliance rate of 90%.
A major pathological feature of chronic airway diseases is the elevated expression of gel-forming mucins. NF-κB activation in airway epithelial cells has been shown to play a proinflammatory role in chronic airway diseases; however, the specific role of NF-κB in mucin gene expression has not been characterized. In this study, we show that the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-17A, both of which use the NF-κB pathway, are potent inducers of MUC5B mRNA expression in both well differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells and the human bronchial epithelial cell line, HBE1. MUC5B induction by these cytokines was both time- and dose-dependent, and was attenuated by the small molecule inhibitor, NF-κB inhibitor III, as well as p65 small interfering RNA, suggesting that the regulation of MUC5B expression by these cytokines is via an NF-κB–based transcriptional mechanism. Deletion analysis of the MUC5B promoter demonstrated that IL-1β– and IL-17A–induced promoter activity resides within the −4.17-kb to −2.56-kb region relative to the transcriptional start site. This region contains three putative κB-binding sites (NF-κB-1, −3,786/−3,774; NF-κB-2, −3,173/−3,161; and NF-κB-3, −2,921/−2,909). Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed enhanced binding of the p50 NF-κB subunit to the NF-κB-3 site after cytokine stimulation. We conclude that an NF-κB-based transcriptional mechanism is involved in MUC5B regulation by IL-1β and IL-17A in airway epithelium. This is the first demonstration of the participation of NF-κB and its specific binding site in cytokine-mediated airway MUC5B expression.
cytokines; gene regulation; mucin; transcription factors; lung
We previously reported an IGF gene expression signature, based upon genes induced or repressed by IGF-I, which correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. We tested if the IGF signature was affected by anti-IGF-IR inhibitors, and if the IGF signature correlated with response to a dual anti-IGF-IR/InsR inhibitor BMS-754807.
An IGF gene expression signature was examined in human breast tumors and cell lines, and changes noted following treatment of cell lines or xenografts with anti-IGF-IR antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sensitivity of cells to BMS-754807 was correlated with levels of the IGF signature. Human primary tumorgrafts were analyzed for the IGF signature and IGF-IR levels and activity, and MC1 tumorgrafts treated with BMS-754807 and chemotherapy.
The IGF gene expression signature was reversed in three different models (cancer cell lines or xenografts) treated with three different anti-IGF-IR therapies. The IGF signature was present in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) and TNBC cell lines. TNBC cell lines were especially sensitive to BMS-754807, and sensitivity was significantly correlated to expression of the IGF gene signature. The TNBC primary human tumorgraft MC1 showed high levels of both IGF-IR expression and activity, and IGF gene signature score. Treatment of MC1 with BMS-754807 showed growth inhibition and in combination with docetaxel tumor regression occurred until no tumor was palpable. Regression was associated with reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and mitotic catastrophe.
These studies provide a clear biological rationale to test anti-IGF-IR/InsR therapy in combination with chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.
IGF-IR; triple-negative breast cancer; BMS-754807; IGF; small molecule inhibitor
TGF-β signaling regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell plasticity and migration. Its dysfunctions can result in various kinds of diseases, such as cancer and tissue fibrosis. TGF-β signaling is tightly regulated at different levels along the pathway, and modulation of TGF-β receptor activity is a critical step for signaling regulation. This review focuses on our recent understanding of regulation of TGF-β receptor activity.
TGF-β receptor; phosphorylation; ubiquitination; degradation
RNA-Seq allows a theoretically unbiased analysis of both genome-wide transcription levels and mutation status of a tumor. Using this technique we sought to identify novel candidate therapeutic targets expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
Specifically, we sought candidate invasion/migration targets based on expression levels across all tumors, novelty of expression in EOC, and known function. RNA-Seq analysis revealed the high expression of CD151, a transmembrane protein, across all stages of EOC. Expression was confirmed at both the mRNA and protein levels using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively.
In both EOC tumors and normal ovarian surface epithelial cells we demonstrated CD151 to be localized to the membrane and cell-cell junctions in patient-derived and established EOC cell lines. We next evaluated its role in EOC dissemination using two ovarian cancer-derived cell lines with differential levels of CD151 expression. Targeted antibody-mediated and siRNA inhibition or loss of CD151 in SKOV3 and OVCAR5 cell lines effectively inhibited their migration and invasion.
Taken together, these findings provide the first proof-of-principle demonstration for a next generation sequencing approach to identifying candidate therapeutic targets and reveal CD151 to play a role in EOC dissemination.
CD151; Epithelial Ovarian Cancer; Invasion; Migration; Metastasis; RNA-Seq
Hepatocyte nuclear factors 4 alpha (HNF4α) and 3 beta (HNF3β) are members of a group of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) that play important roles in regulating the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver inflammation. However, the relationship of the level of HNF4α and HNF3β with the severity of HBV-infected liver diseases is unclear. In this study, liver tissue samples from different types of HBV patients were collected, and HNF4α and HNF3β expression were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of HNF4α was significant higher in patients with severe hepatitis B(SHB) than those with chronic hepatitis B(CHB) and liver cirrhosis(LC) (both P < 0.05), but similar between patients with CHB and LC (P > 0.05). And the expression of HNF3β was similar among patients with CHB, LC and SHB (P > 0.05 for all pairwise comparison). This suggests that the expression level of HNF4α was different in patients with different outcome of HBV infection, high expression level of HNF4α may correlate with occurrence of SHB
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha; Hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 beta; Chronic hepatitis B; Severe hepatitis B; Liver cirrhosis; Immunohistochemistry
Preclinical investigations have identified insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling as a key mechanism for cancer growth and resistance to clinically useful therapies in multiple tumor types, including breast cancer. Thus, agents targeting and blocking IGF signaling have promise in the treatment of solid tumors. To identify possible mechanisms of resistance to blocking the IGF pathway, we generated a cell line that was resistant to the IGF-1R/InsR benzimidazole inhibitors BMS-554417 and BMS-536924 and compared expression profiles of the parental and resistant cells lines using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 arrays. Compared to MCF-7 cells, BCRP expression was increased 9-fold in MCF-7R4, which was confirmed by immunoblotting and was highly statistically significant (p= 7.13E-09). BCRP was also upregulated in an independently derived resistant cell line, MCF7 924R. MCF-7R4 cells had significantly lower intracellular accumulation of BMS-536924 compared to MCF-7 cells. Expression of BCRP in MCF-7 cells was sufficient to reduce sensitivity to BMS-536924. Furthermore, knockdown of BCRP in MCF-7R4 cells resensitized cells to BMS-536924. Four cell lines selected for resistance to the pyrrolotriazine IGF-1R/InsR inhibitor, BMS-754807 did not have upregulation of BCRP. These data suggest that benzimidazole IGF-1R/InsR inhibitors may select for upregulation and be effluxed by the ABC transporter BCRP, contributing to resistance. However, pyrrolotriazine IGF-1R/InsR inhibitors do not appear to be affected by this resistance mechanism.
BCRP; BMS-536924; Receptor; IGF Type I; tyrosine kinase inhibitor mechanism of resistance
RAD51 is a key protein of homologous recombination that plays a critical role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and interstrand cross links (ICL). To better understand the cellular function(s) of human RAD51, we propose to develop specific RAD51 inhibitors. RAD51 inhibitors may also help to increase the potency of anticancer drugs that act by inducing DSBs or ICLs, e.g., cisplatin or ionizing radiation. In vitro, RAD51 promotes DNA strand exchange between homologous ss- and dsDNA. Here, we developed a DNA strand exchange assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer and used this assay to identify RAD51 inhibitors by high throughput screening of the NIH Small Molecule Repository (>200,000 compounds). Seventeen RAD51 inhibitors were identified and analyzed for selectivity using additional non-fluorescent DNA-based assays. As a result, we identified a compound (B02) that specifically inhibited human RAD51 (IC50 = 27.4 μM), but not its E. coli homologue RecA (IC50 > 250 μM). Two other compounds (A03 and A10) were identified that inhibited both RAD51 and RecA, but not the structurally unrelated RAD54 protein. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis allowed us to identify the structural components of B02 that are critical for RAD51 inhibition. The described approach can be used for identification of specific inhibitors of other human proteins that play an important role in DNA repair, e.g., RAD54 or Bloom’s syndrome helicase.
homologous recombination; RAD51; DNA strand exchange; small molecule inhibitors; high throughput screening
To explore the relationship between psychological stress and masticatory muscle pain, we created a communication stress animal model to determine whether psychological stress could induce increased mechanical sensitivity in masticatory muscles and to study the changes of mechanical nociceptive thresholds after stress removal. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (CON), a foot-shocked group (FS, including 3 subgroups recorded as FS-1, FS-2, and FS-3), a psychological stress group (PS), and a drug treatment group (DT). PS and DT rats were confined in a communication box for one hour a day to observe the psychological responses of neighboring FS rats.Measurements of the mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the bilateral temporal and masseter muscles showed a stimulus-response relationship between psychological stress and muscle mechanical sensitivity. The DT rats, who received a diazepam injection, showed almost the same mechanical sensitivity of the masticatory muscles to that of the control in response to psychological stress. Fourteen days after the psychological stressor was removed, the mechanical nociceptive thresholds returned to normal. These findings suggest that psychological stress is directly related to masticatory muscle pain. Removal of the stressor could be a useful method for relieving mechanical sensitivity increase induced by psychological stress.
Jia and colleagues describe how a combination of increased domestic funding, supplemented by foreign loans and donations since 2002, have led to a dramatic increase in tuberculosis case finding in China.
To investigate the effects of psychological stress on the
masticatory muscles of rats, a communication box was applied to
induce the psychological stress (PS) in rats. The successful
establishment of psychological stimulation was confirmed by
elevated serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and
changed behaviors in the elevated plusmaze apparatus. The energy
metabolism of the bilateral masseter muscles was tested via
chemocolorimetric analysis, whereas muscle ultrastructure was
assessed by electron microscopy. In comparison to the control
group, the PS group showed evidence of swollen mitochondria with
cristae loss and reduced matrix density in the masticatory muscles
after three weeks of stimulation; after five weeks of stimulation,
severe vacuolar changes to the mitochondria were observed.
Increased vascular permeability of the masticatory muscle
capillaries was found in the five-week PS rats. In addition, there
was decreased activity of Na+-K+ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase and a
simultaneous increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and
lactic acid in the masticatory muscles of PS rats. Together, these
results indicate that psychological stress induces alterations in
the ultrastructure and energy metabolism of masticatory muscles in