Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ~9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including 10,052 breast cancer cases and 12,575 controls of European ancestry, from which we selected 29,807 SNPs for further genotyping. These SNPs were genotyped in 45,290 cases and 41,880 controls of European ancestry from 41 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The SNPs were genotyped as part of a collaborative genotyping experiment involving four consortia (Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study, COGS) and used a custom Illumina iSelect genotyping array, iCOGS, comprising more than 200,000 SNPs. We identified SNPs at 41 new breast cancer susceptibility loci at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8). Further analyses suggest that more than 1,000 additional loci are involved in breast cancer susceptibility.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. To identify genetic loci that modify breast cancer risk related to MHT use in postmenopausal women, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) with replication. In stage I, we performed a case-only GWAS in 731 invasive breast cancer cases from the German case-control study Mammary Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE). The 1,200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing the lowest P values for interaction with current MHT use (within 6 months prior to breast cancer diagnosis), were carried forward to stage II, involving pooled case-control analyses including additional MARIE subjects (1,375 cases, 1,974 controls) as well as 795 cases and 764 controls of a Swedish case-control study. A joint P value was calculated for a combined analysis of stages I and II. Replication of the most significant interaction of the combined stage I and II was performed using 5,795 cases and 5,390 controls from nine studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The combined stage I and II yielded five SNPs on chromosomes 2, 7, and 18 with joint P values <6 × 10−6 for effect modification of current MHT use. The most significant interaction was observed for rs6707272 (P = 3 × 10−7) on chromosome 2 but was not replicated in the BCAC studies (P = 0.21). The potentially modifying SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium with SNPs in TRIP12 and DNER on chromosome 2 and SETBP1 on chromosome 18, previously linked to carcinogenesis. However, none of the interaction effects reached genome-wide significance. The inability to replicate the top SNP × MHT interaction may be due to limited power of the replication phase. Our study, however, suggests that there are unlikely to be SNPs that interact strongly enough with MHT use to be clinically significant in European women.
Postmenopausal breast cancer risk; Menopausal hormone therapy; Polymorphisms; Gene-environment interaction; Genome-wide association study; Case-only study
The length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to ∼50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain <15% of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using genome-wide complex trait analysis. However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P = 1.9 × 10−9), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility.
We tested the hypotheses that CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity is associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer–specific death, and risk of a second breast cancer in women with a first breast cancer.
Patients and Methods
From 22 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, 25,571 white women with invasive breast cancer were genotyped for CHEK2*1100delC and observed for up to 20 years (median, 6.6 years). We examined risk of early death and breast cancer–specific death by estrogen receptor status and risk of a second breast cancer after a first breast cancer in prospective studies.
CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity was found in 459 patients (1.8%). In women with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for heterozygotes versus noncarriers were 1.43 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.82; log-rank P = .004) for early death and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.15; log-rank P < .001) for breast cancer–specific death. In all women, hazard ratio for a second breast cancer was 2.77 (95% CI, 2.00 to 3.83; log-rank P < .001) increasing to 3.52 (95% CI, 2.35 to 5.27; log-rank P < .001) in women with estrogen receptor–positive first breast cancer only.
Among women with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer, CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity was associated with a 1.4-fold risk of early death, a 1.6-fold risk of breast cancer–specific death, and a 3.5-fold risk of a second breast cancer. This is one of the few examples of a genetic factor that influences long-term prognosis being documented in an extensive series of women with breast cancer.
Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density.
We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied.
Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use.
Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.
Not all breast cancer patients respond to tamoxifen treatment, possibly due to genetic predisposition. As tamoxifen-induced reductions in percent mammographic density (PMD) have been linked to the risk and prognosis of breast cancer, we conducted a candidate gene study to investigate the association between germline CYP2D6 polymorphisms and PMD change.
Baseline and follow-up mammograms were retrieved for 278 tamoxifen-treated subjects with CYP2D6 metabolizer status (extensive (EM), heterozygous extensive/intermediate (hetEM/IM) or poor metabolizer (PM)). Logistic regression analyses were conducted comparing subjects who experienced >10% reduction in PMD to those who experienced ≤10% reduction or increase.
After multivariate adjustment, PMD change was found to be significantly associated with the degree of CYP2D6 enzyme functionality (Ptrend = 0.021). Compared with EM, hetEM/IM and PM were 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10 to 0.79) and 71% (0.03 to 2.62) less likely to experience a >10% reduction, respectively.
Tamoxifen-induced change in PMD appears to have a genetic component.
Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed countries. To identify genetic variants associated with endometrial cancer risk, we undertook a genome-wide association study involving 1,265 endometrial cancer cases from Australia and the UK and 5,190 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared for 519,655 SNPs. Forty-seven SNPs that showed evidence of association with endometrial cancer in stage 1 were genotyped in 3,957 additional cases and 6,886 controls. We identified an endometrial cancer susceptibility locus close to HNF1B on chromosome 17q (SNP rs4430796: P=7.1×10−10), that is also associated with risk of prostate cancer and is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes.
Recent genome-wide association studies identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated these and 62 other SNPs for their prognostic relevance. Confirmed BC risk SNPs rs17468277 (CASP8), rs1982073 (TGFB1), rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs13281615 (8q24), rs3817198 (LSP1), rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs13387042 (2q35), rs4973768 (SLC4A7), rs6504950 (COX11) and rs10941679 (5p12) were genotyped for 25 853 BC patients with the available follow-up; 62 other SNPs, which have been suggested as BC risk SNPs by a GWAS or as candidate SNPs from individual studies, were genotyped for replication purposes in subsets of these patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to test the association of these SNPs with overall survival (OS) and BC-specific survival (BCS). For the confirmed loci, we performed an accessory analysis of publicly available gene expression data and the prognosis in a different patient group. One of the 11 SNPs, rs3803662 (TOX3) and none of the 62 candidate/GWAS SNPs were associated with OS and/or BCS at P<0.01. The genotypic-specific survival for rs3803662 suggested a recessive mode of action [hazard ratio (HR) of rare homozygous carriers=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35, P=0.0002 and HR=1.29; 95% CI: 1.12–1.47, P=0.0003 for OS and BCS, respectively]. This association was seen similarly in all analyzed tumor subgroups defined by nodal status, tumor size, grade and estrogen receptor. Breast tumor expression of these genes was not associated with prognosis. With the exception of rs3803662 (TOX3), there was no evidence that any of the SNPs associated with BC susceptibility were associated with the BC survival. Survival may be influenced by a distinct set of germline variants from those influencing susceptibility.
Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but it is unknown whether density at first breast cancer diagnosis and changes during follow-up influences risk of non-simultaneous contralateral breast cancer (CBC).
We collected mammograms for CBC-patients (cases, N = 211) and unilateral breast cancer patients (controls, N = 211), individually matched on age and calendar period of first breast cancer diagnosis, type of adjuvant therapy and length of follow-up (mean follow-up time: 8.25 years). The odds of CBC as a function of changes of density during follow-up were investigated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for non-dense area at diagnosis.
Patients who experienced ≥10% absolute decrease in percent density had a 55% decreased odds of CBC (OR = 0.45 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.84) relative to patients who had little or no change in density from baseline to first follow-up mammogram (mean = 1.6 (SD = 0.6) years after diagnosis), whereas among those who experienced an absolute increase in percent density we could not detect any effect on the odds of CBC (OR = 0.83 95% CI: 0.24 to 2.87).
Decrease of mammographic density within the first two years after first diagnosis is associated with a significantly reduced risk of CBC, this potential new risk predictor can thus contribute to decision-making in follow-up strategies and treatment.
Contralateral breast cancer; mammographic density; risk; breast density; epidemiology
Percent mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and has a heritable component that remains largely unidentified. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of percent mammographic density to identify novel genetic loci associated with this trait. In stage 1, we combined three GWASs of percent density comprised of 1241 women from studies at the Mayo Clinic and identified the top 48 loci (99 single nucleotide polymorphisms). We attempted replication of these loci in 7018 women from seven additional studies (stage 2). The meta-analysis of stage 1 and 2 data identified a novel locus, rs1265507 on 12q24, associated with percent density, adjusting for age and BMI (P = 4.43 × 10−8). We refined the 12q24 locus with 459 additional variants (stage 3) in a combined analysis of all three stages (n = 10 377) and confirmed that rs1265507 has the strongest association in the 12q24 region (P = 1.03 × 10−8). Rs1265507 is located between the genes TBX5 and TBX3, which are members of the phylogenetically conserved T-box gene family and encode transcription factors involved in developmental regulation. Understanding the mechanism underlying this association will provide insight into the genetics of breast tissue composition.
It is debated whether mammographic density gives rise to more aggressive cancers. We therefore aimed to study the influence of mammographic density on prognosis.
This is a case-only study within a population-based case-control study. Cases were all postmenopausal women in Sweden with incident breast cancer, diagnosed 1993-1995, and aged 50-74 years. Women with pre-diagnostic/diagnostic mammograms were included (n = 1774). Mammographic density of the unaffected breast was assessed using a computer-assisted thresholding technique. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study recurrence and survival with and without stratification on surgical procedure (breast-conserving surgery vs. mastectomy).
Percentage density (PD) was associated with both local and locoregional recurrence even after adjustment for established prognosticators; hazards ratio (HR) 1.92, p = 0.039, for local recurrence and HR 1.67, p = 0.033, for locoregional recurrence for women with PD≥25% compared to PD<25%. Stratification on surgical procedure showed that the associations were also present in mastectomized women. PD was neither associated with distant recurrence nor survival.
High mammographic density is an independent risk factor of local and locoregional recurrence but is neither associated with distant metastasis nor survival. The relationships with local and locoregional recurrences were also present in women treated with mastectomy, indicating that they are not merely explained by density masking residual disease in women treated with breast-conserving surgery. Rather there appears to be a true association. Thus, mammographic density should possibly influence adjuvant therapy decisions in the future.
Validation of an association between the UGT1A6_19_T>G (rs6759892) polymorphism and overall breast cancer risk. A pilot study included two population-based case-control studies from Germany (MARIE-GENICA). An independent validation study comprised four independent breast cancer case-control studies from Finland (KBCP, OBCS), Germany (BBCC), and Sweden (SASBAC). The pooled analysis included 7418 cases and 8720 controls from all six studies. Participants were of European descent. Genotyping was done by MALDI-TOF MS and statistical analysis was performed by logistic regression adjusted for age and study. The increased overall breast cancer risk for women with the UGT1A6_19_GG genotype which was observed in the pilot study was confirmed in the set of four independent study collections (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.22; p = 0.001). The pooled study showed a similar effect (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.14; p = 0.001). The risk effect on the basis of allele frequencies was highly significant, the pooled analysis showed an OR of 1.11 (95% CI 1.06–1.16; p = 5.8 × 10−6). We confirmed the association of UGT1A6_19_GG with increased overall breast cancer risk and conclude that our result from a well powered multi-stage study adds a novel candidate to the panel of validated breast cancer susceptibility loci.
UGT1A6; polymorphism; breast cancer risk; validation; metabolism
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. To date, 22 common breast cancer susceptibility loci have been identified accounting for ~ 8% of the heritability of the disease. We followed up 72 promising associations from two independent Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in ~70,000 cases and ~68,000 controls from 41 case-control studies and nine breast cancer GWAS. We identified three new breast cancer risk loci on 12p11 (rs10771399; P=2.7 × 10−35), 12q24 (rs1292011; P=4.3×10−19) and 21q21 (rs2823093; P=1.1×10−12). SNP rs10771399 was associated with similar relative risks for both estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and ER-positive breast cancer, whereas the other two loci were associated only with ER-positive disease. Two of the loci lie in regions that contain strong plausible candidate genes: PTHLH (12p11) plays a crucial role in mammary gland development and the establishment of bone metastasis in breast cancer, while NRIP1 (21q21) encodes an ER co-factor and has a role in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth.
Mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is a heritable marker of breast cancer susceptibility. Little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. We examined whether common low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility variants contribute to inter-individual differences in mammographic density measures.
We established an international consortium (DENSNP) of 19 studies from 10 countries, comprising 16,895 Caucasian women, to conduct a pooled cross-sectional analysis of common breast cancer susceptibility variants in 14 independent loci and mammographic density measures. Dense and non-dense areas, and percent density, were measured using interactive-thresholding techniques. Mixed linear models were used to assess the association between genetic variants and the square roots of mammographic density measures adjusted for study, age, case status, body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status.
Consistent with their breast cancer associations, the C-allele of rs3817198 in LSP1 was positively associated with both adjusted dense area (p=0.00005) and adjusted percent density (p=0.001) whereas the A-allele of rs10483813 in RAD51L1 was inversely associated with adjusted percent density (p=0.003), but not with adjusted dense area (p=0.07).
We identified two common breast cancer susceptibility variants associated with mammographic measures of radio-dense tissue in the breast gland.
We examined the association of 14 established breast cancer susceptibility loci with mammographic density phenotypes within a large genetic consortium and identified two breast cancer susceptibility variants, LSP1-rs3817198 and RAD51L1-rs10483813, associated with mammographic measures and in the same direction as the breast cancer association.
breast density; breast cancer; genetics; biomarkers; mammography
Research has found that patients treated for cancer generally have an increased risk for cognitive problems. However, many studies have focused on cognitive performance of cancer patients under the age of 65 who received chemotherapy treatment. Less studied is the extent to which cancer diagnosis may be associated with cognitive impairment as a late effect for older adults.
In this retrospective, co-twin design study, twin pairs 65 years of age and older discordant for cancer were identified from the Swedish Twin Registry. A pair was included if both twins participated in cognitive screening, and the twin with the cancer history was screened at least 3 years after cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Female, but not male, survivors of cancer were significantly (odds ratio = 2.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.23–4.74) more likely to exhibit cognitive impairment 3 or more years after cancer diagnosis and treatment as their co-twin without a history of cancer. In particular, risk was higher among survivors of gynecologic cancers (odds ratio = 10.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.28–78.11) and those who had treatments directly or potentially affecting ovarian functioning (odds ratio = 13.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.70–99.36) compared with their respective co-twins.
These findings suggest that localized treatments and other cancer-related factors should be explored as determinants that underlie the association between cancer diagnosis and long-term cognitive impairment.
Cancer treatment; Long-term effects; Cognitive impairment; Twin analysis
Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11 928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer.
During the recent years, rapid development of sequencing technologies and a competitive market has enabled researchers to perform massive sequencing projects at a reasonable cost. As the price for the actual sequencing reactions drops, enabling more samples to be sequenced, the relative price for preparing libraries gets larger and the practical laboratory work becomes complex and tedious. We present a cost-effective strategy for simplified library preparation compatible with both whole genome- and targeted sequencing experiments. An optimized enzyme composition and reaction buffer reduces the number of required clean-up steps and allows for usage of bulk enzymes which makes the whole process cheap, efficient and simple. We also present a two-tagging strategy, which allows for multiplex sequencing of targeted regions. To prove our concept, we have prepared libraries for low-pass sequencing from 100 ng DNA, performed 2-, 4- and 8-plex exome capture and a 96-plex capture of a 500 kb region. In all samples we see a high concordance (>99.4%) of SNP calls when comparing to commercially available SNP-chip platforms.
Background: Although high doses of ionizing radiation have long been linked to circulatory disease, evidence for an association at lower exposures remains controversial. However, recent analyses suggest excess relative risks at occupational exposure levels.
Objectives: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information on circulatory disease risks associated with moderate- and low-level whole-body ionizing radiation exposures.
Methods: We conducted PubMed/ISI Thomson searches of peer-reviewed papers published since 1990 using the terms “radiation” AND “heart” AND “disease,” OR “radiation” AND “stroke,” OR “radiation” AND “circulatory” AND “disease.” Radiation exposures had to be whole-body, with a cumulative mean dose of < 0.5 Sv, or at a low dose rate (< 10 mSv/day). We estimated population risks of circulatory disease from low-level radiation exposure using excess relative risk estimates from this meta-analysis and current mortality rates for nine major developed countries.
Results: Estimated excess population risks for all circulatory diseases combined ranged from 2.5%/Sv [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8, 4.2] for France to 8.5%/Sv (95% CI: 4.0, 13.0) for Russia.
Conclusions: Our review supports an association between circulatory disease mortality and low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation. Our analysis was limited by heterogeneity among studies (particularly for noncardiac end points), the possibility of uncontrolled confounding in some occupational groups by lifestyle factors, and higher dose groups (> 0.5 Sv) generally driving the observed trends. If confirmed, our findings suggest that overall radiation-related mortality is about twice that currently estimated based on estimates for cancer end points alone (which range from 4.2% to 5.6%/Sv for these populations).
cancer; circulatory disease; heart disease; radiation; stroke
It is unclear whether estrogen receptor (ER)-status of first primary breast cancer is associated with risk of metachronous (non-simultaneous) contralateral breast cancer (CBC), and to what extent endocrine therapy affects this association.
We studied the effect of ER-status of the first cancer on the risk of CBC overall, and for different ER-subtypes of CBC, using a large, population-based cohort. The cohort consisted of all women diagnosed with breast cancer in the Stockholm region 1976–2005; 25715 patients, of whom 940 suffered CBC. The relative risk was analyzed mainly using standardized incidence ratios (SIR).
Women with breast cancer had a doubled risk of CBC compared to the risk of breast cancer in the general female population (SIR: 2.22 [2.08–2.36]), for women with a previous ER-positive cancer: SIR = 2.30 (95% CI:2.11–2.50) and for women with a previous ER-negative cancer: SIR = 2.17 (95% CI:1.82–2.55). The relative risk of ER-positive and ER-negative CBC was very similar for women with ER-positive first cancer (SIR = 2.02 [95%CI: 1.80–2.27] and SIR = 1.89 [95%CI: 1.46–2.41] respectively) while for patients with ER-negative first cancer the relative risk was significantly different (SIR = 1.27 [95% CI:0.94–1.68] for ER-positive CBC and SIR = 4.96 [95%CI:3.67–6.56] for ER-negative CBC). Patients with ER-positive first cancer who received hormone therapy still had a significantly higher risk of CBC than the risk of breast cancer for the general female population (SIR = 1.74 [95% CI:1.47–2.03]).
The risk of CBC for a breast cancer patient is increased to about two-fold, compared to the risk of breast cancer in the general female population. This excess risk decreases, but does not disappear, with adjuvant endocrine therapy. Patients with ER-positive first cancers have an increased risk for CBC of both ER subtypes, while patients with ER-negative first cancer have a specifically increased risk of ER-negative CBC.
Percent mammographic breast density (PMD) is a strong heritable risk factor for breast cancer. However, the pathways through which this risk is mediated are still unclear. To explore whether PMD and breast cancer have a shared genetic basis, we identified genetic variants most strongly associated with PMD in a published meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and used these to construct risk scores for 3628 breast cancer cases and 5190 controls from the UK2 GWAS of breast cancer. The signed per-allele effect estimates of SNPs were multiplied with the respective allele counts in the individual and summed over all SNPs to derive the risk score for an individual. These scores were included as the exposure variable in a logistic regression model with breast cancer case-control status as the outcome. This analysis was repeated using ten different cut-offs for the most significant density SNPs (1-10% representing 5,222-50,899 SNPs). Permutation analysis was also performed across all 10 cut-offs. The association between risk score and breast cancer was significant for all cut-offs from 3-10% of top density SNPs, being most significant for the 6% (2-sided P=0.002) to 10% (P=0.001) cut-offs (overall permutation P=0.003). Women in the top 10% of the risk score distribution had a 31% increased risk of breast cancer [OR= 1.31 (95%CI 1.08-1.59)] compared to women in the bottom 10%. Together, our results demonstrate that PMD and breast cancer have a shared genetic basis that is mediated through a large number of common variants.
breast cancer; mammographic density; SNPs; polygenic; Mendelian Randomisation
Given that the transcriptional regulatory activity of estrogen receptor (ER) is modulated by its biochemical cofactors, genetic variation within the ER cofactor genes may alter cellular response to estrogen exposure and consequently modify the risk for endometrial cancer. We genotyped 685 tagging SNPs within 60 ER cofactor genes in 564 endometrial cancer cases and 1,510 controls from Sweden, and tested their associations with the risk of endometrial cancer. We investigated the associations of individual SNPs by using a trend test as well as multiple SNPs within a gene or gene complex by using multi-variant association analysis. No significant association was observed for any individual SNPs or genes, but a marginal association of the cumulative genetic variation of the NCOA2 complex as a whole (NCOA2, CARM1, CREBBP, PRMT1 and EP300) with endometrial cancer risk was observed (Padjusted = 0.033). However, the association failed to be replicated in an independent European dataset of 1265 cases and 5190 controls (P = 0.71). The results indicate that common genetic variants within ER cofactor genes are unlikely to play a significant role in endometrial cancer risk in European population.
Mammographic density (MD) is a strong, independent risk factor for breast cancer, but measuring MD is time consuming and reader dependent. Objective MD measurement in a high-throughput fashion would enable its wider use as a biomarker for breast cancer. We use a public domain image-processing software for the fully automated analysis of MD and penalized regression to construct a measure that mimics a well-established semiautomated measure (Cumulus). We also describe measures that incorporate additional features of mammographic images for improving the risk associations of MD and breast cancer risk.
We randomly partitioned our dataset into a training set for model building (733 cases, 748 controls) and a test set for model assessment (765 cases, 747 controls). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was used to compare the MD measurements by Cumulus and our automated measure, which mimics Cumulus. The likelihood ratio test was used to validate the performance of logistic regression models for breast cancer risk, which included our measure capturing additional information in mammographic images.
We observed a high correlation between the Cumulus measure and our measure mimicking Cumulus (r = 0.884; 95% CI, 0.872 to 0.894) in an external test set. Adding a variable, which includes extra information to percentage density, significantly improved the fit of the logistic regression model of breast cancer risk (P = 0.0002).
Our results demonstrate the potential to facilitate the integration of mammographic density measurements into large-scale research studies and subsequently into clinical practice.
Relative survival is commonly used for studying survival of cancer patients as it captures both the direct and indirect contribution of a cancer diagnosis on mortality by comparing the observed survival of the patients to the expected survival in a comparable cancer-free population. However, existing methods do not allow estimation of the impact of isolated conditions (e.g., excess cardiovascular mortality) on the total excess mortality. For this purpose we extend flexible parametric survival models for relative survival, which use restricted cubic splines for the baseline cumulative excess hazard and for any time-dependent effects.
In the extended model we partition the excess mortality associated with a diagnosis of cancer through estimating a separate baseline excess hazard function for the outcomes under investigation. This is done by incorporating mutually exclusive background mortality rates, stratified by the underlying causes of death reported in the Swedish population, and by introducing cause of death as a time-dependent effect in the extended model. This approach thereby enables modeling of temporal trends in e.g., excess cardiovascular mortality and remaining cancer excess mortality simultaneously. Furthermore, we illustrate how the results from the proposed model can be used to derive crude probabilities of death due to the component parts, i.e., probabilities estimated in the presence of competing causes of death.
The method is illustrated with examples where the total excess mortality experienced by patients diagnosed with breast cancer is partitioned into excess cardiovascular mortality and remaining cancer excess mortality.
The proposed method can be used to simultaneously study disease patterns and temporal trends for various causes of cancer-consequent deaths. Such information should be of interest for patients and clinicians as one way of improving prognosis after cancer is through adapting treatment strategies and follow-up of patients towards reducing the excess mortality caused by side effects of the treatment.
Survival analysis; Cancer; Relative survival; Regression models; Competing risks
Using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, the authors previously reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism 7q21-rs6964587 (AKAP9-M463I) is associated with breast cancer risk. The authors have now assessed this association more comprehensively using 16 independent case–control studies.
The authors genotyped 14 843 invasive case patients and 19 852 control subjects with white European ancestry and 2595 invasive case patients and 2192 control subjects with Asian ancestry. ORs were estimated by logistic regression, adjusted for study. Heterogeneity in ORs was assessed by fitting interaction terms or by subclassifying case patients and applying polytomous logistic regression.
For white European women, the minor T allele of 7q21-rs6964587 was associated with breast cancer risk under a recessive model (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13, p = 0.04). Results were inconclusive for Asian women. From a combined analysis of 24 154 case patients and 33 376 control subjects of white European ancestry from the present and previous series, the best-fitting model was recessive, with an estimated OR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.13, p = 0.001). The OR was greater at younger ages (p trend = 0.01).
This may be the first common susceptibility allele for breast cancer to be identified with a recessive mode of inheritance.