There are inconsistencies in the literature on reproductive and genital health determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer. We examined these factors in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study, a longitudinal, repeated-measurements investigation on the natural history of HPV infection.
We analyzed a cohort subset of 1867 women with one complete year of follow-up. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for reproductive and genital health characteristics from questionnaire and laboratory data in relation to 1-year period prevalence of HPV infection. Two outcomes were measured; the first based on phylogenetic grouping of HPV types based on tissue tropism and oncogenicity (Alphapapillomavirus Subgenus 1: species 1, 8, 10 and 13; Subgenus 2: species 5, 6, 7, 9, 11; Subgenus 3: species 3, 4 and 14) and the second based on transient or persistent HPV infections.
Lifetime (Subgenus 3 OR = 2.00, CI: 1.23–3.24) and current (Subgenus 3 OR = 2.00, CI: 1.15–3.47) condom use and use of contraceptive injections (Subgenus 1 OR = 1.96, CI: 1.22–3.16, Subgenus 2 OR = 1.34, CI: 1.00–1.79) were associated with increased risk of HPV infection. Intrauterine device use was protective (Subgenus 1 OR = 0.48, CI: 0.30–0.75, Subgenus 2 OR = 0.78, CI: 0.62–0.98). These factors were not associated with persistence of HPV infection. Tampon use, previous gynecologic infections and cervical inflammation were associated with an overall increased risk of HPV infection.
Cervical HPV infection was associated with reproductive and genital health factors. Further studies are necessary to confirm the low to moderate associations observed.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1446-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Human papillomavirus; HPV; Cervical cancer; Reproductive health; Genital hygiene; Determinants
High-risk HPV DNA testing has been proposed as a primary tool for cervical cancer screening (HPV-CCS) as an alternative to the Papanicolaou cytology- method. This study describes factors associated with women’s intentions to attend cervical cancer screening if high-risk HPV DNA testing (HPV-CCS) was implemented as a primary screening tool, and if screening were conducted every 4 years starting after age 25.
This online survey was designed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to assess factors that impact women’s intentions to attend HPV-CCS among women aged 25–69 upon exit of the HPV FOCAL trial. Univariate and regression analyses were performed to compare the demographic, sexual history, and smoking characteristics between women willing and unwilling to screen, and scales for intention to attend HPV-CCS. A qualitative analysis was performed by compiling and coding the comments section of the survey.
Of the 981 women who completed the survey in full, only 51.4 % responded that they intended to attend HPV-CCS with a delayed start age and extended screening interval. Women who intended to screen were more likely to have higher education (AOR 0.59, 95 % CI [0.37, 0.93]), while both positive attitudes (AOR 1.26, 95 % CI [1.23, 1.30]) and perceived behavior control (AOR 1.06, 95 % CI [1.02, 1.10]) were significant predictors of intention to screen. Among women who provided comments in the survey, a large number of women expressed fears about not being checked more than every 4 years, but 12 % stated that these fears may be alleviated by having more information.
Acceptability of increased screening intervals and starting age could be improved through enhanced education of benefits. Program planners should consider measures to assess and improve women’s knowledge, attitudes and beliefs prior to the implementation of new screening programs to avoid unintended consequences.
Cervical cancer; Human papillomavirus; Theory of planned behaviour; Screening programs
It has been hypothesized that, following a reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-targeted genotypes, an increase in prevalence of other HPV types may occur due to reduced competition during natural infection. Any apparent post-vaccination increase must be distinguished from diagnostic artifacts consequent to consensus PCR assays failing to detect HPV types present in low copy numbers in co-infected specimens (under the assumption that with a drop in vaccine-preventable types there may be increased detection of previously “masked” types). We reanalyzed anogenital specimens to evaluate unmasking of HPV52 that may be caused by elimination of HPV16. Using highly sensitive type-specific real-time HPV52 PCR, we retested 1,200 anogenital specimens (all HPV52 negative according to consensus PCR assays) from six epidemiologic studies (200 specimens/study; 100 HPV16+/study). Multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment for age and number of sexual partners was used to evaluate the association between HPV16 positivity and detection of HPV52. In our pooled analysis (n=1,196), presence of HPV16 was positively associated with HPV52 detection (adjusted OR=1.47, 95% CI 0.76-2.82). In our separate (study specific) analyses, a statistically significant association was observed in one study that included HIV infected males (HIPVIRG study; adjusted OR=3.82, 95% CI 1.19-12.26). We observed a positive association between HPV16 viral load (tertiles) and detection of HPV52 (P for trend=0.003). These results indicate that diagnostic artifacts, resulting from unmasking of HPV52, may occur in some settings in the evaluation of HPV type replacement. Additional studies exploring the extent and severity of unmasking are needed.
Human papillomavirus; Vaccination; Type replacement; Diagnostic artifacts
HPV FOCAL is a randomized trial (ISRCTN79347302, registered 20 Apr 2007) comparing high-risk (hr) HPV testing vs. liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical cancer screening of women aged 25–65. We compared the Digene Hybrid Capture® 2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test® (HC2) and the Roche cobas® 4800 HPV Test (COBAS) for primary screening.
Women (n = 6,172) were screened at baseline by HC2 and COBAS and by LBC 24 months later. We assessed HPV genotyping and reflex LBC for colposcopy triage of baseline HPV positive women.
Overall HC2/COBAS agreement was 96.1 % (kappa 0.75) and positive agreement was 77.5 %. Baseline CIN2 and CIN3+ rates based on HPV screening were 8.6/1,000 and 6.6/1,000 respectively; 24 month rates were 0.7/1,000 and 0.4/1,000 (LBC screening). HC2 and COBAS were concordant positive for 91 % of round 1 CIN2 and 98 % of CIN3+. CIN3+ was significantly associated with HPV 16 (Odds Ratio [OR] 5.11; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.30, 11.37), but not HPV 18 (OR 2.62; 95 % CI 0.73, 9.49), vs. non-HPV 16/18 HPV at baseline. There was no significant association between HPV genotype and CIN2. CIN3+ was significantly more likely for high-grade (OR 5.99; 95 % CI 2.53, 14.18), but not low-grade (OR 0.54; 95 % CI 0.20, 1.49), vs. negative LBC. No significant association was observed between LBC grade and CIN2. HPV 16 and 18 were associated with 33 % of CIN2 and 68 % of CIN3+ identified at baseline.
For hrHPV positive women, abnormal reflex LBC is appropriate for colposcopy triage. In addition, immediate referral of women with HPV 16/18 and normal cytology may allow for earlier detection of CIN2+ lesions which would not be detected until after follow-up testing.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1959-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cervical cancer screening tests; Human papillomavirus DNA tests; Papanicolaou test; Colposcopy triage; Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
The recognition that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the central, necessary cause of cervical cancer paved the way to new fronts of prevention via improved screening methods and HPV vaccination. Much has been learned in all fronts, from the molecular basis of our understanding of how HPV causes disease to the health economics of preventive strategies at the individual and population levels. Progress in other areas of cancer control has yet to show the same multi- and trans-disciplinary gains seen in research on HPV-associated malignancies, which is one of the unequivocal success stories in disease prevention. Yet, as an embarrassment of riches, much more research is needed to fill the gaps in knowledge that remain before we are able to reap the benefits from the knowledge translation from all fronts. Public health research on setting-specific implementation of HPV-based preventive strategies and more concerted advocacy to counter barriers facing the adoption of these strategies are likely to yield major dividends in reducing the burden of HPV-associated diseases.
Human papillomavirus; HPV; cancer prevention; policy; advocacy
Although historically successful in reducing the burden of cervical cancer, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing faces numerous limitations. A growing body of evidence suggests that modern screening practice will benefit from primary screening for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the causative agent of cervical cancer. Molecular tests detecting the presence of HPV nucleic acids consistently demonstrate high sensitivity relative to Pap testing, and provide reliable, dichotomous results. Pap cytology is ideally suited to triage HPV-positive cases owing to its high test specificity, and the accuracy of cytological readings will be maximized in high-prevalence conditions. This algorithm of primary HPV testing with Pap triage has been shown to maintain the high sensitivity of HPV testing without compromising Pap cytology’s strong ability to rule out falsely positive diagnoses. Given the anticipated decline of high-risk HPV-16 and -18 infections in the emergent post-HPV vaccination era, highly sensitive primary HPV testing is especially warranted. Novel screening technologies that identify HPV viral gene expression continue to emerge and seek to complement current HPV testing by identifying those women who may be at risk of progressive disease. How to best incorporate these new technologies into clinical practice presents our next great challenge. Implementation of novel algorithms for cervical screening is not a trivial task. Avoidance of exceedingly complex screening algorithms is an important priority.
cervical cancer; human papillomavirus; human papillomavirus vaccine; mass screening; Papanicolaou test; test performance
The best papers provide evidence that can be used to make changes that improve the health and lives of people around the world.
research; scientific publishing; peer review
Parity is well established as a risk factor for cervical cancer. It is not clear, however, how pregnancy influences the natural history of HPV infection and cervical neoplasia. Our objective was to study the risk of HPV infection and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) after pregnancy.
We used the Ludwig-McGill cohort study which includes 2462 women recruited in Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1993–97 and followed for up to 10 years. Cellular specimens were collected every 4–6 months for Pap cytology and HPV detection and genotyping by a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Study nurses recorded pregnancy occurrence during follow-up. HPV and Pap results from pregnant women were available before and after, but not during pregnancy. The associations between pregnancy and post-partum HPV infection/SIL were studied using generalized estimating equation models with logistic link. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were estimated with empirical adjustment for confounding.
We recorded 122 women with a history of pregnancy during follow-up. Of these, 29 reintegrated the cohort study after delivery. No association between HPV and pregnancy was found. A single SIL case (high grade SIL) occurred post-partum. Likewise, there was no association between pregnancy and risk of low grade SIL or any-grade SIL at the next visit (adjusted OR = 0.84, 95 % CI: 0.46-15.33) after controlling for confounders.
No associations were found between pregnancy and HPV or LSIL. The single observed case of HSIL post-partum was more than would be expected based on the rate of these abnormalities among non-pregnant women. As this association was found with only one case, caution is required in the interpretation of these results.
Cervical neoplasia; Pregnancy; Human papillomaviruses (HPV)
Background. We studied features that predict the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a new sexual partnership.
Methods. We analyzed data from the “HPV Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity” (HITCH) Cohort Study of recently formed partnerships (“dyads”). Women aged 18–24 and their male partners were recruited during 2005–2010 in Montreal, Canada. We tested genital swabs for detection of 36 HPV types. We defined HPV in a partnership as the presence of 1 or more HPV types in either or both partners. Using baseline data from 482 dyads, we calculated prevalence ratios to evaluate candidate risk factors.
Results. Most women (88%) were unvaccinated. Sixty-seven percent of dyads harbored HPV. For 49% of dyads, both partners were HPV+. HPV was least prevalent in dyads who were in their first vaginal sex relationship (17%) and was virtually ubiquitous in dyads for which both partners had concurrent partners (96%). Dyads that always used condoms with previous partner(s) were 27% (95% confidence interval, 9%–42%) less likely to have HPV.
Conclusions. The finding that condom use limited onward spread to future partners is in support of condom promotion to prevent sexually transmitted infections. Ongoing monitoring of HPV in sexual networks is needed, particularly in populations with suboptimal vaccine coverage.
condoms; HPV vaccine; human papillomavirus; prevalence; sex partners; young adults
We explored the potential impact of HPV testing on women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer in a cohort of Canadian women. Participants aged 25-65 from an ongoing trial were sent a questionnaire to assess women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing instead of Pap smears and to be screened every 4 years or after 25 years of age. We created scales for attitudes about HPV testing, perceived behavioural control and direct and indirect subjective norms. Demographic data and scales that were significantly different (p<0.1) between women who intended to be screened with HPV and those who did not intend were included in a stepwise logistic regression model. Of the 2016 invitations emailed, 1538 were received, and 981 completed surveys for a response rate of 63% (981/1538). Eighty-four percent of women (826/981) responded that they intended to attend for HPV-based cervical cancer screening, which decreased to 54.2% when the screening interval was extended, and decreased further to 51.4% when screening start was delayed to age 25. Predictors of intentions to undergo screening were attitudes (OR 1.22; 95%CI 1.15, 1.30), indirect subjective norms (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.01, 1.03) and perceived behavioural control (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.10; 1.22). Intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing decreased substantially when the screening interval was extended and screening started at age 25. Use of primary HPV testing may optimize the screening paradigm, but programs should ensure robust planning and education to mitigate any negative impact on screening attendance rates.
HPV; cervical cancer screening; intention; Theory of Planned Behavior
Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomas and has been included in both the quadrivalent and nonavalent prophylactic HPV vaccines. This study investigated the global genomic diversity of HPV6, using 724 isolates and 190 complete genomes from six continents, and the association of HPV6 genomic variants with geographical location, anatomical site of infection/disease, and gender. Initially, a 2,800-bp E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment was sequenced from 492/530 (92.8%) HPV6-positive samples collected for this study. Among them, 130 exhibited at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), indel, or amino acid change in the E5a-E5b-L1-LCR fragment and were sequenced in full. A global alignment and maximum likelihood tree of 190 complete HPV6 genomes (130 fully sequenced in this study and 60 obtained from sequence repositories) revealed two variant lineages, A and B, and five B sublineages: B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5. HPV6 (sub)lineage-specific SNPs and a 960-bp representative region for whole-genome-based phylogenetic clustering within the L2 open reading frame were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lineage B predominated globally. Sublineage B3 was more common in Africa and North and South America, and lineage A was more common in Asia. Sublineages B1 and B3 were associated with anogenital infections, indicating a potential lesion-specific predilection of some HPV6 sublineages. Females had higher odds for infection with sublineage B3 than males. In conclusion, a global HPV6 phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two variant lineages and five sublineages, showing some degree of ethnogeographic, gender, and/or disease predilection in their distribution.
IMPORTANCE This study established the largest database of globally circulating HPV6 genomic variants and contributed a total of 130 new, complete HPV6 genome sequences to available sequence repositories. Two HPV6 variant lineages and five sublineages were identified and showed some degree of association with geographical location, anatomical site of infection/disease, and/or gender. We additionally identified several HPV6 lineage- and sublineage-specific SNPs to facilitate the identification of HPV6 variants and determined a representative region within the L2 gene that is suitable for HPV6 whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis. This study complements and significantly expands the current knowledge of HPV6 genetic diversity and forms a comprehensive basis for future epidemiological, evolutionary, functional, pathogenicity, vaccination, and molecular assay development studies.
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately
1 in every 20,000 - 50,000 live births. WBS children have specific skeletal
deformities, dental malformations and rare lingual muscle dysfunction. The need for
orthodontic and orthognathic therapy has arisen and has been considered a real
clinical challenge even for experienced professionals, once it requires a complex and
individualized treatment plan. This study reports a case of orthopedic expansion of
the maxilla, in which a modified facial mask was used for protraction of the
maxillary complex associated with clockwise rotation of the maxilla. In addition,
special considerations about treatment time and orthopedic outcomes are
Chromosome deletion; Open Bite; Angle Class III malocclusion treatment; Protraction of the maxilla
Inuit communities in northern Quebec have high rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer and cervical cancer–related mortality as compared to the Canadian population. HPV types can be further classified as intratypic variants based on the extent of homology in their nucleotide sequences. There is limited information on the distribution of intratypic variants in circumpolar areas.
Our goal was to describe the HPV intratypic variants and associated baseline characteristics.
We collected cervical cell samples in 2002–2006 from 676 Inuit women between the ages of 15 and 69 years in Nunavik. DNA isolates from high-risk HPVs were sequenced to determine the intratypic variant.
There were 149 women that were positive for HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 56 or 58 during follow-up. There were 5 different HPV16 variants, all of European lineage, among the 57 women positive for this type. There were 8 different variants of HPV18 present and all were of European lineage (n=21). The majority of samples of HPV31 (n=52) were of lineage B. The number of isolates and diversity of the other HPV types was low. Age was the only covariate associated with HPV16 variant category.
These frequencies are similar to what was seen in another circumpolar region of Canada, although there appears to be less diversity as only European variants were detected. This study shows that most variants were clustered in one lineage for each HPV type.
infectious disease; aboriginal health; viral genetics; epidemiology; Inuit; cervical cancer
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread—optimally universal—implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries.
This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph ‘Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases’ Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters.
HPV; Cervical cancer; Anal cancer; Penile cancer; Vaginal cancer; Vulvar cancer; Oropharyngeal cancer; Screening; HPV vaccination; HPV testing; Prevention
Immunity plays an important role in controlling human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated lesions. Unlike infections caused by other viruses, natural HPV infection does not always result in a protective antibody response. Therefore, HPV antibodies are also considered markers of cumulative exposure. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of HPV16 seroreactivity at enrollment among women from the Ludwig-McGill cohort, a natural history study of HPV infection and risk of cervical neoplasia.
HPV16 serology was assessed by ELISA for L1 and L2 capsid antigens, while HPV typing and viral load measurements were performed by PCR-based methods. The associations were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression.
Of 2049 subjects, 425 (20.7%) were strongly seropositive for HPV16. In multivariate analysis, seroreactivity was positively correlated with age, lifetime number of sexual partners, frequency of sex, and HPV16 viral load, and negatively associated with duration of smoking.
HPV16 seroreactivity is determined by factors that reflect viral exposure.
Serology; HPV; Natural antibodies; HPV16 seropositivity
Mounting evidence affirms HPV testing as an effective cervical cancer screening tool, and many organized screening programs are considering adopting it as primary testing. HPV self-collection has comparable sensitivity to clinician collected specimens and is considered a feasible option in hard-to-reach women. We explored women’s intentions to HPV self-collect for cervical cancer screening from a cohort participating in a Canadian randomized controlled cervical cancer screening trial.
Women aged 25–65 were invited to complete an online survey assessing intentions to be screened with HPV testing instead of the Pap smear. The survey was based in the Theory of Planned Behaviour and questions were included to assess women’s intentions to self-collect for HPV. Demographic characteristics of women who intended to self-collect were compared with those who did not. Demographic and scale variables achieving a p-value <0.1 in the univariate and bivariate analyses were included in the stepwise logistic regression model. The final model was created to predict factors associated with women’s intentions to self-collect an HPV specimen for cervical cancer. Odds ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals to identify variables associated with a woman’s intention to self-collect for cervical cancer screening.
The overall survey response rate was 63.8% (981/1538) with 447 (45.6%) reporting they intended to self-collect, versus 534 (54.4%) reporting they did not. In the univariate analysis, women with more than high school education were more likely to self-collect. Women who intended to receive HPV testing versus the Pap smear were 1.94 times as likely to be in favour of self-collection and those who intended to self-collect had significantly higher attitudinal scores towards HPV self-collection. The adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval from the multivariate analysis demonstrated attitude towards self-collection was the only significant variable predicting a woman’s intention to self-collect (OR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.29).
The primary predictor of a woman’s intention to HPV self-collect for cervical cancer screening was her attitude towards the procedure. From a program planning perspective, these results indicate that education and awareness may be significant contributing factors to improving acceptance of self-collection and subsequently, improving screening attendance rates.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1060) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Human papillomavirus (HPV); Cervical cancer screening; Self-collection; Intention; Theory of planned behaviour
Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the strongest risk factor for high-grade cervical precancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of HPV persistence patterns worldwide. Medline and ISI Web of Science were searched through January 1, 2010 for articles estimating HPV persistence or duration of detection. Descriptive and meta-regression techniques were used to summarize variability and the influence of study definitions and characteristics on duration and persistence of cervical HPV infections in women. Among 86 studies providing data on over 100,000 women, 73% defined persistence as HPV positivity at a minimum of two time points. Persistence varied notably across studies and was largely mediated by study region and HPV type, with HPV-16, 31, 33 and 52 being most persistent. Weighted median duration of any-HPV detection was 9.8 months. HR-HPV (9.3 months) persisted longer than low-risk HPV (8.4 months), and HPV-16 (12.4 months) persisted longer than HPV-18 (9.8 months). Among populations of HPV positive women with normal cytology, the median duration of any-HPV detection was 11.5 and HR-HPV detection was10.9 months. In conclusion, we estimated that approximately half of HPV infections persist past 6–12 months. Repeat HPV testing at 12 month intervals could identify women at increased risk of high-grade cervical precancer due to persistent HPV infections.
human papillomavirus; HPV; duration; persistence; clearance; natural history; repeat testing; literature review; screening; cervical cancer; meta-analysis
Currently, 2 vaccines exist that prevent infection by the genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Although vaccination is expected to reduce the prevalence of these HPV types, there is concern about the effect this could have on the distribution of other oncogenic types. According to basic ecological principles, if competition exists between ≥2 different HPV types for niche occupation during natural infection, elimination of 1 type may lead to an increase in other type(s). Here, we discuss this issue of “type replacement” and present different epidemiologic approaches for evaluation of HPV type competition. Briefly, these approaches involve: 1) calculation of the expected frequency of coinfection under independence between HPV types for comparison with observed frequency; 2) construction of hierarchical logistic regression models for each vaccine-targeted type; and 3) construction of Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models to evaluate sequential acquisition and clearance of HPV types according to baseline HPV status. We also discuss a related issue concerning diagnostic artifacts arising when multiple HPV types are present in specific samples (due to the inability of broad-spectrum assays to detect certain types present in lower concentrations). This may result in an apparent increase in previously undetected types postvaccination.
cervical cancer; human papillomavirus; HPV type replacement; vaccination
Polymorphism in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 gene has been shown to have a significant role in some diseases; however, little is known about its possible role in the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. We investigated the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs5743836) in the promoter region of TLR9 (T1237C) and type-specific HPV infections. Specimens were derived from a cohort of 2462 women enrolled in the Ludwig–McGill Cohort Study. We randomly selected 500 women who had a cervical HPV infection detected at least once during the study as cases. We defined two control groups: (i) a random sample of 300 women who always tested HPV negative, and (ii) a sample of 234 women who were always HPV negative but had a minimum of ten visits during the study. TLR9 genotyping was performed using bidirectional PCR amplification of specific alleles. Irrespective of group, the WT homozygous TLR9 genotype (TT) was the most common form, followed by the heterozygous (TC) and the mutant homozygous (CC) forms. There were no consistent associations between polymorphism and infection risk, either overall or by type or species. Likewise, there were no consistently significant associations between polymorphism and HPV clearance or persistence. We concluded that this polymorphism in the promoter region of TLR9 gene does not seem to have a mediating role in the natural history of the HPV infection.
Viral load measurements may predict whether human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infections may become persistent and eventually lead to cervical lesions. Today, multiple PCR methods exist to estimate viral load. We tested three protocols to investigate viral load as a predictor of HPV clearance. We measured viral load in 418 HPV16-positive cervical smears from 224 women participating in the Ludwig–McGill Cohort Study by low-stringency PCR (LS-PCR) using consensus L1 primers targeting over 40 known HPV types, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) targeting the HPV16 E6 and L1 genes. HPV16 clearance was determined by MY09/11 and PGMY PCR testing on repeated smears collected over 5 years. Correlation between viral load measurements by qRT-PCR (E6 versus L1) was excellent (Spearman’s rank correlation, ρ = 0.88), but decreased for L1 qRT-PCR versus LS-PCR (ρ = 0.61). Viral load by LS-PCR was higher for HPV16 and related types independently of other concurrent HPV infections. Median duration of infection was longer for smears with high copy number by all three PCR protocols (log rank P<0.05). Viral load is inversely related to HPV16 clearance independently of concurrent HPV infections and PCR protocol.
There is paucity of data on whether or not women can be re-infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) types to which they were exposed earlier in life and on the role of natural immunity. The observation of HPV infection at older ages may be explained by reactivation of a latent infection or new exposure from sexual activity. Our objective was to analyze the association between re-infection and sexual activity. We analyzed data from 2462 women enrolled in the Ludwig-McGill cohort and followed every 4-6 months for up to 10 years. We performed HPV typing and viral load measurements via polymerase chain reaction and determined HPV-16 seroreactivity at enrolment. Incidence of infection and re-infection were estimated for individual types. Adjusted relative risks (RR) for the association between infection/re-infection and new sexual partners were calculated using Cox regression. Rates of initial infection and re-infection post-clearance were statistically comparable. RRs of initial infection or re-infection were consistently associated with new sexual partners (2.4 [95%CI: 2.0-3.1] for first infection, 3.7 [1.1-13.8] for re-infection with the same type, and 2.3 [1.5-3.7] for re-infection with a different type). Re-infection in older women was also associated with new sexual partners (RR=2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-5.3) as were new infections with HPV-16 among women with serological evidence of prior HPV-16 exposure (RR=3.0, 95%CI: 1.6-5.3). Viral loads at initial infection and at re-infection were comparable. HPV infection and re-infection were strongly associated with sexual activity. This study suggests that natural immunity does not play a role in controlling the extent of re-infections.
Human papillomavirus; re-infection; adult women; sexual behavior; natural immunity; epidemiology
An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium co-sponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections.
An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium cosponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections.
Iron is an essential mineral for both cellular and pathogen survival and is essential for viral replication. In turn, iron metabolism has been shown to be altered by several viral infections. However, little is known regarding the association between iron status and HPV natural history. We hypothesize iron to be an HPV-cofactor that is associated with longer duration of infection.
Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in baseline serum samples from 327 women enrolled in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort. Incident HPV clearance rates (any-type, oncogenic HPV, non-oncogenic HPV, and HPV-16) over 36 months were estimated from Cox-proportional hazard models accounting for correlations between multiple infections.
Women with ferritin levels above the median were less likely to clear an incident oncogenic HPV (AHR=0.73; 95%CI 0.55–0.96) and HPV-16 infections (AHR=0.29; 95%CI 0.11–0.73). Using physiological cut-points, women with enriched iron stores (≥120ug/L) were less likely to clear incident oncogenic HPV infections compared to those with low-levels of iron (<20ug/L)(AHR=0.34; 95%CI 0.15–0.81).
This study observed that women with the highest ferritin levels were less likely to clear incident oncogenic and HPV-16 infections compared to women with low ferritin. Rising iron stores may decrease probability of clearing new HPV infection, possibly by promoting viral activity and contributing to oxidative DNA damage.
This novel study suggests that elevated iron stores may put women at risk for persistent HPV infection, an early event in cervical carcinogenesis. Further examination of the association between iron status and HPV natural history is warranted.
Human Papillomavirus; clearance; Ferritin; Iron; Transferrin